Source: WEST TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY submitted to
FORAGE INTAKE AND PERFORMANCE OF STOCKER CATTLE SUPPLEMENTED WITH WET SORGHUM AND CORN DISTILLER'S GRAINS
Sponsoring Institution
Agricultural Research Service/USDA
Project Status
TERMINATED
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
0410043
Grant No.
(N/A)
Project No.
6209-31630-003-18S
Proposal No.
(N/A)
Multistate No.
(N/A)
Program Code
(N/A)
Project Start Date
Sep 1, 2005
Project End Date
Aug 31, 2010
Grant Year
(N/A)
Project Director
COLE N A
Recipient Organization
WEST TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY
(N/A)
CANYON,TX 79016
Performing Department
(N/A)
Non Technical Summary
(N/A)
Animal Health Component
40%
Research Effort Categories
Basic
40%
Applied
40%
Developmental
20%
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
1331520101020%
1333310101070%
1330410101010%
Goals / Objectives
The objectives of this cooperative research project are to (1) evaluate the effects of dietary fat concentration on the performance of beef steers fed finishing diets containing sorghum-based or corn-based distiller's grains; (2) evaluate the effects of dietary fat concentration on diet digestibility and estimated nitrogen volatilization from the pen surface; (3) evalute the effects of dietary distiller's grain on odor emissions from cattle manure; and (4) evaluate the effects of forage type on utilization of dried distiller's grains, and (5) to evaluate the effects of feeding distiller's grains on indices of sulfur metabolism and animal health in beef cattle.
Project Methods
In a feeding trial, pens of beef steers (approx 400 head, avg 650 lbs) will be fed 90% concentrate steam flaked corn-based finishing diets. Treatments will be: 1) negative control diet (13% crude protein (CP), 8. 25% degradable intake protein) w/no supplemental fat or distiller's grains (DG); 2) positive control diet (13% CP, 8.25% degradable intake protein) w/3% suppl fat and 0% DG; 3) 15% wet sorghum-based DG and 0% suppl fat; 4) 15% wet sorghum-based DG and 1.5% suppl fat; and 5) 15% wet sorghum-based DG and 3% suppl fat. Feed intake, animal health, animal weight gain, and carcass characteristics will be measured. Feces composition, estimated diet digestibility, and estimated N volatilization losses will be measured. One study will be performed in collaboration with 2 nutrient digestion feeding trials conducted by TAES (SCA 58-6209-6-029). The objective of the 2 metabolism trials is to determine interactions of dietary fat, wet DG, and grain processing method (DRC and SFC) on the site and extent of nutrient digestion. In Exp. 1, diets will be steam-flaked corn-based and will include 0% wet distiller's grains (WDG) and 0% added fat, 0% WDG and 3% added fat, 15% WDG and 0% added fat, 15% WDG and 1.5% added fat, and 15% WDG and 3% added fat. In Exp. 2, treatments will be 2 corn processing methods (dry rolled or steam flaked) w/0% WDG, 10% corn WDG, or 10% sorghum WDG. Feces and urine samples from individual steers will be placed in a shallow pan inside a wind tunnel. Volatile organic compounds (VOC) emitted will be trapped using sorbent tubes and analyzed using gas chromatograpy/mass spectrometry. VOC emission rates will be determined for each compound. Odor evaluations will be made by trained human olfactometry panelists. A beef cattle finishing trial will be conducted to determine the effects of distiller's grain (DG) and forage type on animal performance and manure characteristics. Forty-eight pens of beef steers (approx 480 head, avg starting weight 750 lbs) will be fed 8% forage, steam-flaked corn-based finishing diets. Treatments will be in a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement of treatments: 1) hay control diet; 2) silage control diet sorghum silage (NDF equal to sorghum hay); 3) 15% DDG and 8% sorghum hay; 4) 15% DDG and sorghum silage; 5) 30% DDG and 8% sorghum hay; and 6) 30% DDG & sorghum silage. Feed intake, animal health, animal weight gain, & carcass characteristics will be measured. Feces & manure chemical composition, estimated diet digestibility, & estimated N volatilization losses will be determined. In an additional study, 24 steers will be individually fed finishing diets containing 0, 30, & 60% wet corn DG. Liver biopsies, tissue, & blood samples will be analyzed for enzymes and metobolites involved with sulfur metabolism.

Progress 09/01/05 to 08/31/10

Outputs
Progress Report Objectives (from AD-416) The objectives of this cooperative research project are to (1) evaluate the effects of dietary fat concentration on the performance of beef steers fed finishing diets containing sorghum-based or corn-based distiller's grains; (2) evaluate the effects of dietary fat concentration on diet digestibility and estimated nitrogen volatilization from the pen surface; (3) evalute the effects of dietary distiller's grain on odor emissions from cattle manure; and (4) evaluate the effects of forage type on utilization of dried distiller's grains, and (5) to evaluate the effects of feeding distiller's grains on indices of sulfur metabolism and animal health in beef cattle. Approach (from AD-416) In a feeding trial, pens of beef steers (approx 400 head, avg 650 lbs) will be fed 90% concentrate steam flaked corn-based finishing diets. Treatments will be: 1) negative control diet (13% crude protein (CP), 8. 25% degradable intake protein) w/no supplemental fat or distiller's grains (DG); 2) positive control diet (13% CP, 8.25% degradable intake protein) w/3% suppl fat and 0% DG; 3) 15% wet sorghum-based DG and 0% suppl fat; 4) 15% wet sorghum-based DG and 1.5% suppl fat; and 5) 15% wet sorghum-based DG and 3% suppl fat. Feed intake, animal health, animal weight gain, and carcass characteristics will be measured. Feces composition, estimated diet digestibility, and estimated N volatilization losses will be measured. One study will be performed in collaboration with 2 nutrient digestion feeding trials conducted by TAES (SCA 58-6209-6-029). The objective of the 2 metabolism trials is to determine interactions of dietary fat, wet DG, and grain processing method (DRC and SFC) on the site and extent of nutrient digestion. In Exp. 1, diets will be steam-flaked corn-based and will include 0% wet distiller's grains (WDG) and 0% added fat, 0% WDG and 3% added fat, 15% WDG and 0% added fat, 15% WDG and 1.5% added fat, and 15% WDG and 3% added fat. In Exp. 2, treatments will be 2 corn processing methods (dry rolled or steam flaked) w/0% WDG, 10% corn WDG, or 10% sorghum WDG. Feces and urine samples from individual steers will be placed in a shallow pan inside a wind tunnel. Volatile organic compounds (VOC) emitted will be trapped using sorbent tubes and analyzed using gas chromatograpy/mass spectrometry. VOC emission rates will be determined for each compound. Odor evaluations will be made by trained human olfactometry panelists. A beef cattle finishing trial will be conducted to determine the effects of distiller's grain (DG) and forage type on animal performance and manure characteristics. Forty-eight pens of beef steers (approx 480 head, avg starting weight 750 lbs) will be fed 8% forage, steam-flaked corn- based finishing diets. Treatments will be in a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement of treatments: 1) hay control diet; 2) silage control diet sorghum silage (NDF equal to sorghum hay); 3) 15% DDG and 8% sorghum hay; 4) 15% DDG and sorghum silage; 5) 30% DDG and 8% sorghum hay; and 6) 30% DDG & sorghum silage. Feed intake, animal health, animal weight gain, & carcass characteristics will be measured. Feces & manure chemical composition, estimated diet digestibility, & estimated N volatilization losses will be determined. In an additional study, 24 steers will be individually fed finishing diets containing 0, 30, & 60% wet corn DG. Liver biopsies, tissue, & blood samples will be analyzed for enzymes and metobolites involved with sulfur metabolism. 1. Four hundred yearling heifers with an initial weight of 375 kilograms (kg) were used to examine the effect of dietary fat concentration on the feeding value of wet sorghum distiller's grains plus solubles (WSDGS). Treatments included five finishing diets based on steam-flaked corn (SFC) that contained different proportions of fat and WSDGS. Average daily gain (ADG) was greater for heifers fed WSDGS than heifers fed no WSDGS. Hot carcass weights were 5 kg heaver when WSDGS replaced a portion of SFC. Inclusion of fat or WSDGS in diets did not alter the distribution of carcass quality grades, but did alter yield grade distribution. Heifers fed WSDGS consumed more nitrogen (N), but less N volatilized from manure excreted by heifers fed WSDGS. Collected manure contained more N, similar phosphorus (P), and a larger N:P ratio when heifers were fed WSDGS. Heifers fed WSDGS consumed and excreted more P than heifers not fed WSDGS. These results are currently being prepared for publication. 2. In a second study, 27 steers were individually fed finishing diets containing three differing percentages of wet distiller's grains with solubles (WDGS) until slaughter. The mass of the gastrointestinal tract, as a proportion of body weight, was greater for cattle fed 30 or 60% WDGS than control cattle, largely due to those organs containing a greater mass of undigested feed. The mass of the kidneys (percentage of the body weight) was greatest for cattle fed 60% WDGS. 3. In a third study, emissions of odor and odorous volatile organic compounds (VOC) were measured from feces and urine (366 samples) of cattle fed standard diets and diets containing WDGS using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. The offensiveness and intensity of odor were measured using a trained odor panel on 122 of the samples. Data are currently being statistically analyzed and prepared for publication. 4. The ADODR and lead investigators are in regular contact via e-mail, phone, and face-to-face contacts. The ADODR monitors cooperator's expenditure of funds through semi-annual reports from the cooperator and via contacts with the lead investigator.

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications


    Progress 10/01/08 to 09/30/09

    Outputs
    Progress Report Objectives (from AD-416) The objectives of this cooperative research project are to (1) evaluate the effects of dietary fat concentration on the performance of beef steers fed finishing diets containing sorghum-based or corn-based distiller's grains; (2) evaluate the effects of dietary fat concentration on diet digestibility and estimated nitrogen volatilization from the pen surface; (3) evalute the effects of dietary distiller's grain on odor emissions from cattle manure; and (4) evaluate the effects of forage type on utilization of dried distiller's grains, and (5) to evaluate the effects of feeding distiller's grains on indices of sulfur metabolism and animal health in beef cattle. Approach (from AD-416) In a feeding trial, pens of beef steers (approx 400 head, avg 650 lbs) will be fed 90% concentrate steam flaked corn-based finishing diets. Treatments will be: 1) negative control diet (13% crude protein (CP), 8. 25% degradable intake protein) w/no supplemental fat or distiller's grains (DG); 2) positive control diet (13% CP, 8.25% degradable intake protein) w/3% suppl fat and 0% DG; 3) 15% wet sorghum-based DG and 0% suppl fat; 4) 15% wet sorghum-based DG and 1.5% suppl fat; and 5) 15% wet sorghum-based DG and 3% suppl fat. Feed intake, animal health, animal weight gain, and carcass characteristics will be measured. Feces composition, estimated diet digestibility, and estimated N volatilization losses will be measured. One study will be performed in collaboration with 2 nutrient digestion feeding trials conducted by TAES (SCA 58-6209-6-029). The objective of the 2 metabolism trials is to determine interactions of dietary fat, wet DG, and grain processing method (DRC and SFC) on the site and extent of nutrient digestion. In Exp. 1, diets will be steam-flaked corn-based and will include 0% wet distiller's grains (WDG) and 0% added fat, 0% WDG and 3% added fat, 15% WDG and 0% added fat, 15% WDG and 1.5% added fat, and 15% WDG and 3% added fat. In Exp. 2, treatments will be 2 corn processing methods (dry rolled or steam flaked) w/0% WDG, 10% corn WDG, or 10% sorghum WDG. Feces and urine samples from individual steers will be placed in a shallow pan inside a wind tunnel. Volatile organic compounds (VOC) emitted will be trapped using sorbent tubes and analyzed using gas chromatograpy/mass spectrometry. VOC emission rates will be determined for each compound. Odor evaluations will be made by trained human olfactometry panelists. A beef cattle finishing trial will be conducted to determine the effects of distiller's grain (DG) and forage type on animal performance and manure characteristics. Forty-eight pens of beef steers (approx 480 head, avg starting weight 750 lbs) will be fed 8% forage, steam-flaked corn- based finishing diets. Treatments will be in a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement of treatments: 1) hay control diet; 2) silage control diet sorghum silage (NDF equal to sorghum hay); 3) 15% DDG and 8% sorghum hay; 4) 15% DDG and sorghum silage; 5) 30% DDG and 8% sorghum hay; and 6) 30% DDG & sorghum silage. Feed intake, animal health, animal weight gain, & carcass characteristics will be measured. Feces & manure chemical composition, estimated diet digestibility, & estimated N volatilization losses will be determined. In an additional study, 24 steers will be individually fed finishing diets containing 0, 30, & 60% wet corn DG. Liver biopsies, tissue, & blood samples will be analyzed for enzymes and metobolites involved with sulfur metabolism. Significant Activities that Support Special Target Populations No animal feeding studies have been conducted within the past 12 months because the research feedlot has been full with other studies. Thus, our activities have focused on completing laboratory analyses from two previous experiments with finishing heifers fed wet sorghum distiller's grains with solubles and on summarizing feed manufacturing data (batching time per treatment) from the finishing heifer studies to develop an illustration of the practical feed milling and delivery implications for feedlots of incorporating wet sorghum distiller's grains with solubles (WSDGS). We expect to start our next performance study near the end of August 2009. The data from experiments involving finishing heifers fed WSDGS have been finalized and are being prepared for publication. The nitrogen and phosphorus excretion analyses were completed in May 2009. Heifers fed WSDGS consumed more nitrogen; however, less nitrogen volatilized from manure excreted by heifers fed WSDGS (49.6, 50.3, 45.6, 42.8, and 41.9 +/- 0.85% of N intake for 0% WSDGS/0% fat, 0% WSDGS/3% fat, 15% WSDGS/0% fat, 15%WSDGS/1.5% fat, and 15%WSDGS/3% fat, respectively). Thus, air-dried manure collected from the pen surface contained more nitrogen, similar phosphorus, and a higher nitrogen:phosphorus ratio when heifers were fed WSDGS. Heifers fed WSDGS consumed and excreted more phosphorus than heifers not fed WSDGS. A series of studies were conducted to evaluate the emissions of odorous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the manure of cattle fed standard diets and diets containing WSDGS. Fresh feces and urine were collected from cattle fed diets containing various sources and concentrations of distiller's grains. Using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, VOC emissions were measured in the laboratory using a micro head space analyzer. A total of 366 VOC analyses have been completed. Hedonic tone and intensity were measured by a trained odor panel on 122 of the samples. Data evaluation and statistical analyses is in progress. The ADODR and lead investigators are in regular contact via e-mail, phone, and face-to-face contacts. The ADODR monitors cooperator expenditure of funds through semi-annual reports from the cooperator and via contacts with the lead investigator.

    Impacts
    (N/A)

    Publications


      Progress 10/01/07 to 09/30/08

      Outputs
      Progress Report Objectives (from AD-416) The objectives of this cooperative research project are to (1) evaluate the effects of dietary fat concentration on the performance of beef steers fed finishing diets containing sorghum-based or corn-based distiller's grains; (2) evaluate the effects of dietary fat concentration on diet digestibility and estimated nitrogen volatilization from the pen surface; (3) evalute the effects of dietary distiller's grain on odor emissions from cattle manure; and (4) evaluate the effects of forage type on utilization of dried distiller's grains, and (5) to evaluate the effects of feeding distiller's grains on indices of sulfur metabolism and animal health in beef cattle. Approach (from AD-416) In a feeding trial, pens of beef steers (approx 400 head, avg 650 lbs)(40 pens w/10 head ea) will be fed 90% concentrate steam flaked corn-based finishing diets. Treatments will be: 1) negative control diet (13% crude protein (CP), 8.25% degradable intake protein) w/no supplemental fat or distiller's grains (DG); 2) positive control diet (13% CP, 8.25% degradable intake protein) w/3% suppl fat & 0% DG; 3) 15% wet sorghum based DG & 0% suppl fat; 4) 15% wet sorghum based DG & 1.5% suppl fat; and 5) 15% wet sorghum based DG & 3% suppl fat. Feed intake, animal health, animal weight gain, & carcass characteristics will be measured. Feces composition, estimated diet digestibility, & estimated N volatilization losses will be measured. One study will be performed in collaboration with 2 nutrient digestion feeding trials conducted by Dr. Jim MacDonald of Texas AgriLife Research- Amarillo (SCA 58-6209-6-029). The objective of the 2 metabolism trials is to determine interactions of dietary fat, wet DG, & grain processing method (DRC & SFC) on the site & extent of nutrient digestion. In Experiment 1, diets will be steam-flaked corn-based & will include 0% wet distiller's grains (WDG) & 0% added fat, 0% WDG & 3% added fat, 15% WDG & 0% added fat, 15% WDG & 1.5% added fat, & 15% WDG & 3% added fat. In Experiment 2, treatments will be 2 corn processing methods (dry rolled or steam flaked) w/0% WDG, 10% corn WDG, or 10% sorghum WDG. Feces & urine samples from individual steers will be placed in a shallow pan inside a wind tunnel. Odor free air will be passed through the wind tunnel at a velocity of 1 m/s (2.2 mph). Volatile organic compounds (VOC) emitted will be trapped using sorbent tubes & analyzed using gas chromatograpy/mass spectrometry. VOC emission rates will be determined for each compound. Odor evaluations will be made by trained human olfactometry panelists by directly sniffing the feces or urine. Panelists will assign values for hedonic tone (-4 to +4 scale) & intensity (1 to 5 scale), and will assign characteristic descriptors to each sample. The new study will be a beef cattle finishing trial to determine the effects of dried distiller's grain (DDG) & forage type on animal performance & manure characteristics. Forty-eight pens of beef steers (approx 480 head, avg starting weight 750 lbs)(48 pens w/10 head each) will be fed 8% forage, steam-flaked corn-based finishing diets. Treatments will be in a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement of treatments: 1) hay control diet (13.5% crude protein (CP), 1% urea, 3% added fat, 8% sorghum hay); 2) silage control diet (13.5% CP, 1% urea, 3% added fat, sorghum silage (NDF equal to sorghum hay)); 3) 15% DDG and 8% sorghum hay; 4) 15% DDG and sorghum silage (NDF equal to sorghum hay treatment); 5) 30% DDG and 8% sorghum hay; & 6) 30% DDG & sorghum silage (NDF equal to sorghum hay). Feed intake, animal health, animal weight gain, & carcass characteristics will be measured. Feces & manure chemical composition, estimated diet digestibility, & estimated N volatilization losses will be determined from chemical analyses of fresh fecal samples & air-dried pen manure collected as cattle approach slaughter weights. Significant Activities that Support Special Target Populations No animal feeding studies have been conducted within the past 12 months because the research feedlot has been full with other studies. Thus, our activities have focused on completing laboratory analyses from two previous experiments with finishing heifers fed wet sorghum distiller's grains with solubles. Composite samples of wet sorghum distiller's grains with solubles have been thoroughly analyzed for carbohydrate and protein fractions and minerals. These data will be included with the growth performance studies involving finishing heifers in the dissertation being prepared by a PhD student. This student is scheduled to complete the PhD in 2008, and those data will be submitted for journal publication. In addition, we have been summarizing feed manufacturing data (batching time per treatment) from the finishing heifer studies to develop an illustration of the practical feed milling and delivery implications for feedlots of incorporating wet sorghum distiller's grains with solubles. The agreement was amended in 2007 to add a study to evaluate the emissions of odor and odorous VOCs from standard diets and diets containing distiller's grains. Fresh feces and urine were collected from cattle fed diets containing various sources and concentrations of distiller's grains at the USDA-ARS Bushland, Texas, research feedlot and delivered to the Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry laboratory at WTAMU. Volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions are currently being measured in the laboratory using a small wind tunnel. To date, approximately 80 of the proposed 244 samples have been analyzed with the GC/MS. Upon completion of all VOC analyses, emission rates will be determined for each compound. The data presented so far from these studies has been eagerly received by the cattle feeding industry including Cargill Cattle Feeders, Cactus Feeders, and Five Rivers Ranch Cattle Feeding. Tentative results of studies have been reported as a papers presented at the 11th International Symposium on Improved Performance (Monterrey, Mexico); High Plains Biofuel Co-product Conference (Garden City, Kansas); International Meeting of the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineering (published in proceedings); American Society of Animal Science (published as abstract); and as a manuscript in the experiment station publication "2007 Beef Cattle Research in Texas." The ADODR and lead investigators are in regular contact via e-mail, phone and face-to-face contacts. The ADODR monitors cooperator expenditure of funds through semi-annual reports from the cooperator and via contacts with the lead investigator.

      Impacts
      (N/A)

      Publications


        Progress 10/01/06 to 09/30/07

        Outputs
        Progress Report Objectives (from AD-416) The objectives of this cooperative research project are to (1) evaluate the effects of dietary fat concentration on the performance of beef steers fed finishing diets containing sorghum-based or corn-based distiller's grains; (2) evaluate the effects of dietary fat concentration on diet digestibility and estimated nitrogen volatilization from the pen surface; (3) evalute the effects of dietary distiller's grain on odor emissions from cattle manure; and (4) evaluate the effects of forage type on utilization of dried distiller's grains. Approach (from AD-416) In a beef cattle growing trial, steers will be given ad libitum access to a low quality forage (sorghum-sudan hay) and be fed one of seven protein supplements as follows: 1) control no supplement, 2) cottonseed meal fed at 0.25% of body weight, 3 to 6) wet sorghum distillers grains fed at 0. 25, 0.5,0.75 or 1.0% of body weight, and 7) wet corn distillers grains fed at 0.25% of body weight. Feed intake, average daily gain, feed efficiency, and carcass data will be determined. Fecal samples will be obtained to determine ration digestibility. Pen surface samples will be obtained to estimate nitrogen volatilization from the pen surface. May 2006: In a beef cattle finishing trial, steers will be given ad libitum access to finishing diets containing various concentrations of distillers grains and supplemental fat. Feed intake, average daily gain, feed efficiency, and carcass data will be determined. Fecal samples will be obtained to determine ration digestibility. Pen surface samples will be obtained to estimate nitrogen volatilization from the pen surface. Significant Activities that Support Special Target Populations This report serves to document research conducted under a specific cooperative agreement between ARS and West Texas A&M University, Canyon, Texas. Additional details of the research and publications can be found in the report for the parent project 6209-31630-002-00D, Minimizing the Environmental Impact of Livestock Manures Using Integrated Management Regimens. Four hundred crossbred yearling heifers (initial body weight = 374 kg) were used in two experiments to examine the effect of dietary fat concentration on the feeding value of wet sorghum distiller's grains plus solubles (WSDGS). Treatments included two 92% concentrate diets based on steam-flaked corn (SFC) with 0% or 3% added fat from yellow grease and three diets with 15% WSDGS and either 0, 1.5, or 3% added fat from yellow grease. Heifers were fed an average of 106 days before slaughter. Overall dry matter intake (DMI) was 6.1% greater for heifers fed WSDGS than for those fed the control diet containing no WSDGS. Among heifers fed WSDGS, DMI was greatest for heifers fed 1.5% fat. Overall average daily gain (ADG) was 5.8% greater for WSDGS than control heifers. Among the WSDGS treatments, ADG tended to be greater for 1.5% fat than the 0% or 3% fat diets. Feed efficiency did not differ between SFC with 0 or 3% fat, nor was feed efficiency altered by replacing a portion of SFC with WSDGS. However, the DMI:ADG ratio decreased as more fat was added to WSDGS diets. Hot carcass weight was increased an average of 5 kg when WSDGS replaced a portion of SFC, but carcass weight was greatest for heifers fed WSDGS with 1.5% fat. Heifers fed SFC without fat had a larger ribeye area, lower marbling score, less rib fat, and a lower yield grade than heifers fed SFC with 3% fat. Heifers fed WSDGS had more rib fat and a higher yield grade than heifers fed SFC. Inclusion of fat in SFC diets did not alter the distribution of carcass quality grades, but SFC with 3% fat produced fewer yield grade 1 carcasses than when fat was not fed. Feeding WSDGS did not alter carcass quality grade distribution compared to feeding SFC, but WSDGS produced fewer yield grade 3 carcasses than SFC. Heifers fed WSDGS had a higher DMI and greater ADG than heifers fed SFC, but gain efficiency did not differ. When WSDGS replaced the combination of cottonseed meal (1/3) and steam-flaked corn (2/3), the net energy (NEg) of the WSDGS was 91% that of dry-rolled corn. Adding more than 1.5% fat to diets containing WSDGS tended to reduce growth performance. The ADODR and lead investigator are in regular contact via e-mail, phone, and face-to-face contacts. The ADODR monitors cooperator expenditure of funds through semi-annual reports from the cooperator and via contacts with the lead investigator. Technology Transfer Number of Non-Peer Reviewed Presentations and Proceedings: 2

        Impacts
        (N/A)

        Publications


          Progress 10/01/05 to 09/30/06

          Outputs
          Progress Report 4d Progress report. This report serves to document research conducted under a specific cooperative agreement between ARS and West Texas A&M University, Canyon, Texas. Additional details of the research can be found in the report for the parent CRIS 6209-31630-002-00D, Minimizing the Environmental Impact of Livestock Manures Using Integrated Management Regimens. Nonpregnant yearling heifers for Experiment 1 (growing study) were procured and were allowed 4 weeks to acclimate to the facility, after which 259 animals were selected for the study. Corn and sorghum distiller's grains were stored in airtight ensiling bags measuring 10 feet in diameter to prevent mold formation. As a consequence of rising forage prices during the current drought, the study was ended after 61 days. Fresh feces and air-dried pen manure samples were collected from the pens and blood samples (via jugular venipuncture) and individual cattle weights were obtained. For the initial phase of Experiment 2 (finishing study) two hundred nonpregnant yearling heifers were processed on arrival, and were adapted to a finishing diet. The first block of heifers was harvested after 74 days on feed. Fresh feces and air-dried pen manure samples were obtained at harvest. Two hundred cattle from Experiment 1 were enrolled in the second phase of Experiment 2. Cattle will be fed until they have an estimated backfat thickness of 0.5 inches.

          Impacts
          (N/A)

          Publications