Source: UNIV OF MINN submitted to
DETERMINATION OF AMINO ACID DIGESTIBILITY OF SORGHUM AND A CORN-SORGHUM BLEND OF DISTILLERS DRIED GRAINS
Sponsoring Institution
Agricultural Research Service/USDA
Project Status
TERMINATED
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
0410038
Grant No.
(N/A)
Project No.
6209-31630-002-17S
Proposal No.
(N/A)
Multistate No.
(N/A)
Program Code
(N/A)
Project Start Date
Sep 1, 2005
Project End Date
Sep 30, 2008
Grant Year
(N/A)
Project Director
COLE N A
Recipient Organization
UNIV OF MINN
2642 UNIV. AVE
ST PAUL,MN 55114
Performing Department
(N/A)
Non Technical Summary
(N/A)
Animal Health Component
50%
Research Effort Categories
Basic
50%
Applied
50%
Developmental
0%
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
3021520101030%
3023510101050%
3025230101020%
Goals / Objectives
The objectives of this cooperative research project are to 1) evaluate the effects of the source (corn, sorghum grain or a blend) of distillers grains on the digestibility of amino acids by swine; and 2 ) evaluate the relationship between the color of distillers grains and amino acid digestibility in swine.
Project Methods
In a digestion trial, swine will be fed diets containing dried distillers grains made from corn (4 samples that vary in color), sorghum grain, or a blend of corn and sorghum grain. Small intestinal digestibility of amino acids will be determined in pigs with ileal cannula. Color of the distillers grains will be compared using a Minolta colorimeter. The correlation between color measurements and in vivo amino acid digestibility will be determined.

Progress 09/01/05 to 09/30/08

Outputs
Progress Report Objectives (from AD-416) The objectives of this cooperative research project are to (1) evaluate the effects of the source (corn, sorghum grain or a blend) of distiller's grains on the digestibility of amino acids by swine; and (2) evaluate the relationship between the color of distiller's grains and amino acid digestibility in swine. Approach (from AD-416) In a digestion trial, swine will be fed diets containing dried distiller's grains made from corn (4 samples that vary in color), sorghum grain, or a blend of corn and sorghum grain. Small intestinal digestibility of amino acids will be determined in pigs with ileal cannula. Color of the distiller's grains will be compared using a Minolta colorimeter. The correlation between color measurements and in vivo amino acid digestibility will be determined. Significant Activities that Support Special Target Populations This study was conducted as a part of a larger study involving five in vivo experiments to determine the standardized ileal digestible (SID) crude protein (CP) and amino acid content from 34 samples of corn dried distiller's grains with solubles (DDGS), one sample of sorghum DDGS (S), and one sample of a corn-sorghum blend of DDGS, and determine the relationship of color and other chemical and physical characteristics for predicting digestible amino acid content of DDGS. A project extension was given in 2007 to complete the data analysis and write two manuscripts for publication. The average crude protein (CP) and lysine content of corn samples was 31. 5 and 0.91%, respectively. Average CP and lysine SID of corn was 23.0 and 0.56%, respectively. Sorghum dried distiller's grains with solubles had more CP (35.8%) and tryptophan (0.39%) than corn, but lower lysine (0.75%) and methionine (0.58%). Standardized ileal digestibility of CP, lysine, threonine, and tryptophan of S were similar to corn. Sorghum DDGS had a higher amount of digestible CP and tryptophan than corn, but lower digestible lysine and methionine content. Differences in amino acid composition were comparable to published differences between the corn and sorghum grain (NRC, 1998). Finally, the corn-sorghum blend of dried distiller's grain with solubles (CS) had a CP and amino acid content, SID, and digestible content similar to those values in corn, with the exception of tryptophan content which was only similar to the corn source with the highest content. However, on a digestible amino acid content basis, corn and CS were similar. Presumably, this similarity is due to CS being composed of approximately 80% corn and 20% sorghum. Corn DDGS color as determined by a Minolta colorimeter (L* = 52.7 and b* = 36.4) was slightly darker than the color determined using a Hunter colorimeter (L* = 55.6 and b* = 38.1, P < 0.01). However, those differences appeared to be small from a practical standpoint, because both methods provided similar amino acid digestibility ranking of sources. Lightness (L*), redness (a*) and yellowness (b*) of S and CS were within the range of the same parameters in corn. In summary, amino acid digestibility of sorghum and blends of sorghum and corn DDGS appear to be as good as highly digestible corn DDGS. However, although there were significant correlations (P < 0.05) between L* and b* and CP and amino acid digestibility of all sources of DDGS, the correlations were low (< 0.5) and poorly predict SID amino acid digestibility of DDGS for swine. Tentative results of studies have been reported as three papers presented to the American Society of Animal Science (published as abstracts) and as an M.S. Thesis at the University of Minnesota. The ADODR and lead investigator are in regular contact via e-mail, phone and occasional face-to-face contacts. The ADODR monitors cooperator expenditure of funds through semi-annual reports from the cooperator and via contacts with the lead investigator.

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications


    Progress 10/01/06 to 09/30/07

    Outputs
    Progress Report Objectives (from AD-416) The objectives of this cooperative research project are to (1) evaluate the effects of the source (corn, sorghum grain or a blend) of distiller's grains on the digestibility of amino acids by swine; and (2) evaluate the relationship between the color of distiller's grains and amino acid digestibility in swine. Approach (from AD-416) In a digestion trial, swine will be fed diets containing dried distillers grains made from corn (4 samples that vary in color), sorghum grain, or a blend of corn and sorghum grain. Small intestinal digestibility of amino acids will be determined in pigs with ileal cannula. Color of the distillers grains will be compared using a Minolta colorimeter. The correlation between color measurements and in vivo amino acid digestibility will be determined. Significant Activities that Support Special Target Populations This report serves to document research conducted under a specific cooperative agreement between ARS and the University of Minnesota, St. Paul, Minnesota. Additional details of the research and publications can be found in the report for the parent project 6209-31630-002-00D, Minimizing the Environmental Impact of Livestock Manures Using Integrated Management Regimens. This in vivo study is being conducted to determine the standardized small intestine digestible (SID) of crude protein and amino acids in 34 samples of corn-based (C) dried distiller¿s grains with solubles (DDGS), one sample of sorghum-based DDGS (S), and one sample of a corn-sorghum- based blend of DDGS, and to determine the relationship between color and other chemical and physical characteristics to digestible amino acid (lysine, methionine, threonine, and tryptophan) content. The average concentrations of crude protein and lysine in C samples were 31.5 and 0. 91%, respectively. Average digestibilities of crude protein and lysine of C were 73 and 62%, respectively. Sorghum-based dried distiller¿s grains had greater crude protein (35.8%) and tryptophan (0.39%) concentrations than C-based DDGS, but lower lysine (0.75%) and methionine (0.58%) concentrations. Standardized small intestinal digestibility of crude protein, lysine, threonine, and tryptophan of S were similar to C. Differences in amino acid composition were comparable to published differences between corn and sorghum grain (NRC, 1998). The corn-sorghum blend of dried distiller¿s grain with solubles (CS) had a crude protein and amino acid concentration and SID percentage similar to those values in C. This similarity is probably because the CS is approximately 80% corn and 20% sorghum. Corn DDGS color recorded with a Minolta Chroma Meter colorimeter was slightly darker than color recorded with a Hunter colorimeter. However, those differences appeared to be small from a practical standpoint, because both methods provided similar ranking of sources. Lightness (L*), redness (a*), and yellowness (b*) of S and CS were within the range of the same parameters in C. In summary, amino acid digestibility of sorghum and blends of sorghum and corn DDGS appear to be as good as highly digestible corn DDGS. Although there were significant correlations between L* and b* and crude protein and amino acid digestibility of all sources of DDGS, the correlations were low and poorly predicted SID amino acid digestibility of DDGS for swine. Tentative results of these studies are reported in abstracts published in the Journal of Animal Science, Volume 85, Supplement 2. The ADODR and lead investigator are in regular contact via e-mail or phone. The ADODR monitors cooperator expenditure of funds through semi- annual reports from the cooperator and via contacts with the lead investigator. A project extension has been requested to complete the data analysis and write a manuscript for publication. Technology Transfer Number of Non-Peer Reviewed Presentations and Proceedings: 7

    Impacts
    (N/A)

    Publications


      Progress 10/01/05 to 09/30/06

      Outputs
      Progress Report 4d Progress report. This report serves to document research conducted under a specific cooperative agreement between ARS and the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota. Additional details of the research can be found in the report for the parent CRIS 6209-31630-002-00D, Minimizing the Environmental Impact of Livestock Manures Using Integrated Management Regimens. We have completed all of the sample collection and analysis for this study. We have some additional statistical analysis to complete before the project is completed. The following is a brief summary of the results: The first objective of this project was to determine amino acid digestibility of a source of sorghum-based dried distiller's grains with solubles (SD), and a corn/sorghum blend of dried distiller's grains with solubles (CSD), and compare these digestibility values to 8 corn-based dried distiller's grains with solubles (CD) sources being produced in the U.S. ethanol industry. To accomplish this objective, 11 growing pigs with an initial body weight of 46 kilogram were surgically fitted with a T- cannula at the distal ileum. Pigs were fed 10 diets containing dried distiller's grains with solubles and one nitrogen-free diet. The nitrogen- free diet was used to estimate endogenous nitrogen contributions to digesta samples. Chromic oxide served as an indigestible marker. The CSD and SD samples had higher crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and acid detergent fiber (ADF) than CD, but lower levels of crude fat. As a result of the lower level of crude fat, SD and CSD had lower calculated digestible, metabolizable, and net energy values for swine. The highest crude protein and acid detergent fiber were found in the SD, but SD had lower neutral detergent fiber and crude fiber (CF) than the blend of corn and sorghum. These differences are probably due to the nutritional characteristics of the original grains used to produce the distiller's grains. The amino acid content of the different distiller's grains also varied. There were no differences in apparent and true ileal digestibility among CD, SD, and CSD for crude protein and lysine. Average histidine, isoleucine, leucine, methionine apparent ileal digestibility values for CD were higher than SD and CSD. The second objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of using color scores as an in vitro procedure to predict the ileal digestibility of amino acids in corn and sorghum dried distiller's grains with solubles (DDGS). We used an amino acid digestibility data set of 37 different DDGS sources, representing about one-third of the U.S. ethanol plants. Color of all DDGS sources was measured using two different instruments (Minolta colorimeter CR-310 and Hunter Lab spectrophotometer Color Flex). The ileal digestibility of crude protein and several amino acids were significantly correlated to the color of the DDGS samples. These results suggest that DDGS from sorghum and corn-sorghum blends are lower in amino acid digestibility for several amino acids except lysine, compared to the corn DDGS used in this study. However, the amino acid digestibility coefficients for sorghum and corn-sorghum DDGS are very acceptable for including these DDGS sources in swine diets. Based upon our preliminary results, lightness and yellowness of DDGS color appears to be a less accurate predictor of lysine digestibility than previous published reports have suggested.

      Impacts
      (N/A)

      Publications