Source: AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE submitted to
CONVERTING ALASKA FISH BY-PRODUCTS INTO VALUE ADDED INGREDIENTS AND PRODUCTS
Sponsoring Institution
Agricultural Research Service/USDA
Project Status
TERMINATED
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
0409390
Grant No.
(N/A)
Project No.
5341-31410-003-00D
Proposal No.
(N/A)
Multistate No.
(N/A)
Program Code
(N/A)
Project Start Date
Mar 15, 2005
Project End Date
Nov 2, 2009
Grant Year
(N/A)
Project Director
BECHTEL P J
Recipient Organization
AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE
(N/A)
FAIRBANKS,AK 99701
Performing Department
(N/A)
Non Technical Summary
(N/A)
Animal Health Component
50%
Research Effort Categories
Basic
50%
Applied
50%
Developmental
0%
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
51137991010100%
Goals / Objectives
The over-arching goal of this project is to develop new knowledge to increase the value of underutilized seafood processing by-products for aquaculture and agriculture in a sustainable manner. This will be achieved by accomplishing the three objectives listed below. 1. Elucidate the chemical, biological, and physical properties of underutilized Alaska fish by-products and their biochemical constituents to identify properties/compounds that can be used to make new and improved aquaculture and agriculture feed ingredients, and other high value products. 2. Improve processes and methods for analysis, collection, and storage of raw materials, to retain the chemical, biological, and physical qualities of Alaska fish processing raw materials for developing new and improved ingredients/biochemicals. 3. Make and evaluate the value of new and improved aquaculture and agriculture ingredients and feeds from underutilized Alaska seafood by-products and their constituents. Implementation memo (revised) 130 will assist in evaluating the technical and economic feasibility of developing sources of nutrients (protein and oils) from on-shore and off-shore fish processing by-products for the emerging organic aquaculture industry. The research on the objectives identified in the implementation memo will be conducted under existing Objective 2, subobjective 2.3.
Project Methods
The overall goal of this research project is to develop new knowledge to increase the value of seafood processing by-products for aquaculture, agriculture and other high value uses in a sustainable manner. Implementation memo (revised) 130 will allow the technical feasibility to be evaluated by first examining the definition of a sustainable by-product source and the standards for organic aquaculture ingredients. In light of the definitions and standard, by-products currently produced by fish oil and meal plants in Alaska will be evaluated. Initial effort would focus on utilization of by-products from the only two sustainable fisheries in the United States, which are the Alaska pollock and salmon fisheries. Altering existing processing methods or incorporating new methods to meet the organic standards will be explored. Organic products will be produced and chemical and nutritional properties characterized. In addition, properties such as lipid oxidation will be evaluated during storage and distribution. Additional studies will evaluate the feasibility to produce unique products such as palatability enhancers and feed attractants for organic aquaculture.

Progress 03/15/05 to 11/02/09

Outputs
Progress Report Objectives (from AD-416) The over-arching goal of this project is to develop new knowledge to increase the value of underutilized seafood processing by-products for aquaculture and agriculture in a sustainable manner. This will be achieved by accomplishing the three objectives listed below. 1. Elucidate the chemical, biological, and physical properties of underutilized Alaska fish by-products and their biochemical constituents to identify properties/compounds that can be used to make new and improved aquaculture and agriculture feed ingredients, and other high value products. 2. Improve processes and methods for analysis, collection, and storage of raw materials, to retain the chemical, biological, and physical qualities of Alaska fish processing raw materials for developing new and improved ingredients/biochemicals. 3. Make and evaluate the value of new and improved aquaculture and agriculture ingredients and feeds from underutilized Alaska seafood by- products and their constituents. Implementation memo (revised) 130 will assist in evaluating the technical and economic feasibility of developing sources of nutrients (protein and oils) from on-shore and off-shore fish processing by-products for the emerging organic aquaculture industry. The research on the objectives identified in the implementation memo will be conducted under existing Objective 2, subobjective 2.3. Approach (from AD-416) The overall goal of this research project is to develop new knowledge to increase the value of seafood processing by-products for aquaculture, agriculture and other high value uses in a sustainable manner. Implementation memo (revised) 130 will allow the technical feasibility to be evaluated by first examining the definition of a sustainable by- product source and the standards for organic aquaculture ingredients. In light of the definitions and standard, by-products currently produced by fish oil and meal plants in Alaska will be evaluated. Initial effort would focus on utilization of by-products from the only two sustainable fisheries in the United States, which are the Alaska pollock and salmon fisheries. Altering existing processing methods or incorporating new methods to meet the organic standards will be explored. Organic products will be produced and chemical and nutritional properties characterized. In addition, properties such as lipid oxidation will be evaluated during storage and distribution. Additional studies will evaluate the feasibility to produce unique products such as palatability enhancers and feed attractants for organic aquaculture. This is the final report for the project 5341-31410-003D, closed in November 2009. Substantial results were realized over the 5 years of this project. ALASKA FISH PROTEIN MEAL & OIL QUALITY: The chemical and nutritive quality of Alaskan byproduct fish meals was evaluated. The quality of these meals was indistinguishable from commercial meals for shrimp and, with one exception, in formulations for Pacific threadfin and rainbow trout. A large study found Alaskan seafood by-products were well suited for inclusion into trout diets to enhance fillet omega-3 fatty acid levels. BYPRODUCTS FROM DIFFERENT SPECIES: Properties of individual processing byproducts (heads, frames, viscera and skin) were evaluated from the major harvested species in Alaska. ENERGY & FERTILIZERS FROM FISH BYPRODUCTS: Salmon oil biodiesel had properties comparable to biodiesel derived from plant based oils. Fish protein meal, fish bone meal, and byproduct hydrolysates can be used as fertilizers. FEED INGREDIENTS FOR PETS, PIGS AND REINDEER: The nutritive quality of fish oils, meals, hydrolysates and organ meals have been tested as feed ingredients in swine, companion animals, and Alaskan reindeer industries. GELATINS FROM FISH SKINS: Studies were conducted to increase the value of fish skins, including improved extraction of gelatin; chemical cross- linking of fish gelatin, dehydration as a stabilization method, making fish gelatin nano fibers and fish gelatin films. HYDROLYSATES FROM BYPRODUCTS: Hydrolysates were made from processing byproducts of the most abundantly harvested Alaskan species and chemically characterized. A CRADA with Alaska Protein Recovery, LLC was completed to develop improved processing technologies for protein hydrolysates. OILS FROM FISH BYPRODUCTS: Studies have provided the lipid information needed for further utilization of byproducts as feed ingredients. Adsorption processes using different absorbents were evaluated for fish oil purification. PROTEIN POWDERS FROM BYPRODUCTS: Feed ingredients with different chemical and functional properties have been made from the insoluble and soluble protein fractions of different pollock and salmon byproducts. Salmon livers have relatively high cholesterol levels where these from pollock had high lipid levels. Methods were developed for processing fish livers and testes into protein meals, which were then characterized. STABILIZING FISH PROCESSING BYPRODUCTS: Byproduct components were stabilized against microbial degradation through fermentation with lactic acid bacteria and through ensilage by direct acidification using formic acid. An improved detection method for determining biogenic amines was developed. Also, methods were developed for the evaluation of fat soluble vitamins in fish oils. INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCES ON FISH BYPRODUCTS: International Symposia on fish processing byproducts were held in Anchorage AK in November 2002, and Portland OR in February 2009 where a number of the project research results were presented. Edited books from the 2002 and 2009 symposium are available. Accomplishments 01 This project 5341-31410-003-00D ended November 2009, when project 5341- 31410-004-00D was initiated. There is a high degree of continuity from t old to the new project and significant accomplishments for the month of October 2010 are incorporated in 5341-31410-004-00D.

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications

  • Wu, T.H., Bechtel, P.J., Bower, C.K. 2009. Effects of Delay Processing of Pink Salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) Byproducts into Fishmeal. Journal of Aquatic Food Product Technology. 18(4):345-359.
  • Rowland, S., Dewitt, C.A., Bower, C.K., Patil, K.N. 2009. Updraft Gasification of Salmon Processing Waste. Journal of Food Science.74(8) :E426-E431.


Progress 10/01/08 to 09/30/09

Outputs
Progress Report Objectives (from AD-416) The over-arching goal of this project is to develop new knowledge to increase the value of underutilized seafood processing by-products for aquaculture and agriculture in a sustainable manner. This will be achieved by accomplishing the three objectives listed below. 1. Elucidate the chemical, biological, and physical properties of underutilized Alaska fish by-products and their biochemical constituents to identify properties/compounds that can be used to make new and improved aquaculture and agriculture feed ingredients, and other high value products. 2. Improve processes and methods for analysis, collection, and storage of raw materials, to retain the chemical, biological, and physical qualities of Alaska fish processing raw materials for developing new and improved ingredients/biochemicals. 3. Make and evaluate the value of new and improved aquaculture and agriculture ingredients and feeds from underutilized Alaska seafood by- products and their constituents. Implementation memo (revised) 130 will assist in evaluating the technical and economic feasibility of developing sources of nutrients (protein and oils) from on-shore and off-shore fish processing by-products for the emerging organic aquaculture industry. The research on the objectives identified in the implementation memo will be conducted under existing Objective 2, subobjective 2.3. Approach (from AD-416) The overall goal of this research project is to develop new knowledge to increase the value of seafood processing by-products for aquaculture, agriculture and other high value uses in a sustainable manner. Implementation memo (revised) 130 will allow the technical feasibility to be evaluated by first examining the definition of a sustainable by- product source and the standards for organic aquaculture ingredients. In light of the definitions and standard, by-products currently produced by fish oil and meal plants in Alaska will be evaluated. Initial effort would focus on utilization of by-products from the only two sustainable fisheries in the United States, which are the Alaska pollock and salmon fisheries. Altering existing processing methods or incorporating new methods to meet the organic standards will be explored. Organic products will be produced and chemical and nutritional properties characterized. In addition, properties such as lipid oxidation will be evaluated during storage and distribution. Additional studies will evaluate the feasibility to produce unique products such as palatability enhancers and feed attractants for organic aquaculture. Significant Activities that Support Special Target Populations FISH OILS 1. Neutralization and adsorption processes were evaluated for purification of unrefined salmon oils. 2. The effects of temperature on the viscosity and oxidation rates of crude salmon oil was studied. 3. Smoking was evaluated as a method for stabilizing PUFA-rich oils from salmon byproducts against oxidation. STABILIZING BYPRODUCTS AND EVALUATING QUALITY DURING STORAGE 1. The effects of storage time and temperature on the quality of separate salmon byproducts was completed. 2. A one year storage study at two temperatures for salmon and pollock byproduct meals and oils was completed. 3. A new analytical method was developed for determination of biogenic amines and vitamin concentrations in fishery products. FISH GELATINS 1. A study was completed on modifying fish gelatin film properties by varying drying conditions. 2. A study was completed in which electrospun fibers of poly(vinyl alcohol) and poly(lactic acid) were blended with pollock gelatin and then evaluated for biomedical applications. 3. A study is in progress characterizing the properties of nano-emulsions made with fish gelatins for use in edible films and coatings. BYPRODUCT CHARACTERIZATIONS AND PROCESSES 1. Byproducts from skates and black rockfish were characterized for their use in food and feed ingredients. 2. The chemical characterization of byproducts from both fall and spring harvested pollock was completed and is being analyzed. 3. A study is in progress to determine optimal methods of drying fish heads. 4. The chemical characterization of byproducts from watermarked pink and chum salmon harvested late for their roe was completed. 5. Stickwater protein, concentrated by membrane fractionation, is being chemically and physically characterized. 6. Use of innovative membrane technologies to separate residual oils from stickwater is being studied. 7. Byproduct hydrolysates with different size peptides have been made and are being characterized for later testing in animal models. AQUACULTURE AND ANIMAL TRIALS 1. A study on the nutritional quality of pollock liver and testes meals in the diets of Pacific threadfin was completed. 2. A study on the effects of salmon hydrolysates on cholesterol metabolism in hamsters was completed. 3. A trial using Alaskan fish testes meal supplementation to an all-plant diet for trout was completed 4. A study using fish bone meals as mineral supplement in an all-plant diet for trout was completed. 5. An investigation into the utility of employing Alaskan pollock oil to increase sow litter size is in progress. 6. A study on the nutritional quality of pollock viscera meal in the diets of hybrid striped bass is ongoing.

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications

  • Bower, C.K., Hietala, K.A. 2008. Acidification Methods for Stabilization and Storage of Salmon By-Products. Journal of Aquatic Food Product Technology. 17:459-478.
  • Bower, C.K., Hietala, K.A., Oliveira, A., Wu, T.H. 2009. Stabilizing Oils from Smoked Pink Salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha). Journal of Food Science. 74(3):C248-C257.
  • Sathivel, S., Bechtel, P.J. 2008. A comparison of physical and rheological properties of Arrowtooth Flounder protein made using three different extraction processes. Journal of Food Biochemistry. 32:557-575.
  • Reppond, K., Oliveira, A., Bechtel, P.J. 2009. Enzymatic Digestion of Eye and Brain Tissues of Sockeye and Coho Salmon, and Dusky Rockfish Commercially Harvested in Alaska. Journal of Aquatic Food Product Technology. 18(3):209-222. Available: http://www.informaworld. com/smpp/title~content=t792303960~db=all.
  • Oliveira, A., Bechtel, P.J., Morey, A., Demir, N. 2009. Composition of Heads and Livers of Yelloweye Rockfish (Sebastes ruberrimus) Harvested in Alaska. Journal of Aquatic Food Product Technology. 18:53-66.
  • Sathivel, S., Yin, H., Bechtel, P.J., King, J.M. 2009. Physical and Nutritional Properties of Catfish Roe Spray Dried Protein Powder and its Application in an Emulsion System. Journal of Food Engineering. 95(1):76- 81. Available: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/02608774.
  • Bechtel, P.J. 2003. Properties of Different Fish Processing By-Products From Pollock, Cod and Salmon. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation. 27(2):101-116.
  • Wu, T.H., Bechtel, P.J. 2009. Quality of Crude Oil Extracted from Aging Walleye Pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) Byproducts. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society. Available: http://www.springerlink. com/content/?k=wu+pollock+oil+crude.
  • Bower, C.K. 2007. Post Harvest Handling, Storage, and Treatment for Fresh Market of Berry Fruit. In: Zhao, Y., Editor. Berry Fruit: Value-Added Products for Health Promotion. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group. p. 261-288.
  • Bechtel, P.J. 2007. By-products from seafood processing for aquaculture and animal feeds. In. Shahidi, F., editor. Maximising the Value of Marine By-Products. Cambridge, England. Woodhead Publishing Ltd. pp. 435-449.
  • Sathivel, S., Bechtel, P.J. 2007. Engineering and functional properties of protein powders from underutilized marine fish and by-products. In Shahidi, F., editor. Maximising the Value of Marine By-Products. Cambridge, England. Woodhead Publishing Ltd. pp.250-257.


Progress 10/01/07 to 09/30/08

Outputs
Progress Report Objectives (from AD-416) The over-arching goal of this project is to develop new knowledge to increase the value of underutilized seafood processing by-products for aquaculture and agriculture in a sustainable manner. This will be achieved by accomplishing the three objectives listed below. 1. Elucidate the chemical, biological, and physical properties of underutilized Alaska fish by-products and their biochemical constituents to identify properties/compounds that can be used to make new and improved aquaculture and agriculture feed ingredients, and other high value products. 2. Improve processes and methods for analysis, collection, and storage of raw materials, to retain the chemical, biological, and physical qualities of Alaska fish processing raw materials for developing new and improved ingredients/biochemicals. 3. Make and evaluate the value of new and improved aquaculture and agriculture ingredients and feeds from underutilized Alaska seafood by- products and their constituents. Implementation memo (revised) 130 will assist in evaluating the technical and economic feasibility of developing sources of nutrients (protein and oils) from on-shore and off-shore fish processing by-products for the emerging organic aquaculture industry. The research on the objectives identified in the implementation memo will be conducted under existing Objective 2, subobjective 2.3. Approach (from AD-416) The overall goal of this research project is to develop new knowledge to increase the value of seafood processing by-products for aquaculture, agriculture and other high value uses in a sustainable manner. Implementation memo (revised) 130 will allow the technical feasibility to be evaluated by first examining the definition of a sustainable by- product source and the standards for organic aquaculture ingredients. In light of the definitions and standard, by-products currently produced by fish oil and meal plants in Alaska will be evaluated. Initial effort would focus on utilization of by-products from the only two sustainable fisheries in the United States, which are the Alaska pollock and salmon fisheries. Altering existing processing methods or incorporating new methods to meet the organic standards will be explored. Organic products will be produced and chemical and nutritional properties characterized. In addition, properties such as lipid oxidation will be evaluated during storage and distribution. Additional studies will evaluate the feasibility to produce unique products such as palatability enhancers and feed attractants for organic aquaculture. Significant Activities that Support Special Target Populations All research efforts relate specifically to NP 106, Component VII: Quality, Safety and Variety of Aquaculture Products for Consumers, Problem Statement f. New Uses for Byproducts. FISH OILS 1. Adsorption processes using different absorbents were evaluated for fish oil purification. 2. Selected chemical and physical characteristics of crude and purified pollock and salmon oil were evaluated after purification. 3. Physical properties of salmon oils including thermal and rheological properties and lipid oxidation of salmon oil were determined. STABILIZING BYPRODUCTS AND QUALITY DURING STORAGE 1. A storage study on raw pink salmon and Alaska pollock byproducts was completed and oils and meals made from the stored byproducts were evaluated. 2. A storage study on the stability of separated byproducts including heads, frames, and viscera is being completed. 3. Acidification as a preservation method for individual salmon byproducts was evaluated and has major implications for how fish processing waste should be collected and stored if maximum nutritional quality is to be preserved. 4. A study is in progress to determine the effects of long term storage on quality characteristic of both commercial salmon and pollock meals and oils. ¿ORGANIC ¿ALASKA FISH MEALS 1. A study was complete using Alaska ¿organic¿ in for shrimp and Pacific threadfin diets and the from Pacific threadfin fillets had acceptable sensory quality characteristics. 2. A study was completed and information transferred to agriculture producers on guidelines for using Alaska organic fish meal as a nutrient sources for crop production. FISH SKINS AND GELATINS 1. Fish gelatin films were found to have better water vapor and oxygen permeability properties than films made with mammalian gelatins. 2. Drying methods were developed that can alter physical properties of gelatin films. 3. In progress is a study in which electrospun fibers of poly(vinyl alcohol) and poly(lactic acid) with pollock gelatin were evaluated for biomedical applications. BYPRODUCT CHARACTERIZATIONS 1. Body wall byproduct of giant red sea cucumbers and Yelloweye rockfish byproducts from commercial harvesting were characterized for uses as food and feed ingredients. 2. Chemical characterization of roe-stripped pink and chum salmon are in progress. 3. Heads from five Pacific salmon species were dried at different temperatures, characterized, and evaluated for export. AQUACULTURE TRIALS 1. Studies are underway evaluating the attractant properties of micro- particulates containing Alaska fisheries byproducts that are fed to larval rockfish. 2. A study is in progress to evaluate expression of genes associated with muscle growth and immuno-stimulatory effects of fish fed diets containing byproduct ingredients. 3. Studies were completed on sturgeon fed Alaska pollock byproduct meal and shrimp fed hydrolysates. 4. Data analysis was completed in a large study that found Alaska seafood byproducts were well suited for inclusion into trout diets to enhance fillet omega-3 fatty acid levels. Technology Transfer Number of Other Technology Transfer: 2

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications

  • Bower, C.K., Malemute, C.L., Oliveira, A.C. 2007. Preservation Methods for Retaining n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Alaska Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) Products. Journal of Aquatic Food Product Technology. 16(4):45-54.
  • Plante, S., Smiley, S., Oliveira, A., Stone, D., Hardy, R.W., Bechtel, P.J. 2008. Chemical Characterizations of Testes Meals Made from Alaska's Seafood Processing Byproducts. Journal of Aquatic Food Product Technology. 17(2):195-211. DOI: 10.1080/10498850801937265.
  • Sathivel, S., Huang, J., Bechtel, P.J. 2008. Properties of pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) skin hydrolysates and effects on lipid oxidation of skinless pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) fillets during 4 months of frozen storage. Journal of Food Biochemistry. 32:247-263.
  • Wu, T.H., Bechtel, P.J. 2008. Ammonia, Dimethylamine, Trimethylamine, and Trimethylamine Oxide from Raw and Processed Fish By-Products. Journal of Aquatic Food Product Technology. 17(1):27-38. doi: 10. 1080/10498850801891140.
  • Wiklund, E., Finstad, G., Johansson, L., Aguiar, G., Bechtel, P.J. 2008. Carcass composition and yield of Alaskan reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) steers and effects of electrical stimulation applied during field slaughter on meat quality. Meat Science. 78(3):185-193.
  • Zinn, K., Hernot, D., Fastinger, N., Karr-Lilienthal, L., Bechtel, P.J., Swanson, K., Fahey, G. 2008. Fish protein substrates can substitute effectively for poultry by-product meal when incorporated in high quality senior dog diets. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition. 93(4) :447-455.
  • Wu, T.H., Bechtel, P.J. 2008. Salmon by-product storage and oil extraction. Food Chemistry. 111(4):868-871.


Progress 10/01/06 to 09/30/07

Outputs
Progress Report Objectives (from AD-416) The over-arching goal of this project is to develop new knowledge to increase the value of underutilized seafood processing by-products for aquaculture and agriculture in a sustainable manner. This will be achieved by accomplishing the three objectives listed below. 1. Elucidate the chemical, biological, and physical properties of underutilized Alaska fish by-products and their biochemical constituents to identify properties/compounds that can be used to make new and improved aquaculture and agriculture feed ingredients, and other high value products. 2. Improve processes and methods for analysis, collection, and storage of raw materials, to retain the chemical, biological, and physical qualities of Alaska fish processing raw materials for developing new and improved ingredients/biochemicals. 3. Make and evaluate the value of new and improved aquaculture and agriculture ingredients and feeds from underutilized Alaska seafood by- products and their constituents. Implementation memo (revised) 130 will assist in evaluating the technical and economic feasibility of developing sources of nutrients (protein and oils) from on-shore and off-shore fish processing by-products for the emerging organic aquaculture industry. The research on the objectives identified in the implementation memo will be conducted under existing Objective 2, subobjective 2.3. Approach (from AD-416) The overall goal of this research project is to develop new knowledge to increase the value of seafood processing by-products for aquaculture, agriculture and other high value uses in a sustainable manner. Implementation memo (revised) 130 will allow the technical feasibility to be evaluated by first examining the definition of a sustainable by- product source and the standards for organic aquaculture ingredients. In light of the definitions and standard, by-products currently produced by fish oil and meal plants in Alaska will be evaluated. Initial effort would focus on utilization of by-products from the only two sustainable fisheries in the United States, which are the Alaska pollock and salmon fisheries. Altering existing processing methods or incorporating new methods to meet the organic standards will be explored. Organic products will be produced and chemical and nutritional properties characterized. In addition, properties such as lipid oxidation will be evaluated during storage and distribution. Additional studies will evaluate the feasibility to produce unique products such as palatability enhancers and feed attractants for organic aquaculture. Accomplishments Parameters for use of fish hydrolysates in diets of Shrimp Value-addition of underutilized seafood processing by-products is critical for aquaculture industry as well as U.S. agriculture. Scientists at Oceanic Institute in Hawaii in collaboration with scientists at the Western Regional Research Center in Albany, California and the Subarctic Agricultural Research Unit in Fairbanks have conducted a study to evaluate how different methods of processing acidified fish byproduct hydrolysates, when used as a dietary ingredients, affects shrimp growth. Hydrolysates made from fish byproducts are usually stabilized by acidification; however, little is known concerning how different hydrolysis production parameters such as neutralization and drying affect nutritional quality. An 8-week shrimp growth trial was conducted to determine the suitability of four experimental fish processing byproduct hydrolysates, manufactured under different conditions, as ingredients replacing fishmeal. It was found that fish hydrolysates produced under some conditions can replace up to 50% of the standard fishmeal in Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) diets, with no significant diminishment in growth or survival. The results from this research will be useful in developing specific ingredients suitable for commercial shrimp aquaculture. This work was conducted in collaboration with a private company involved in production of hydrolysates. NP 106, Component VII: Quality, Safety and Variety of Aquaculture Products for Consumers, Problem Statement: f. New Uses for Byproducts. Alaskan seafood processing byproducts in diets for Sturgeon Scientists at Oceanic Institute in Hawaii and the University of Georgia in Athens, Georgia evaluated the use of Alaska byproducts as feed ingredients for farmed sturgeon. This study addressed the limited information available concerning the range of aquatic species that can accept the use of Alaska fisheries byproducts. A diet with the protein component based on Alaska pollock meal was found to promote growth and survival in Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii) equal to that of standard commercial feeds. The experimental feed exhibited superior stability when immersed in water and reduced the effort required to achieve good water quality. A growth trial was conducted in which a series of 4 diets, including one containing Alaskan pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) meal and 3 commercial products (Biodiet, Skretting, and Silvercup), were fed to sturgeon for 6 weeks. The findings from this work could be used to develop more cost effective feeds for sturgeon culture, while providing a value-added opportunity for utilization of Alaska pollock seafood processing byproducts. NP 106, Component VII: Quality, Safety and Variety of Aquaculture Products for Consumers, Problem Statement: f. New Uses for Byproducts. Replacement diets for Lingcod grow-out Scientists at NOAA Fisheries in Manchester, Washington in collaboration with scientists at the University of Idaho Hagerman Fish Culture Experiment Station, the University of Alaska¿s Fishery Industrial Technology Center in Kodiak, Alaska and the Subarctic Agricultural Research Unit in Fairbanks are using Alaska byproducts to develop unique aquaculture diets for lingcod (Ophiodon elongatus) and other species. The objective of these studies is to develop superior diets using Alaska byproducts that improve growth rate and feed efficiency of lingcod and other new marine farmed fish species. In grow out experiments, forty percent of the diet was protein meal derived from one of four Alaskan processing byproduct sources: pollock viscera meal, salmon livermeal, organic whitefish meal, whitefish meal, and a control diet containing anchovy meal. It was found that the lingcod performed significantly better in growth and feed efficiency on the diets containing the salmon livermeal, pollock viscera meal and the anchovy control than the diets containing either version of the whitefish meal. These results indicate the potential for using specialized meals made from individual byproduct components as dietary components for these species. NP 106, Component VII: Quality, Safety and Variety of Aquaculture Products for Consumers, Problem Statement: f. New Uses for Byproducts. Alaskan fish oils in finishing diets for rainbow trout Scientists at the University of Idaho Hagerman Fish Culture Experiment Station in collaboration with the University of Alaska¿s Fishery Industrial Technology Center in Kodiak, Alaska and the Subarctic Agricultural Research Unit in Fairbanks evaluated the fatty acid composition in fillets of trout fed diets containing different commercially available Alaska fish oils. Oils made from Alaska marine fish byproducts contain high levels of the long chain omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA, and when these oils are incorporated into aquaculture diets they can increase the EPA and DHA content in the fillets. Studies were completed with 400g and 800g (market size) rainbow trout fed diets containing Alaskan fish oils (pollock, salmon, rockfish) to enhance the omega-3 fatty acids (EPA and DHA) content in fillets. Alaska pollock oil was found to be more effective than menhaden oil in enriching fillets with EPA and DHA when fed during the final stages of grow-out to trout that had previously been fed diets containing either rendered poultry oil or canola oil as the major dietary lipid. These results are very relevant to the aquaculture industry as global fish oil supplies are fully utilized and alternative strategies to producing healthful farmed fish products must be developed. NP 106, Component VII: Quality, Safety and Variety of Aquaculture Products for Consumers, Problem Statement: f. New Uses for Byproducts. Processing byproducts in diets for Pacific threadfin Scientists at Oceanic Institute in Hawaii in collaboration with scientist at the University of Alaska¿s Fishery Industrial Technology Center in Kodiak, Alaska and the Subarctic Agricultural Research Unit in Fairbanks evaluated the use of Alaska byproducts in the grow out diets of Pacific threadfin. The objective of this study was to evaluate the growth of Pacific threadfin feed Alaska byproduct ingredients on the composition, texture and sensory properties of the fillets from these fish. A 12-week feeding trial was completed to ascertain the impact of utilizing Alaskan pollock meal and pollock oil on growth and fillet quality of market size Pacific threadfin (Polydactylus sexfilis). The feeding trial was conducted in a recirculation aquaculture system to grow fish from 333g to 503g using an experimental diet containing pollock meal and pollock oil as major ingredients. The results of this study indicated no differences in fish growth and the sensory assessment from a trained taste panel for sashimi and baked samples did not show consistent differences in fillet color, texture and flavor between experimental and commercial diet. The information will be useful in formulating cost-effective grow-out diets that can ensure good growth and desirable fillet quality for Pacific threadfin. NP 106, Component VII: Quality, Safety and Variety of Aquaculture Products for Consumers, Problem Statement: f. New Uses for Byproducts. Weaning rock sole onto artificial feeds with chemical cues Scientists at the NOAA Fisheries in Manchester, Washington in collaboration with scientists at the University of Idaho Hagerman Fish Culture Experiment Station, the University of Alaska¿s Fishery Industrial Technology Center in Kodiak, Alaska and the Subarctic Agricultural Research Unit in Fairbanks evaluated different Alaska byproducts for their ability to stimulate diet consumption of marine fish larvae and thus increase the efficiency of larvae production. The objective of this study was to determine whether chemical cues from the byproducts that were introduced to the culture water could stimulate the weaning of rock sole (Lepidopsetta spp.) larvae onto prepared feeds. L-alanine, Artemia culture water and red salmon stickwater were chosen as the chemical cues and inert metal oxides were incorporated at known proportions into the feeds to measure their consumption. When red salmon stickwater was added to the culture medium before weaning, the fish were more likely to take up the microparticulate food on the first and second days post-weaning than fish that were not given the chemical cue. These results indicate the potential for using stickwater or compounds derived from stickwater in fish larvae production. NP 106, Component VII: Quality, Safety and Variety of Aquaculture Products for Consumers, Problem Statement: f. New Uses for Byproducts. Antioxidant properties of pollock skin hydrolysates Scientists at the University of Alaska¿s Fishery Industrial Technology Center in Kodiak, Alaska and the Subarctic Agricultural Research Unit in Fairbanks have collaborated on studies to make hydrolysates with antioxidant properties from underutilized fish skin. Pollock skin is an abundant and under-utilized byproduct that can be used as a unique protein source to make hydrolysates with useful chemical and functional properties. The objective of this study was to investigate the antioxidant and solubility properties of pollock skin hydrolysates and evaluate the use of hydrolysate coating materials to suppress lipid oxidation in fish fillets during frozen storage. Results indicated that the edible coatings prepared from pollock skin protein hydrolysate enhanced the storage stability and quality of frozen salmon fillets. The edible hydrolysates coating may also provide a degree of protection against damage during transportation and handling of fish fillets. NP 106, Component VII: Quality, Safety and Variety of Aquaculture Products for Consumers, Problem Statement: f. New Uses for Byproducts. Fish oil purification and adsorption technology Scientists at the University of Alaska¿s Fishery Industrial Technology Center in Kodiak, Alaska and the Subarctic Agricultural Research Unit in Fairbanks have collaborated on low cost methods of purifying the high omega-3 content oils that can be extracted from Alaska fish byproducts. In order to increase the quality and stability of crude fish oils there is a need for a rapid, low cost method of purifying oil extracted from salmon heads and other fish byproducts. The objective of this project was to develop a low cost adsorption technology that would remove fish oil impurities. Results of research conducted in Alaska indicate that a dual step differential adsorption process performs well in removing many of the impurities from crude fish oil and is likely to be cost effective. Due to the great interest in the high levels of the 3-omega fatty acids in salmon oil, many salmon processors are now evaluating the extraction and partially purification of oil from salmon heads. NP 106, Component VII: Quality, Safety and Variety of Aquaculture Products for Consumers, Problem Statement: f. New Uses for Byproducts. Gasification of salmon byproducts Scientists at Oklahoma State University in Stillwater, Oklahoma and the Subarctic Agricultural Research Unit in Fairbanks worked together on studies to evaluate the potential of producing combustible gas from unused fish waste. Unused fish processing waste represents biomass that may be valuable for generating energy. Raw and treated salmon samples (heads, frames, and viscera) in combination with wood pellets (to reduce the moisture levels) were converted to combustible gases using an up- draft gasifier. Salmon by-products were found to be too wet to undergo combustion using an up-draft gasifier, and therefore may not be practical for large-scale energy production. However, this technology can still provide a feasible energy source in Alaska if an inexpensive method of drying the feedstock is developed. NP 106, Component VII: Quality, Safety and Variety of Aquaculture Products for Consumers, Problem Statement: f. New Uses for Byproducts. Preservation of individual byproduct components Scientists at the Subarctic Agricultural Research Unit in Fairbanks are evaluating methods of economically stabilizing individual fish byproducts such as heads and viscera so they can be used at a later time to make products such as protein and oil feed ingredients and fertilizers. Fish by-products are typically mixed together, even though some components may have adverse effects on others. Individual salmon by-products (heads, viscera, and a mixture) were stabilized through fermentation by lactic acid bacteria and through ensilage by direct acidification. Viscera and heads that were preserved separately for 120 days maintained a lower and thus more desirable pH than when mixed together. This finding has major implications for how fish processing waste should be collected and stored if maximum nutritional value is to be preserved. NP 106, Component VII: Quality, Safety and Variety of Aquaculture Products for Consumers, Problem Statement: f. New Uses for Byproducts. Antioxidant activity in Alaska salmon oil Scientists at Subarctic Agricultural Research Unit in Fairbanks have evaluated the natural antioxidant activity in oil extracted from salmon byproducts and the loss of antioxidant activity in raw materials held at for different amounts of time and at different temperatures. Salmon oil contains fat soluble vitamins and other compounds, which have antioxidant properties that are important in preventing oxidation and are beneficial to health. On occasion, raw byproducts are held unrefrigerated for several days until a sufficient quantity of byproduct is received for processing. A study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant activity in oils extracted from Alaska salmon byproducts stored for different amounts of time (0 to 4 days) and at two different temperatures (6 or 15C). Results showed a linear decrease for antioxidant activity of the extracted oils during the 4 days of storage and no significant difference in the regression lines between the two storage temperatures. These data suggest that storage temperatures of 6 or 15C were of less importance than the storage time for reducing the natural antioxidant activity in oils extracted from salmon byproducts. NP 106, Component VII: Quality, Safety and Variety of Aquaculture Products for Consumers, Problem Statement: f. New Uses for Byproducts. Volatile amines and trimethylamine oxide in byproducts Scientists at the Subarctic Agricultural Research Unit in Fairbanks have developed a fast and sensitive method for measuring the major volatile amines in fish byproducts, which can be used to evaluate the quality of fish byproducts. When storage time is prolonged and/or temperature increased the quality of fish byproducts is decreased and can result in lower quality products made from the byproducts such as fish meals. A capillary electrophoresis method was modified to simultaneously measure the major volatile amines and trimethylamine oxide in fish byproducts in less than 10 minutes per sample. The levels of the different volatile amines were determined in different fish byproducts from different fish species and products. Large difference in volatile amine values were observed between the different fish byproducts. These values can be used as quality indicators of raw and processed material freshness and as indicators for the potential of these materials to spoil. NP 106, Component VII: Quality, Safety and Variety of Aquaculture Products for Consumers, Problem Statement: f. New Uses for Byproducts. Alaska by-products as an organic fertilizer Scientists on the campus of the University of Alaska Fairbanks in collaboration with scientists from the Subarctic Agricultural Research Unit in Fairbanks have conducted study on use of Alaska fish byproduct fertilizers on Alaska crop production. The expanding of organic farming in Alaska demands alternative nutrient sources for crop production and one source of these nutrients is fish by-product meals, bone meals and hydrolysates from the large Alaska fishing industry. A project was designed to evaluate plant nutritional value of Alaska fish byproducts and consisted of laboratory incubation, field research plots, and on farm demonstration. The major findings from the project was N release from the three byproducts followed a two stage release pattern, a fast release phase until 7 days and a slow release phase thereafter. In conclusion fish meal, fish bone meal, fish hydrolysate all provided similar crop biomass production in the field. NP 106, Component VII: Quality, Safety and Variety of Aquaculture Products for Consumers, Problem Statement: f. New Uses for Byproducts. Cross linked fish gelatin films Scientists at the Western Regional Research Center in Albany, California and the Subarctic Agricultural Research Unit in Fairbanks have collaborated on research to increase utilization of Alaska fish skins by making films from extracted fish skin gelatins. Gelatin extracted from fish skin can be used to make biodegradable films and properties of these films can be improved by cross linking the gelatin prior to forming films. The objective of this study was to evaluate properties of films made from cross-linked salmon and pollock gelatins. Varied cross-linker (glutaraldehyde) concentrations were used to crosslink the gelatins and used to make films and film properties evaluated including, oxygen permeability, water permeability, tensile properties, thermal properties, and biodegradability. Results indicated that cross-linked films had slightly reduced water permeability when compared to control films, but comparable tensile and thermal properties. These results indicate new gelatin film products with different physical properties can be made from cross-linked cold water fish skin gelatins. NP 106, Component VII: Quality, Safety and Variety of Aquaculture Products for Consumers, Problem Statement: f. New Uses for Byproducts. Fish hydrolysates in weaner pig diets Scientists at the University of Illinois in Urbana, Illinois and the Subarctic Agricultural Research Unit in Fairbanks have collaborated on research to evaluate the use of hydrolysates made from Alaska fish byproducts as a low cost replacement for spray dried animal plasma in early weaner pig diets. Hydrolysates made from fish byproducts are good sources of digestible protein and have potential applications as feed ingredients for young animals with immature digestive systems. The first study on weanling pig was conducted with four treatments: hydrolyzed pollock fish meal, hydrolyzed salmon fishmeal, hydrolyzed commercial fishmeal, and spray dried animal plasma to measure the apparent digestibility. The second study was conducted to investigate the effects on growth performance of diets based on 2 of the fishmeals plus a spray dried animal plasma diet. The results of these studies suggest that the fish based samples evaluated were inferior to spray dried animal plasma in terms of their effect on early post-weaning performance of piglets; however, fish hydrolysats may have a role as a dietary ingredient later in the post-weaning period. NP 106, Component VII: Quality, Safety and Variety of Aquaculture Products for Consumers, Problem Statement: f. New Uses for Byproducts. Fish hydrolysates on the immune status of senior dogs Scientists at the University of Illinois in Urbana, Illinois and the Subarctic Agricultural Research Unit in Fairbanks have collaborated on research to evaluate utilization of Alaska byproducts as dietary ingredients for older dogs. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of feeding diets containing fish protein substrates on total tract nutrient digestibilities and indices of immune status on aged dogs. Test diets contained pink salmon hydrolysate, white fish meal, and milt meal. There was a trend for higher apparent dry matter digestibility in dogs fed the milt meal and hydrolysate diets compared to those fed the control fish meal diet. Cytokine gene expression data showed a trend for a higher fold change from baseline of TGF-ÿ in dogs fed diets containing milt meal and hydrolysate compared to those fed the control diet. These results supported the use of Alaska byproduct ingredients in the diets of senior dogs; however, additional studies will be needed to further clarify the role of fish based protein ingredients on the immune system of older dogs. NP 106, Component VII: Quality, Safety and Variety of Aquaculture Products for Consumers, Problem Statement: f. New Uses for Byproducts. Protein meals and oil from arrowtooth flounder Scientists at the Subarctic Agricultural Research Unit in Fairbanks and the University of Alaska¿s Fishery Industrial Technology Center in Kodiak, Alaska collaborated on research to increase utilization of arrowtooth flounder byproducts. In the past arrowtooth flounder has been an underutilized species; however, an increasing amount of this abundant fish is being harvested and the byproducts are becoming available for meals, oils and other products. The objective was to evaluate the protein, lipid and mineral components of meals made from arrowtooth flounder byproducts. Arrowtooth flounder byproducts consisting of heads and viscera were obtained from commercial processors and analyzed. Results indicate the protein to be of high quality and the lipid had more saturated fatty acids and lower amounts of long chain 3-omega fatty acids than found in other common Alaska cold water marine fish. Unique meals and oils can be made from arrowtooth flounder byproducts and used in aqua diets to alter the lipid profile of farm raised fish. NP 106, Component VII: Quality, Safety and Variety of Aquaculture Products for Consumers, Problem Statement: f. New Uses for Byproducts. Technology Transfer Number of Non-Peer Reviewed Presentations and Proceedings: 46 Number of Newspaper Articles,Presentations for NonScience Audiences: 6

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications

  • Folador, J., Karr-Lilienthal, L., Parsons, C., Bauer, L., Utterback, P., Schasteen, C., Bechtel, P.J., Fahey, G. 2006. Fish meals, fish components, and fish protein hydrolysates as potential ingredients in pet foods. Journal of Animal Science 84(10):2752-2765.
  • Bechtel, P.J., Chantarachoti, J., Oliveira, A.C., Sathivel, S. 2007. Characterization of Protein Fractions from Immature Alaska Walleye Pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) Roe. Journal of Food Science 72(5):S338-S343.
  • Finstadt, G., Wicklund, E., Long, K., Rincker, P., Oliveira, A.C., Bechtel, P.J. 2007. Feeding soy or fish meal to Alaskan reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) - effects on animal performance and meat quality. Rangifer 27(1):59-75.
  • Chiou, B., Avena Bustillos, R.D., Shey, J., Yee, E., Bechtel, P.J., Imam, S.H., Glenn, G.M., Orts, W.J. 2006. Rheological and mechanical properties of cross-linked fish gelatins. Polymer. 47(18):6379-6386.
  • Oliveira, A.C., Bechtel, P.J. 2006. Protein and lipid composition of Walleye Pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) livers. Journal of Aquatic Food Product Technology Vol.15(3):5-19.
  • Zhang, M., Sparrow, S., Bechtel, P.J., Pantoja, A. 2007. Characteristics of nitrogen and phosphorus release from fish meals and fish hydrolysates in subarctic soils. Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Restoration. 3:262-275.
  • Sathivel, S., Bechtel, P.J., Prinyawiwatkul, W. 2006. Physicochemical and Rheological Properties of Salmon Protein Powders. International Journal of Food Engineering. Vol. 2 : Iss. 2, Article 3. Available at: http://www. bepress.com/ijfe/vol2/iss2/art3


Progress 10/01/05 to 09/30/06

Outputs
Progress Report 1. What major problem or issue is being resolved and how are you resolving it (summarize project aims and objectives)? How serious is the problem? Why does it matter? The Alaskan fishing industry produces over one million metric tons of by- product and waste annually. This material has potential value as a protein and natural products source but much by-product is not utilized. This project seeks to characterize the various fish processing by- products and existing secondary products, and to develop new and higher valued ingredients for use in animal (agriculture and aquatic) feeds. Currently almost all of the fishery waste from large land-based processors is converted to low value, high ash meal. Meal production is considered a cost of doing business and has not yet become recognized as a significant source of revenue. Much of the waste from smaller processors is disposed of by using the grind and dump method. Regulatory changes including those requiring 100% utilization of cod and pollock make the development of best-use end products urgent. This project contributes to National Program 106, Aquaculture. 2. List by year the currently approved milestones (indicators of research progress) 2006 1. Develop new knowledge 1.1. Analyze by-product from flat, rock, cartilaginous fish 1.2. Analyze seasonal variation of the by-product stream 1.3. Characterize tissue and organ components 1.4. Characterize protein from organs and extracted proteins 1.5. Characterize lipid from organs and by-products 1.6. Characterize properties of hydrolysates 1.7. Characterize stick water properties 1.8. Value added salmon by-products 2. Examine processes and methods for analysis, collection & storage of raw materials 2.1. Evaluate raw material quality and its effect on meals and oils 2.2. Effects of storage time and temp. on by-product components 2.3. Evaluate changes in quality during storage of meals and oils 2.4. Evaluate stabilization and storage of by-products 3. Make new and improved ingredients & feeds from AK by-products 3.1. Aquaculture nutritional value of protein ingredients 3.2. Aquaculture nutritional value of lipid ingredients 3.3. Aquaculture palatability and attractant properties 3.4. Aquaculture growth promoters and immunostimulants 3.5. Aquaculture feed binding ingredients 3.6. Quality and sensory attributes of fish and shellfish ingredients 3.7. Use of by-product ingredients in livestock feeds 3.8. Nutritional ingredients for pet foods 3.9. Develop and evaluate novel feed ingredients for ornamental fish 2007 1. Develop new knowledge 1.1. Analyze by-product from flat, rock, cartilaginous fish 1.2. Analyze seasonal variation of the by-product stream 1.3. Characterize tissue and organ components 1.4. Characterize protein from organs and extracted proteins 1.5. Characterize lipid from organs and by-products 1.6. Characterize properties of hydrolysates 1.7. Characterize stick water properties 1.8. Value added salmon by-products 2. Examine processes and methods for analysis, collection & storage of raw materials 2.1. Evaluate raw material quality and its effect on meals and oils 2.2. Effects of storage time and temp. on by-product components 2.3. Evaluate changes in quality during storage of meals and oils 2.4. Evaluate stabilization and storage of by-products 3. Make new and improved ingredients & feeds from AK by-products 3.1. Aquaculture nutritional value of protein ingredients 3.2. Aquaculture nutritional value of lipid ingredients 3.3. Aquaculture palatability and attractant properties 3.4. Aquaculture growth promoters and immunostimulants 3.5. Aquaculture feed binding ingredients 3.6. Quality and sensory attributes of fish and shellfish ingredients 3.7. Use of by-product ingredients in livestock feeds 3.8. Nutritional ingredients for pet foods 3.9. Develop and evaluate novel feed ingredients for ornamental fish 2008 1. Develop new knowledge 1.1. Analyze by-product from flat, rock, cartilaginous fish 1.2. Analyze seasonal variation of the by-product stream 1.3. Characterize tissue and organ components 1.4. Characterize protein from organs and extracted proteins 1.5. Characterize lipid from organs and by-products 1.6. Characterize properties of hydrolysates 1.7. Characterize stick water properties 1.8. Value added salmon by-products 2. Examine processes and methods for analysis, collection & storage of raw materials 2.1. Evaluate raw material quality and its effect on meals and oils 2.2. Effects of storage time and temp. on by-product components 2.3. Evaluate changes in quality during storage of meals and oils 2.4. Evaluate stabilization and storage of by-products 3. Make new and improved ingredients & feeds from AK by-products 3.1. Aquaculture nutritional value of protein ingredients 3.2. Aquaculture nutritional value of lipid ingredients 3.3. Aquaculture palatability and attractant properties 3.4. Aquaculture growth promoters and immunostimulants 3.5. Aquaculture feed binding ingredients 3.6. Quality and sensory attributes of fish and shellfish ingredients 3.7. Use of by-product ingredients in livestock feeds 3.8. Nutritional ingredients for pet foods 3.9. Develop and evaluate novel feed ingredients for ornamental fish 4a List the single most significant research accomplishment during FY 2006. Salmon by-products increase use of soy-based aquaculture feeds: In Alaska, salmon livers and other viscera are not utilized in the production of human food and are often discarded. ARS scientists in Fairbanks in collaboration with researchers at the University of Alaska Fairbanks, Hagerman Fish Culture Experiment Station in Idaho and the Oceanic Institute in Hawaii, have developed industrial scale methods for processing these livers and have chemically characterized the resulting meals. The high cholesterol concentrations will be helpful in dietary formulations for shrimp and possibly as a feed ingredient for younger fish. There has been significant interest from European feed manufacturers in these meals. This research addresses the Sustainability and Environmental Compatibility of Aquaculture component of NP 106. 4b List other significant research accomplishment(s), if any. Milt and viscera meals from pollock and pink salmon: This research seeks to enhance the performance of soy-based diets by adding meals made from selected fish by-product components. ARS scientists in Fairbanks in collaboration with researchers at the University of Alaska Fairbanks and the Hagerman Fish Culture Experiment Station in Idaho and the Oceanic Institute in Hawaii found that pollock viscera and salmon milt meal contain biologically-active components that stimulate growth of salmonids fed soybean meal-based diets. The study was a trout feeding trial in which meals made from different by-products including salmon gonad and pollock viscera were used with a soy protein diet. This demonstrates the validity of our project goal of developing high-value feed additives from seafood processing waste, although further work to refine and characterize the products is needed. This accomplishment addresses the Sustainability and Environmental Compatibility of Aquaculture component of NP 106. Alaska pollock and salmon oils in shrimp diets: The results of an 8-week feeding trial indicated that Alaska pollock and salmon oils were able to replace menhaden oil in diets for shrimp. Scientists from the University of Alaska Fairbanks, the Oceanic Institute in Hawaii, and ARS scientists in Alaska collaborated to provide pollock and salmon oils that were used to replace menhaden oil for in a shrimp growth diets. After the eight week feeding trial, shrimp fed diets containing the Pollock and salmon oils had excellent growth, feed efficiency and survival. This finding will be useful to feed manufacturers who are looking for high quality replacements for standard sources of fish oil for aquaculture feeds. This accomplishment addresses the Sustainability and Environmental Compatibility of Aquaculture component of NP 106. Changes in proteolytic-enzyme levels in spawning salmon: Hydrolysate production can be a low-cost method for preservation of high quality fish by-products discarded by Alaska's fishing industry. However, endogenous proteolytic enzymes must be controlled in the raw material to ensure a consistent hydrolysate product. ARS scientists in Alaska compared the proteolytic activities among pink salmon, harvested at three different stages of spawning maturity, to evaluate changes that occurred as salmon moved from salt water to their freshwater spawning grounds. This variation has implications for reduced-heat processing of hydrolysates when different maturity levels of pink salmon are used. This accomplishment addresses the Sustainability and Environmental Compatibility of Aquaculture component of NP 106. Salmon biodiesel is comparable to vegetable biodiesel: In Alaska there is potential for increasing the recovery of fish oil from underutilized salmon by-products. ARS scientists in Albany, CA and Fairbanks, AK have conducrted studies, which indicate that Alaska salmon oil can be converted to biodiesel. In these studies biodiesel from salmon oil was characterized and found to have comparable properties to biodiesel derived from vegetable oils, such as soybean and corn. Results suggest that waste salmon oil could be a viable source for biodiesel production. This accomplishment addresses the Sustainability and Environmental Compatibility of Aquaculture component of NP 106. Stability of long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids: The demand for salmon oil is increasing, as n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) gain recognition for their health benefits. ARS scientists in Alaska preserved salmon by five different processing methods and then evaluated the PUFA content of the products. High n-3 PUFA values were found in smoked or pressure-cooked samples, while salting, freezing, or acidifying significantly decreased n-3 PUFA levels; and salmon heads contained over 300% more total fatty acids than fillets, losing only 15% when heat-processed. Results of this study provide direction for handling and storage of underutilized fish by- products in order to retain the maximum levels of high-value n-3 long- chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. This accomplishment addresses the Sustainability and Environmental Compatibility of Aquaculture component of NP 106. Fish-skin gelatin with antimicrobial enhancements: Fish skins are rich in collagen and can be used to produce food-grade gelatin films and gels. ARS scientists in Albany, CA and Fairbanks, AK incorporated lysozyme, a food-safe antimicrobial protein, into fish-skin gelatin films and gels, and then evaluated them for antimicrobial properties and other useful characteristics. Results indicated both films and gels retained their lysozyme activity, Fish-skin gelatin, when formulated with lysozyme, may provide a unique, functional barrier to increase the shelf life of food products. This accomplishment addresses the Sustainability and Environmental Compatibility of Aquaculture component of NP 106. Films from fish skin gelatins: Currently in Alaska fish skins are either used to make fish meal or discarded. Studies were conducted by ARS scientists in Albany, California and Fairbanks, Alaska to evaluate unique permeability and tensile properties of films made from cold-water fish-skin gelatins. Studies focused on dehydration as a stabilization method for fish skins; development of gelatin extraction methods and determination of the oxygen permeability of cold-water fish-skin gelatin films. There are potential food applications for gelatin films from cold-water marine fish. This accomplishment addresses the Sustainability and Environmental Compatibility of Aquaculture component of NP 106. Salmon hydrolysates: A CRADA was initiated with a company to conduct research and develop new and improved processing technologies to add value to fish protein hydrolysates made from Alaska by-products. Studies were conducted by ARS scientists in Albany, CA and Fairbanks, AK to improve salmon hydrolysate production by changing the acidification agent,and using drum drying as a method for stabilizing hydrolysates. Results included the feasibility of using drum drying for stabilizing salmon hydrolysates and the properties of the dried hydrolysates. These studies indicate it is possible to add value to fish protein hydrolysates made from Alaska by-products. This accomplishment addresses the Sustainability and Environmental Compatibility of Aquaculture component of NP 106. Attractant properties of hydrolysates from Alaska by-product for shrimp: Scientist from the Oceanic Institute in Hawaii, University of Alaska Fairbanks, and ARS in Alaska collaborated on shrimp feeding studies and found protein hydrolysate meals made from by-products of the Alaskan fishing industry exhibited positive attractant properties in diets for shrimp. A series of diets containing the prepared protein hydrolysate ingredients were produced for the shrimp trial. The voluntary consumption rates of the shrimp of all hydrolysates except one were significantly higher than the control. For most of the hydrolysates, the consumption rate was similar to that of menhaden fishmeal used in shrimp feeds. This finding is useful to feed manufacturers who are looking for alternatives to traditional sources of fishmeal. This accomplishment addresses the Sustainability and Environmental Compatibility of Aquaculture component of NP 106. 4d Progress report. 1. Specific Cooperative Project number: 5341-31410-002-04S This report serves to document research conducted with Drs. McKeith, Ellis and Fahey of the University of Illinois in collaboration with ARS scientist in Fairbanks. Title: Nutritional value of fish oil on reproductive performance in gilts and sows & fish protein hydrolysates indices in geriatric dogs. This SCA is slated to terminate in September 2006. The initial study indicated the potential of using hydrolysates from fish by-products for enhancing the growth of young pigs and a second trial using 96 weaning pigs was completed and is being analyzed. An additional trial has evaluated the use of salmon oil on the reproductive performance of gilts and subsequent growth of piglets after birth through weaning. The initial trial was conducted at the University of Illinois swine farm and results indicate increased reproductive performance in terms of fetus number and this trail is being followed up with an on-farm trial that is scheduled to be completed in August 2006. The second aspect of this project was to determine the effects of feeding diets containing fish protein substrates on total tract nutrient digestibilities and indices of immune status on aged dogs. Differences have been detected and all laboratory and data analysis is scheduled to be completed by September 2006. 2. Specific Cooperative Agreement project number SCA 5241-31410-002-06S This report serves to document research conducted with Drs. Sathivel and Oliveira of the University of Alaska in collaboration with ARS scientist in Fairbanks. Title: Properties of Protein hydrolysates and lipids extracted from fish processing byproducts. This SCA will terminate in September 2006. The levels of cholesterol have been determined in the muscle of many species of fish; however, there is limited data on sterol compounds in fish by-products. Analysis of sterols in a number of different fish liver samples has been completed (except for the salmon samples that are currently being analyzed), the study is being prepared for publication and presentations at meeting. Physical, chemical and antioxidant properties of pollock trim and skin hydrolysate fractions separated by ultra filtration have been determined. There were differences in the antioxidant properties of the hydrolysate fractions and studies are under way to make the larger amounts of hydrolysate for addition to salmon mince in the storage study. 3. Specific Cooperative Agreement project number: 5341-31410-003-04S This report serves to document research conducted with Dr. DeWitt from Oklahoma State University in collaboration with ARS scientist in Fairbanks. Title: Gasification of Alaskan processing waste in Alaskan communities. This project will terminate in August 2007. The objective of this cooperative research project is to evaluate gasification technology as a method for adding value to fish processing by-products. Salmon samples from Fairbanks will undergo gasification trials at Oklahoma State University, where the dry to wet waste ratio will be determined to maximize gasification efficiency. Progress to date includes collection of salmon samples, which have been analyzed and sent to Oklahoma for gasification. Since good quality salmon oil can command a high price, one component of this study will involve gasification after removal of the oil. 4. Specific Cooperative Agreement project number: 5341-31410-003-05S This report serves to document research conducted with Drs. Zhang and Sparrow of the University of Alaska Fairbanks, School of Natural Resources and Agricultural Sciences in collaboration with ARS scientist in Fairbanks. Title: Evaluation of nutritional values of Alaska whitefish by-products for organic food production. This SCA is slated to terminate in May 2007. The objective of this cooperative research project is to investigate using white fish meal, white fish bone meal and salmon hydrolysate as soil amendments. The nutrient release rate of the three fish by-products will be simulated with mathematical models so that the release rates can be compared, and predicted at a given condition. Trials are under way and samples will be obtained during the summer of 2006 and analysis completed by May 2007. This information will be used to make recommendations to organic farmers in Alaska on application rate for different whitefish by- products. 5. Describe the major accomplishments to date and their predicted or actual impact. All Accomplishments address the Sustainability and Environmental Compatibility of Aquaculture component of NP 106. The items below include those from the earlier project was completed in March 2005. A. The addition of stickwater to presscake, made from by-products of the Alaska fish processing industry, improved the nutritional quality of whitefish meals for rainbow trout, Pacific threadfin and Pacific white shrimp. B. Selected fishmeals made from by-products of the Alaska fish processing industry were screened for pesticides and PCBs, and they did not contain detectable levels. C. Alaska fish meals, made under standard conditions from the by- products of seafood processing, performed as well as or better than commercially available meals from whole industrial fish during shrimp and trout feeding trials. D. Meals made from individual fish by-product tissues such as viscera, heads, and organs such as male gonads) can be used as minor ingredients to enhance the palatability, attraction and feed performance. E. The high nutritional quality of Alaskan whitefish meals and salmon meals, established using scientific research trials in rainbow trout, Pacific threadfin and shrimp, has been disseminated to industry. F. Processes have been developed to utilize fish skins to make gelatin and gelatin films. There has been interest expressed by companies in the unique properties of some of these materials and processes. G. Hydrolysates have been made from different salmon and pollock by- products including heads, frames, viscera, and skins and their chemical and nutritional properties characterized. 6. What science and/or technologies have been transferred and to whom? When is the science and/or technology likely to become available to the end- user (industry, farmer, other scientists)? What are the constraints, if known, to the adoption and durability of the technology products? The list below includes those related to this earlier project completed in March 2005. A. Numerous options are being considered to convert seafood waste into products. This research has characterized oils, protein hydrolysates, extracted proteins and meals made from organs and parts of Alaska by- products. Research results are presented during meetings attended by the Alaskan seafood industry, and by the Alaska Marine Advisory Program. In addition, these studies are published in peer-reviewed journals. This information will significantly contribute to higher recovery and utilization of landed catch of Alaskan fish, and increase the economic return to the seafood industry by better utilization of the by-products. B. The chemical and nutritional analysis of different by-product components, oils, extracted proteins and hydrolysates have been presented at national and international meetings and published in scientific journals. This information has also been made available to processors, consultants, and others who may be further processing by-products. C. Several companies that manufacture products from by-products have expressed interest in using pollock and cod skins. There is interest in other intact and hydrolyzed protein ingredients from fish by-products such as viscera and liver for aquaculture, farm animal and pet diets. D. A CRADA has been established to conduct research and develop new and improved processing technologies to add-value to fish protein hydrolysates. E. Use of low-ash fish meal from Alaskan seafood processing waste is now being produced and successfully marketed to the US trout feed manufacturing industry for use in low-pollution trout feeds. F. The high nutritional quality of Alaskan whitefish meals and salmon meals, established using scientific research trials in rainbow trout, Pacific threadfin and shrimp, has been disseminated to industry. G. Chemical properties of oils derived from the production of fish meals from different species and production has been disseminated to industry and consultants. 7. List your most important publications in the popular press and presentations to organizations and articles written about your work. (NOTE: List your peer reviewed publications below). Avena-Bustillos RJ, Olsen C, Olson D, Chiou B, Bechtel PJ, and McHugh T. 2006. Oxygen permeability of mammalian and fish gelatin films. Institute of Food Technologists annual meeting, Orlando, FL. June 24-28, 2006. Bechtel PJ, Morey A, Plante S, and Oliveira ACM. 2006. Chemical properties of Pacific Ocean Perch (Sebastes alutus) whole fish and by- products. Institute of Food Technologists annual meeting, Orlando, FL. June 24-28, 2006. Bechtel PJ, Wiklund E, Finstad G, and Oliveira ACM. 2006. Lipid composition of meat from free-ranging reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) and reindeer fed soybean meal or fishmeal-based rations. Institute of Food Technologists annual meeting, Orlando, FL. June 24-28, 2006. Bechtel PJ. 2006. Protein meals made from Alaska pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) viscera and liver. Aquaculture America, Las Vegas, NV. Feb 13-16, 2006. Bechtel PJ, Sathivel S, and Oliveira ACM. 2005. Extracting high quality protein from salmon byproducts using new high pH methodology. Arctic Science Conference. Kodiak, AK. Sept. 27-29, 2005. Bechtel PJ, Wiklund E, Finstad G, and Oliveira ACM. 2006. Lipid composition of meat from free-ranging reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) or reindeer fed soybean meal or fishmeal-based rations. Institute of Food Technologists annual meeting, Orlando, FL. June 24-28, 2006. Bechtel PJ, Oliveira ACM, Plante S, Smiley S, and Forster I. 2006. Characterization of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) liver and meal: a cholesterol rich feed ingredient. World Aqauculture Society meeting. Italy, 2006. Bechtel PJ, Bower CK, and Crapo CA. 2006. Estimates of Alaska Fish Processing Waste Stream Components. Pacific Fisheries Technologists annual conference, Anchorage, AK. March 5-8, 2006. Bower CK, and Malemute CM. 2005. Utilization of salmon by-products in rural Alaska. Arctic Science Conference. Kodiak, AK. Sept. 27-29, 2005. Bower CK, Avena-Bustillos RD, Olsen CW, Olson DA, and McHugh TM. 2006. Barrier properties, gel strength, and microbial safety of fish-skin gelatin gels and films. Aquaculture America, Las Vegas, NV. Feb 13-16, 2006. Bower CK, and Bechtel PJ. 2006. Converting Alaska fish by-products into high protein liquid concentrates. Pacific Fisheries Technologists annual conference, Anchorage, AK. March 5-8, 2006. Bower CK, Malemute CL, and Oliveira ACM. 2006. Polyunsaturated fatty acids in salmon preserved by native Alaskan methods. Institute of Food Technologists annual meeting, Orlando, FL. June 24-28, 2006. Bower CK, Bechtel PJ, and Malemute CL. 2006. Endogenous enzymes in pink salmon as a function of spawning maturity. Institute of Food Technologists annual meeting, Orlando, FL. June 24-28, 2006. Chantarachoti J, Bechtel PJ, Oliveira ACM, and Sathivel S. 2005. Immature pollock roe: Chemical and nutritional properties. Arctic Science Conference, Kodiak, AK. Sept. 27-29, 2005. Chiou B, Avena-Bustillos R, Bechtel P, Shey J, Imam S, Glenn G, and Orts W. 2005 Rheology of cross-linking fish gelatins. Pacifichem 2005 in Honolulu, HI. Dec. 15-20, 2005. Dewitt C, Bower C, Brown L, Rice S, and Bowser T. 2006. Gasification. Can it work for small seafood processors? Pacific Fisheries Technologists annual conference, Anchorage, AK. March 5-8, 2006. El-Mashad H, Chiou B, Avena-Bustillos R, Bechtel P, McHugh T, and Zhang R. 2006. Rheological and thermal properties of salmon processing products. American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Annual International Meeting in Portland, OR. July 9-12. Forster I, Plante S, Smiley S, Oliveira ACM, and Bechtel PJ. 2006. The effectiveness of byproducts of the Alaska fishing industry in diets for marine fish. Aquaculture America, Las Vegas, NV. Feb 13-16, 2006. Huang J, Sathivel S, and Bechtel PJ. 2006. Pollock skin protein hydrolysates coatings affect yield and lipid oxidation of pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) fillets during frozen storage. Institute of Food Technologists annual meeting, Orlando, FL. June 24-28, 2006. Morey A, Bechtel PJ, and Oliveira ACM. 2005. Characteristics of lipids from heads, and headed and gutted spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias). Arctic Science Conference, Kodiak, AK. Sept. 27-29, 2005. Oliveira ACM, Stone DAJ, Plante S, Smiley S, Bechtel PJ, and Hardy RW. 2006. Fish oils from Alaskan seafood processing by-products an un- exploited sustainable resource for aquaculture. World Aqauculture Society meeting. Italy, 2006. Olson D, Avena-Bustillos RJ, Lane S, Chiou, Bechtel, PJ and McHugh, T. 2006. Drum Drying Evaluation of Salmon Hydrolysate. Institute of Food Technologists annual meeting, Orlando, FL. June 24-28, 2006. Reppond K, Oliveira ACM and Bechtel PJ. 2006. Recovery and characterization of lipids from enzymatic digestion of fish eye tissue. Pacific Fisheries Technologists annual conference, Anchorage, AK. March 5- 8, 2006. Sathivel S. 2005. Thermal and flow properties of Fish Oils. American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE) Annual Meeting, Cincinnati, Ohio, 2005. Sathivel S. and Himelbloom B. 2005. Effects of chitosan on the quality of fish fillet and fish oil. Institute of Food Technologists annual meeting, New Orleans, LA, 2005. Sathivel S, and Bechtel PJ. 2006. Properties of salmon fish meal. Aquaculture America, Las Vegas, NV. Feb 13-16, 2006. Sathivel S, Bechtel PJ, and Smiley S. 2006. Functional Properties of Alaska salmon meal. World Aqauculture Society meeting. Italy, 2006. Smiley S. 2005. Investigation of Ichthyophonus in Alaskan whitefish. 2005 Arctic Science Conference, Kodiak, AK. Sept. 27-29, 2005. Sathivel S. and Bechtel PJ. 2005. Comparison of functional and nutritional properties of arrowtooth flounder protein powders made using three methods. Arctic Science Conference. Kodiak, AK, Sept. 27-29, 2005. Smiley S, Bechtel PJ, Hardy RW, Oliveira ACM, Plante S, Sathivel S, and Stone D. 2006. Chemical and nutritional characteristics of novel fish meals made from the Alaska seafood processing waste stream. World Aqauculture Society meeting. Italy, 2006. Smiley S, Oliveira ACM, Stone DAJ, Plante S, Bechtel PJ and Hardy RW. 2006. Lipids and contaminants in fish oils from Alaska seafood processing byproducts. Pacific Fisheries Technologists annual conference, Anchorage, AK. March 5-8, 2006. Stone D, Oliveira A, Smiley S, Bechtel PJ, and Hardy RW. 2006. Phase feeding freshwater produced rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) with canola oil and Alaskan pollock fish oil. United States Trout Farmers Association. Aquaculture America, Las Vegas, NV. Feb 13-16, 2006.

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications

  • R.J. Avena Bustillos, C.W. Olsen, D.A. Olson, B. Chiou, E. Yee, P.J. Bechtel, T.H. McHugh, 2006. Water Vapor Permeability of Mammalian and Fish Gelatin Films. Journal of Food Science. Vol 71(4):E202-E207.
  • Bechtel, P.J., Oliveira, A. 2006. Chemical characterization of liver lipid and protein from cold-water fish species. Journal of Food Science Vol. 71(6):S480-S485.
  • Oliveira, A.C., Bechtel, P.J. 2006. Lipid analysis of fillets from giant grenadier (albatrossia pectoralis), arrow tooth flounder (atherestes stomia), pacific cod (gadus macrocephalus) and walleye pollock(theragra chalcogramma). Journal of Muscle Foods 17:20-33.
  • Sathivel, S., Bechtel, P.J., Babbit, J., Prinyawiwatkul, W., Negulescu, I. 2006. Functional, thermal, and rheological properties of Alaska white fish meal made from processing byproducts. Journal of Aquatic Food Product Technology 14(4):5-22.
  • Sathivel, S., Bechtel, P.J. 2006. Properties of soluble protein powders from Alaska pollock (Theragra chalcogramma). International Journal of Food Science and Technology 41:520-529.
  • Bower, C.K., Avena Bustillos, R.D., Olsen, C.W., Mc Hugh, T.H., Bechtel, P. J. 2006. Characterization of fish skin gelatin gels and films containing the antimicrobial enzyme lysozyme. Journal of Food Science. 71(5):141-145


Progress 10/01/04 to 09/30/05

Outputs
1. What major problem or issue is being resolved and how are you resolving it (summarize project aims and objectives)? How serious is the problem? What does it matter? The Alaskan fishing industry produces over one million metric tons of by- product and waste annually. This material has potential value as a protein and natural products source but much by-product is not utilized. This project seeks to characterize the various fish processing by- products and existing secondary products and to develop new and higher valued ingredients for use in animal (agriculture and aquatic) feeds. Currently almost all of the fishery waste from large lane based processors is converted to low value, high ash meal. Meal production is considered a cost of doing business and has not yet become recognized as a significant source of revenue. Much of the waste from smaller processors is disposed using the grind and dump method. Regulatory changes including those requiring 100 % utilization of cod and pollock make the development of best-use end products urgent. 2. List the milestones (indicators of progress) from your Project Plan. The Project Plan was developed as a partnership between the USDA/ARS and University of Alaska Fairbanks for five year period. The USDA/ARS and University of Alaska Fairbanks worked together to create this new five year aquaculture titled: Converting Alaska fish by-products into value added ingredients and products. It replaces project number 5341-31410-002- 00D. As designed, much of the research in the project is done in close collaboration between USDA/ARS and UAF although a separate AD-421 for 5341-31410-002-05S was prepared. This AD-421 encompasses the entire project. Objective 1: Develop new knowledge Subobjective 1.1. Analyze of by-product from flat, rock, cartilaginous fish Subobjective 1.2. Analyze seasonal variation of the by-product stream Subobjective 1.3. Characterize tissue and organ components Subobjective 1.4. Characterize protein from organs and extracted proteins Subobjective 1.5. Characterize lipid from organs and by-products Subobjective 1.6. Characterize properties of hydrolysates Subobjective 1.7. Characterize stick water properties Objective 2: Examine processes and methods for analysis, collection & storage of raw materials Subobjective 2.1. Evaluate raw material quality and its effect on meals and oils Subobjective 2.2. Effects of storage time and temp. on by-product components Subobjective 2.3. Evaluate changes in quality during storage of meals and oils Subobjective 2.4. Evaluate stabilization and storage of by-products Objective 3: Make new and improved ingredients & feeds from AK By- products Subobjective 3.1. Aquaculture nutritional value of protein ingredients Subobjective 3.2. Aquaculture nutritional value of lipid ingredients Subobjective 3.3. Aquaculture palatability and attractant properties Subobjective 3.4. Aquaculture growth promoters Subobjective 3.5. Aquaculture feed binding ingredients Subobjective 3.6. Quality and sensory attributes of fish and shellfish ingredients Subobjective 3.7. Use of by-product ingredients in livestock feeds Subobjective 3.8. Nutritional ingredients for pet foods Subobjective 3.9. Develop and evaluate novel feed ingredients for ornamental fish 3a List the milestones that were scheduled to be addressed in FY 2005. For each milestone, indicate the status: fully met, substantially met, or not met. If not met, why. 11. 1.1 Analyze by-product from flat, rock, cartilaginous fish Substantially met Milestone Substantially Met 13. 1.3 Characterize tissue and organ components Milestone Substantially Met 15. 1.5 Characterize lipid from organs and by-products Substantially met Milestone Substantially Met 16. 1.6 Characterize properties of hydrolysates Milestone Substantially Met 17. 1.7 Characterize stick water properties Milestone Fully Met 21. 2.1 Evaluate raw material quality and its effect on meals and oils Milestone Substantially Met 24. 2.4 Evaluate stabilization and storage of by-products Milestone Substantially Met 31. 3.1 Aquaculture nutritional value of protein ingredients Milestone Substantially Met 32. 3.2 Aquaculture nutritional value of lipid ingredients Milestone Substantially Met 37. 3.7 Use of by-product ingredients in livestock feedsSubobjective 3.7. Alternate uses of by-products (midyear revision of 3.7) Milestone Substantially Met 38. 3.8 Nutritional ingredients for pet foods Milestone Substantially Met 3b List the milestones that you expect to address over the next 3 years (FY 2006, 2007, and 2008). What do you expect to accomplish, year by year, over the next 3 years under each milestone? FY 2006 Subobjective 1.1. Analyze by-product from flat, rock, cartilaginous fish, continue Subobjective 1.2. Analyze seasonal variation of the by-product stream, initiate Subobjective 1.3. Characterize tissue and organ components, continue Subobjective 1.4. Characterize protein from organs and extracted proteins, initiate Subobjective 1.5. Characterize lipid from organs and by-products, continue Subobjective 1.6. Characterize properties of hydrolysates,continue Subobjective 2.1. Evaluate raw material quality and its effect on meals and oils,completed Subobjective 2.2. Effects of storage time and temp. on by-product components,initiate Subobjective 2.4. Evaluate stabilization and storage of by-products, continue Subobjective 3.1. Aquaculture nutritional value of protein ingredients, continue Subobjective 3.2. Aquaculture nutritional value of lipid ingredients, continue Subobjective 3.3. Aquaculture palatability and attractant properties, initiate Subobjective 3.5. Aquaculture feed binding ingredients, nitiate Subobjective 3.7. Use of by-product ingredients in livestock feeds, completed Subobjective 3.7. Alternate uses of by-products (substituted for original 3.7), continue Subobjective 3.8. Nutritional ingredients for pet foods, continue FY 2007 Subobjective 1.1. Analyze by-product from flat, rock, cartilaginous fish, completed Subobjective 1.2. Analyze seasonal variation of the by-product stream, completed Subobjective 1.3. Characterize tissue and organ component, continue Subobjective 1.4. Characterize protein from organs and extracted proteins, continue Subobjective 1.5. Characterize lipid from organs and by-products, continue Subobjective 1.6. Characterize properties of hydrolysates, continue Subobjective 2.2. Effects of storage time and temp. on by-product components, continue Subobjective 2.3. Evaluate changes in quality during storage of meals and oils, initiate Subobjective 2.4. Evaluate stabilization and storage of by-products, continue Subobjective 3.1. Aquaculture nutritional value of protein ingredients, continue Subobjective 3.2. Aquaculture nutritional value of lipid ingredients , continue Subobjective 3.3. Aquaculture palatability and attractant properties, continue Subobjective 3.4. Aquaculture growth promoters and immuno stimulants, initiate Subobjective 3.5. Aquaculture feed binding ingredients,completed Subobjective 3.6. Quality and sensory attributes of fish and shellfish ingredients, initiate Subobjective 3.7. Alternate uses of by-products, continue Subobjective 3.8. Nutritional ingredients for pet foods, completed Subobjective 3.9. Develop and evaluate novel feed ingredients for ornamental fish, initiate FY 2008 Subobjective 1.3. Characterize tissue and organ components, continue Subobjective 1.4. Characterize protein from organs and extracted proteins, continue Subobjective 1.5. Characterize lipid from organs and by-products, completed Subobjective 1.6. Characterize properties of hydrolysates, competed Subobjective 2.2. Effects of storage time and temp. on by-product components, completed Subobjective 2.3. Evaluate changes in quality during storage of meals and oils, completed Subobjective 2.4. Evaluate stabilization and storage of by-products, continue Subobjective 3.1. Aquaculture nutritional value of protein ingredients, continue Subobjective 3.2. Aquaculture nutritional value of lipid ingredients, continue Subobjective 3.3. Aquaculture palatability and attractant properties, continue Subobjective 3.4. Aquaculture growth promoters and immuno stimulants, continue Subobjective 3.6. Quality and sensory attributes of fish and shellfish ingredients,continue Subobjective 3.7. Alternate uses of by-products, continue Subobjective 3.9. Develop and evaluate novel feed ingredients for ornamental fish, continue 4a What was the single most significant accomplishment this past year? This project replaces project number 5341-31410-002-00D, see 5341-31410-002-00D for list of accomplishments. Milt meal from pollock and pink salmon Meals made from milt have often been referred to in the past as spawn powder and large volumes of milt are available from the processing of pollock and salmon in Alaska, most of which is utilized in the production of fishmeal or discarded. A study was conducted by a team of University of Alaska and ARS scientists to development an industrial scale extraction method for the production of high quality milt meal from both pollock and salmon. A process was developed to produce high quality milt meal from both pollock and salmon and the products have been characterized. The meals were found to contain relatively high concentrations of nucleic acids and other components. There are a number of potential uses for these meals in diet formulations for fish, farm animals and pets. 4d Progress report. 1. This report serves to document research conducted with Drs. McKeith, Ellis and Fahey of the University of Illinois titled Nutritional value of fish oil on reproductive performance in gilts and sows and effects of fish protein hydrolysates on immune indices in geriatric dog (SCA 5341- 31410-002-06S). One use of proteins and peptides from fish processing by- products is as feed ingredients for early weaning pigs. The initial study indicate that young pigs fed the spray-dried animal plasma grew faster; however, there was no effect of dietary treatment on gain:feed ratio suggesting that most of the reduction in overall growth rate with a number of the fish meal based diets resulted from reduced feed intake rather than any reduction in efficiency of nutrient utilization. A second trial was initiated in which included a digestibility study and a growth performance study using different levels of the best performing hydrolysate ingredients. After the study was initiated a number of the animals became ill and the trial was stopped and another trials initiated. This trial is progressing as planned and will be completed in September. Other trials involving the use of salmon oil were designed to determine the effect of fish oil on reproductive performance postweaning and its components in gilts and subsequent growth of piglets after birth through weaning. The trails are currently being conducted at the University of Illinois swine farm and on a farms. The results are eagerly anticipated. When these studies are completed the livestock feeding component of this project will be completed. Uses of Alaska fish processing by-products in pet diets is being explored by Dr. Fahey at he University of Illinois. A broad range ingredients made from fish processing by-products were evaluated as part of the Masters of Science thesis of Juliana Folador. From this work a trial was initiated using selected ingredients including fish meal, milt meal, and pink salmon hydrolysate. This study, evaluates the effects of selected ingredients in a high quality dog diet on total tract nutrient digestibilities and immune indices. The trial using senior dogs at the University of Illinois companion animal facilities is in progress, and will be completed in September and then the data analyzed. 2. This report serves to document research conducted with Drs. Sathivel and Oliveira of the University of Alaska titled Properties of Protein Hydrolysates and lipids extracted from fish processing byproducts (SCA 5341-31410-002-07S). The total harvest in 2003 of pollock, cod and salmon was estimated at 2.1 million metric tons. Large land based processors utilize fish processing by-products to make fish meals and oils for the feed industry; however, much of the by-product is not utilized. Fish byproducts are rich in proteins and oils and there is an opportunity for utilizing more fish processing byproducts as protein and oil ingredients for food and feed ingredients and in industrial applications. Although the levels of cholesterol have been determined in the muscle of many species of fish, there is limited data on other sterol compounds. Depending on the fish species, high levels of lipid are found in the head and liver. There is little data on the content of sterols in fish processing by-products, and the sterols fraction from most cold water fish by-products has not been characterized. Five replicate samples of liver were obtained from pollock, cod, rock fish and, flat fish, arrowtooth flounder, black cod and dog fish and heads from these species. Pink, red and chum salmon samples are currently being collected as they are only harvested during the summer. All tissue samples were analyzed in duplicate for protein, ash, moisture and lipid content. Lipids were extracted using dichloromethane and analyzed for lipid classes, fatty acid methyl esters and proximate analysis except pollock, cod, pink salmon, flat fish and arrowtooth livers and pollock and cod heads where this data was already obtained. A number of methods for the determination of sterols in seafood are available; however, most are not readily applicable to modern gas chromatographic conditions so a modification of the Kovacs method was developed and standardized. The concentration of sterols in the samples have been completed except for the salmon samples which will be completed in September. Data is being analyzed for presentation and publication in 2006. Proteins from fish processing byproducts can be modified to improve their quality and functional characteristics by enzymatic hydrolysis. Utilizing proteolytic enzymes, fish protein hydrolysates can be prepared with the peptides having new and/or improved properties. Antioxidant properties of fish protein hydrolysates produced from herring byproducts have been reported; however, there is a lack of information on these properties from pollock and salmon by-products, optimization of antioxidant activity, and application of these hydrolysates in reducing oxidation of fish products. The three tissues chosen for this study were pollock trim, pollock skin, and salmon heads, which were collected and hydrolyzed using a commercial proteolytic enzyme with continuously stirred for 0, 10, and 45 min at 50oC. The soluble aqueous fractions were obtained after centrifugation and are currently being further fractionated using a membrane filtration unit with a 10,000 MW membrane cutoff. The three fractions (total soluble fraction and the two fractions separated by the 10,000 MW membrane) are currently being freeze dried and their physical and chemical properties determined, which include antioxidant properties, solubility, emulsifying capacity, emulsifying stability, fat adsorption capacity, water holding capacity, color, water activity, bulk density, molecular weight, proximate, amino acid, and mineral compositions. This component of the study will be completed in September. The antioxidant properties of a selected sample will then be further analyzed when added to salmon mince in a storage stability study. Reports describing a new method of extracting protein with excellent physical properties from fish muscle have appeared in the literature. The method solubilizes protein using high pH followed by isoelectric precipitation of the protein. A study was initiated to evaluate this method for protein extraction from Alaska fish by-products. This method was used to extract protein from pollock heads, whole fish, viscera, and frames and pink salmon heads and viscera collected from commercial processing lines. The byproducts were frozen until the protein was solubilized at pH 11. The insoluble protein fraction were separated from the soluble protein fraction, which was then precipitated at pH 5.5. The precipitated soluble protein was freeze dried and then yields determined and samples analyzed for proximate composition, mineral and amino acid contents, lipid oxidation, FAMES, solubility, emulsion stability and fat adsorption properties, and SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. Protein powders with good functional characteristics and nutritional characteristics were made from pollock head and frame and salmon heads. These soluble protein powders have potential uses as food and feed ingredients. 5. Describe the major accomplishments over the life of the project, including their predicted or actual impact. A. Meals made from the individual organs such as male gonad meals, fish processing by-product tissues such as viscera and heads, and hydrolysates can be used as minor ingredients to enhance the palatability, attraction and feed performance. B. Processes are being devised to utilize fish skins to make gelatin and other industrial uses of fish oil, and other products are being devised. C. We are continuing to develop an array of production options to convert seafood waste into various products, at varying costs and with varying values to the producer. These products are designed for use in aquaculture and agriculture. Our chemical characterizations, coupled with the nutritional characterizations document the efficacy of Alaskan fish meals compared to meals made from whole industrial fish, and also contribute to the development of higher value proteins from components of the fish processing by-product waste stream. 6. What science and/or technologies have been transferred and to whom? When is the science and/or technology likely to become available to the end- user (industry, farmer, other scientists)? What are the constraints, if known, to the adoption and durability of the technology products? A. The chemical and nutritional analysis of different by-product components, oils, extracted proteins and hydrolysates have been presented at national and international meetings and published in scientific journals. This information has also been made available to processors, consultants, and those further processing by-products. B. Several companies that manufacture products from by-product have expressed interest in using pollock and cod skins. There is interest in other intact and hydrolyzed protein ingredients from fish by-products such as viscera and liver for aquaculture, farm animal and pet diets. C. A CRADA has been established to conduct research and develop new and improved processing technologies to add-value to fish protein hydrolysates. 7. List your most important publications in the popular press and presentations to organizations and articles written about your work. (NOTE: List your peer reviewed publications below). Publications, Abstracts and Posters Ambardekar, A., Sathivel, S. & Prinyawiwatkul, W., 2005. Effects of chitosan and protein coatings on moisture loss and lipid oxidation of pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) fillets during frozen storage. IFT Annual Conference, New Orleans, LA, July 2005. Avena-Bustillos, RD., Olsen, CW., Olson, DA., Chiou B.-S., Yee, E. &. McHugh TH. 2005.Water vapor permeability of mammalian and fish gelatin films Institute of Food Technologist Meeting Book of Abstracts. #54D-4. Bechtel, PJ. 2005. Nutritional properties of protein solubles from fish processing byproducts. Aquaculture America 2005. Abstract # 302. Bechtel, PJ. Sathivel, S. & Oliveira, A.C.M. 2005. Alkali extracted protein fractions from salmon byproducts. Institute of Food Technologist Meeting Book of Abstracts. #89B-21. Bechtel, PJ. 2005 Chemical and nutritional properties of pollock viscera and liver meals. Institute of Food Technologist Meeting Book of Abstracts. #89B-6. Bechtel, PJ., Reppond, K. & Oliveira, A. 2005. Recovery and characterization of lipids from enzymatic digestion of salmon eye tissue. World Aqauculture Society annual meeting. Bali, Indonesia. Bower, CK., Avena-Bustillos, RJ., Olsen, CW., McHugh, TH. & Bechtel PJ. 2005. Characterization of fish skin gelatin gels and films containing the antimicrobial enzyme lysozyme. Institute of Food Technologist Meeting Book of Abstracts. #89D-15. Chantarachoti, J., Bechtel, PJ., Oliveira, ACM. & Sathivel, S. 2005. Characterization of soluble and insoluble protein fractions from immature Alaska walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) roe. Technical Poster Session in Aquatic Food Products. Institute of Food Technologists Annual Meeting. New Orleans (LA), July 16-20. Chiou, B, Avena, R., Bechtel, P., Shey, J., Imam, S., Glenn, G. & Orts, W. 2005. Rheology of cross-linking fish gelatins. 2005 Pacificchem Meeting. Finstad, G., Bechtel, P. Wiklund E. & Long, K. 2005. Sensory and technological properties of meat from free-ranging reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) or reindeer fed soybean meal or fishmeal-based rations. Institute of Food Technologist Meeting Book of Abstracts. #89F-29. Forster, I. Germano, N., Pearce, M., Plante, S., Oliveira, ACM., Smiley, S. & Bechtel, P. 2005. Attractant properties of protein meals for pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Oral presentation. World Aquaculture Society, Nusa Dua, Bali (Indonesia). May 9-13, 2005. McHugh, TH., Avena-Bustillos, RJ., Pan, Z., Olson, DA., Olsen, CW., Chiou, B., Yee, E., Bechtel, PJ., Bower CK. & Pantoja A. 2005. Dehydration as a stabilization method for Alaskan pollock skins prior to gelatin extraction. Institute of Food Technologist Meeting Book of Abstracts. #99C-24. Obaldo, LG., Kamarei, R. & Huang, A.S. 2005. Nutritional composition and sensory qualities of aquacultured amberjack. Aquaculture America 2005. Abstract. Oliveira, ACM., Brener, K., Chantarachoti, J., Voholt, C., Bechtel, PJ. & Crapo, CA. 2005. A comparison of lipid recoveries from fish muscle samples using an accelerated solvent extraction system and the Folch methodology. Institute of Food Technologist Meeting Book of Abstracts. #89A-27. Oliveira, ACM., Stone, DAJ., Plante, S., Smiley, S., Bechtel, PJ. & Hardy, RW. 2005. Fish oils from Alaskan seafood processing by-products: an un-exploited sustainable resource for aquaculture. 30th Fish Feed and Nutrition Workshop. September 1st -3rd , 2005; Ensenada, B.C., Mexico Oliveira, ACM., Stephan, K. & Bechtel, PJ. 2005. Composition and total carotenoid content of Alaska big mouth sculpin (Hemitripterus bolini) livers. Poster session. World Aquaculture Society Meeting. Bali (Indonesia). May 9-11. Olsen, CW., Avena-Bustillos, RD., Olson, DA., Chiou, B.-S., Yee, E. &. McHugh, TH. 2005. Tensile and puncture properties of mammalian and fish gelatin films. Institute of Food Technologist Meeting Book of Abstracts. #109-5. Olson, D.A., Avena-Bustillos, R.J., Olsen, C.W., Chiou, B. Yee, E. Bower, C.K., Bechtel, P.J, Pan, Z. & McHugh, T.H. 2005. Evaluation of power ultrasound as a processing aid for fish gelatin extraction. Institute of Food Technologist Meeting Book of Abstracts. #71C-26. Plante, S., Bechtel, PJ., Oliveira, ACM. & Smiley, S. 2005. Characterization of protein hydrolysate from Alaska flatfish processing by-products. Poster presentation. World Aquaculture Society, Nusa Dua, Bali-Indonesia. May 9-13, 2005. Plante, S., Oliveira, ACM., Bechtel, PJ., & Smiley, S. 2005. Gonad meals from Alaskan seafood by-product: potential for growth promoting and immuno-stimulation in fish. Poster presentation. Pacific Fisheries Technologists, Vancouver, Canada, February 20-23, 2005. Plante S, Oliveira, ACM, Bechtel, PJ. & Smiley S. 2005. Methods for making dried powders from the solutes in stickwater. Poster session. Pacific Fisheries Technologists Meeting. Vancouver (Canada). Feb. 21-23. Plante, S., Oliveira, ACM., Smiley, S. & Bechtel, PJ. 2005. Production and characterization of a sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) liver meal and of dried powders from fish solubles. Oral presentation. Western European Fish Technologists Association, September 19-22, 2005. Sathivel, S., Bechtel, P.J. & Babbitt, J. 2005. Alaska white fish meal: functional and rheological properties. Aquaculture America 2005. Abstract # 310. Sathivel. S. & Bechtel, P.J. 2005. Fish protein powders as food ingredients. Aquaculture America 2005. Abstract # 309. Sathivel, S. Rheological properties of emulsion containing salmon protein powders and salmon oils. IFT Annual Conference, New Orleans, LA, July 2005. Sathivel, S. 2005. Applications of chitosan in seafood and other food products. IFT Annual Conference, New Orleans, LA, July 2005. Sathivel, S. & Bechtel, PJ., 2005. Fish Protein Powders as food ingredients. Aquaculture America Conf., New Orleans, LA, Jan. 2005. Sathivel, S. & Bechtel, PJ., 2005. A comparison of functional and nutritional properties of arrowtooth flounder protein made using three different processes. IFT Annual Conference, New Orleans, LA, July 2005. Sathivel, S. & Bechtel, PJ., 2005. Characterization of alkali extracted protein isolates from pollock byproducts. IFT Annual Conference, New Orleans, LA, July 2005. Sathivel, S., Bechtel, PJ. & Babbitt, J. 2005. Alaska White Fish Meal: Functional and Rheological Properties. Aquaculture America Conf., New Orleans, LA, Jan. 2005. Sathivel, S., Bechtel, PJ. & Smiley, S. 2005. Physical properties of Alaskan salmon meal. IFT Annual Conference, New Orleans, LA, July 2005. Sathivel, S., Himelbloom, BH., Crapo, C. & Prinyawiwatkul, W., 2005. Effects of chitosan coating on quality of pink salmon fillets stored at different conditions. IFT Annual Conference, New Orleans, LA, July 2005. Smiley, S., Plante, S., Oliveira, ACM, & Bechtel, PJ. 2005. Hydrolysate meals from Alaskan pollock, salmon & flatfish processing by-products. Oral presentation. Pacific Fisheries Technologists, Vancouver, Canada, February 20-23, 2005. Thesis Folador, Juliana F. Fish meals, fish components, and fish protein hydrolysates as poteintial ingredients in pet foods. Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements of Master of Science in Animal Sciences in the Graduate College of the University off the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2005. Scientific Publications Oliveira ACM & Becthel, PJ. 2005. Lipid composition of Alaska pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) and Alaska walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) byproducts. J. Aquat. Food Prod. Tech. 14(1): 73-91. Sathivel, S., 2005. Thermal and Flow Properties of Oils from Salmon Head. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 82: 147151. Sathivel, S., Bechtel, PJ., Babbitt, J., Prinyawiwatkul, W., & Patterson, M. 2005. Functional, Nutritional, and Rheological Properties of Protein Powders from Arrowtooth Flounder and their Application in Mayonnaise. J. Food Sci. 70:57-63. Sathivel, S., Smiley, S., Prinyawiwatkul, W. & Bechtel, PJ. 2005. Functional and nutritional properties of red salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) enzymatic hydrolysates. J. Food Sci. 70: 401-406.

Impacts
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Publications

  • Sathivel, S., Bechtel, P.J., Babbit, J., Prinyawiwatkul, W., Patterson, M. 2005. Functional, nutritional and rheological properties of protien powers from arrowtooth flounder and their application in mayonaise. Journal of Food Science. vol. 70(2):E57-63