Progress 10/01/02 to 10/31/05
4d Progress report. This report serves to document research conducted under a Trust agreement between ARS and the Citrus Research Board. Additional details of research can be found in the report for the parent CRIS 5320-22430-021-00D, Detection, control, and area-wide management of fruit flies. Economically important fruit flies in the family Tephritidae are among the most serious agricultural pests throughout the Pacific region. Over 90% of the Bactrocera species respond to either methyl eugenol (ME) or cue-lure (CL). Each year one or more of these Bactrocera are introduced into California, often requiring expensive eradication procedures with organophosphate insectcides. Conventional fruit fly control methods such as bait sprays, male annihilation treatments and soil treatments rely heavily on organophosphate insecticides. Continued registration of many organophosphate insecticides used in the U. S. is in doubt. As part of efforts to register new insecticides for
fruit fly control in the U. S., we tested fipronil in male annihilation treatments for melon fly and oriental fruit fly. We also tested fipronil and several other non- organophosphate insecticides in soil treatments for melon fly, oriental fruit fly and Mediterranean fruit fly. AmuletTM C-L (cue-lure) and AmuletTM ME (methyl eugenol) molded paper fiber attract and kill dispensers containing fipronil, were tested under Hawaiian weather conditions against melon fly, and oriental fruit fly, respectively. In paired tests (fresh vs weathered), C-L dispensers were effective for at least 77 d, while, ME dispensers were effective for at least 21 d. Thus, C-L dispensers exceeded, while ME dispensers did not meet the label interval replacement recommendation of 60 d. Addition of 4 ml of ME to 56 day-old ME dispensers restored attraction and kill for an additional 21 d. This result suggested the fipronil added at manufacture was still effective. By enclosing and weathering ME dispensers inside
small plastic bucket traps, longevity of ME dispensers was extended up to 56 d. Fipronil ME and C-L dispensers were also compared inside bucket traps, to other toxicants: spinosad, naled, DDVP, malathion, and permethrin. Against oriental fruit fly, fipronil ME dispensers compared favorably only up to 3 wk. Against melon fly, fipronil C-L dispensers compared for at least 15 wk. Our results suggest that fipronil C-L dispensers can potentially be used in Hawaii; however, fipronil ME dispensers need to be modified or protected from the effects of weathering to extend longevity and meet label specifications. Nonetheless, Amulet C-L and ME dispensers are a novel prepackaged formulation containing C-L or ME and fipronil, that are more convenient and safer to handle than current liquid insecticide formulations used for area-wide suppression of B. dorsalis and B. cucurbitae in Hawaii. We conducted laboratory soil treatment studies of the following products for three species of fruit flies
(Mediterranean fruit fly (MFF), oriental fruit fly (OFF), and melon fly (MF)): Admire (imidacloprid), Regent 200SC (Fipronil), Force (Tefluthrin), Platinum (thiamethoxam), and Warrior (lambda cyhalothrin). These products were compared to Diazinon AG 500 (LC 50s: 0.2, 0.1, 0.9 ppm for MFF, OFF, and MF, respectively). Force (0.8, 0.7, 1.4 ppm) and Warrior (0.9, 0.8, 0.8 ppm) were the most promising insecticides for all 3 fruit fly species. Regent (>1,000, 2.3, 3.2 ppm) was a good control for OFF and MF. Admire (2.2, 2.7, 7.8 ppm) and Platinum (3.2, 0.6, 4.8 ppm) were good controls for MFF and OFF. In the present proposal we would undertake field studies of the most promising compounds identified in the laboratory for replacement of diazinon against MFF, OFF, MF and Caribbean fruit fly (CFF). Additional field plot studies are proposed. These studies are important to fruit fly area-wide suppression/eradication programs worldwide.