Source: AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE submitted to
BIOLOGY, CONTROL, AND AREAWIDE MANAGEMENT OF FRUIT FLIES AND OTHER PESTS
Sponsoring Institution
Agricultural Research Service/USDA
Project Status
NEW
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
0405118
Grant No.
(N/A)
Project No.
5320-22430-020-00D
Proposal No.
(N/A)
Multistate No.
(N/A)
Program Code
(N/A)
Project Start Date
Oct 24, 2001
Project End Date
Aug 31, 2005
Grant Year
(N/A)
Project Director
VARGAS R I
Recipient Organization
AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE
(N/A)
HONOLULU,HI 96804
Performing Department
(N/A)
Non Technical Summary
(N/A)
Animal Health Component
50%
Research Effort Categories
Basic
40%
Applied
50%
Developmental
10%
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
2110999113035%
2111099113035%
2150999113015%
2151099113015%
Goals / Objectives
Develop environmentally acceptable and economically feasible systems for detection, control, suppression, and eradication of the Mediterranean, oriental, melon, and Malaysian fruit flies and other insect pests associated with tropical fruits, vegetables, and ornamentals.
Project Methods
Develop new or improved lures, attractants, parapheromones, & baits to be used in improved trap detection devices and/or control systems. Investigate semiochemicals of parasitoids to measure population levels of biocontrol agents. Investigate fruit fly and parasitoid olfactory, gustatory, and ovipostional sensilla and their electrophysiology. Investigate chemical structure and activity relationships of semiochemicals of pests and biocontrol agents. Evaluate augmentative parasite releases, mass-trapping, male annihilation, sterile fly releases, insecticide and food bait sprays as control, suppression, or eradication technologies. Measure dispersal and movement of released and wild populations of flies and their parasitoids. Test more environmentally acceptable pesticides and compounds for use in control or eradication programs. Investigate biology and behavior of fruit flies and other pests and their parasitoids. (Replacing 5320-22430-017-00D, 9/28/01).

Progress 10/01/03 to 09/30/04

Outputs
1. What major problem or issue is being resolved and how are you resolving it (summarize project aims and objectives)? How serious is the problem? What does it matter? Fruit flies are among the most serious agricultural pests, having a severe economic impact on tropical and subtropical agriculture in many parts of the world and posing an increased threat of establishment into new areas. In Hawaii, fruit flies jeopardize development of a diversified fruit and vegetable industry, cause export fruits to undergo expensive quarantine treatments, and provide a reservoir for introduction into the mainland United States. When pests (e.g. Hawaiian fruit flies) are introduced into the U.S. mainland, they often require large-scale eradication programs, sometimes at great public expense. In California where the total value of the fruit and vegetable industry has been estimated to be more than $14 billion annually, the California Department of Food and Agriculture has estimated that an established infestation of Mediterranean fruit fly would cost from $855 million to $1.4 billion during the first year of establishment. In Hawaii, production of fruits and vegetables is limited due to insect pests. Furthermore, the presence of regulated pests in shipments of produce from Hawaii to other states or countries causes rejection of the shipment and loss of income to Hawaii's growers. One major goal of our laboratory is to facilitate the export of Hawaii's fruits to encourage expansion of the industry and create jobs. Our unit researches and develops environmentally acceptable technologies for detection and control of fruit flies. We are resolving the problem of fruit flies by developing a comprehensive research program aimed at developing new or improved semiochemical lures for detection and control, evaluating replacements for organophosphate insecticides and improvements for biologically-based control methods such as the use of parasitoids and sterile insects and continuing fundamental studies on the biology, ecology and physiology of these pests in the Hawaii environment. Area- wide suppression of fruit flies will allow for expansion of diversified agriculture in Hawaii. Relevance to ARS National Program Action Plan: National Program 304, Crop & Commodity Pest Biology, Control, & Quarantine (75%): Research will provide new information on pest biology, spatial distributions, control and quarantine of fruit flies and associated pest insects. This information will be useful for (1) development of ecologically based area- wide control & eradication methods and (2) export of tropical fruits. National Program 308, Methyl Bromide Alternatives (25%): Research will provide alternative methods to methyl bromide for control of fruit flies (& associated insect pests) and treatment of infested crops. 2. List the milestones (indicators of progress) from your Project Plan. Objective 1 1a Movement models 1b Border plants 1c Parasitoid/flowering weeds 1d Stratified sampling/host plants Objective 2 2a melon fly SIT + P. fletcheri releases 2b Multiple parasitoid releases Objective 3 3a Spinosad/fipronil toxicants Objective 4 4a Female attractants 4b Basic sensory physiology 4c Improved male lures Objective 5 5a Spinosad bait spray optimization 5b BIOLURE mass-trapping Objective 6 6a Areawide approaches 3. Milestones: Objective 1 1a Movement models - a general movement model was developed for melon fly. These tools will characterize fruit fly population movement from wild hosts such as guavas and Ivy gourd from wild hosts to growers crops to devise a strategy for effective area wide pest control unleashing more of the latent effectiveness of parasitoids as a tatic in areawide IPM. 1b Border plants - Border plants such as sudex, castor bean and corn have been found to be effective roosting hosts for melon fly. These plants increase the efficiency of bait sprays with reduced spray applications. 1c Parasitoid/flowering weeds - We identified experimental sites and cooperators for initiation of work next year. 1d Stratified sampling/host plants- Currently, we are reviewing site data developed and preparing a report of results obtained from sampling under urban residential conditions and in agricultural areas with mixed croppings to develop a strategy for application of stratified sampling techniques next year in the Puna papaya fly free zone growing area on the island of Hawaii. Objective 2 2a melon fly SIT + P. fletcheri releases. The results showed that the use of SIT and P. fletcheri releases in combination is a more effective strategy than either tatic alone as a component strategy of areawide IPM. This parasitoid's impact will carry over to the next generation of fruit flies. 2b Multiple parasitoid releases. Concurrent releases of Fopius arisanus (egg parasitoid) and Psyttaliafletcheri (larval parasitoid) in ivy gourd, a preferred host of melon fly in the wild habitat, exerted a compounded effect on the fly population 2-3 times higher than what was recorded during the pre-release phase of study in Laie. In Waialua, two (2) one- acre demonstration plots are currently being evaluated prepared (with assistance of our vegetable grower-cooperator) for planting with zucchini squash and subsequent test releases of P. fletcher and F. arisanus. Objective 3 3a Spinosad/fipronil toxicants - Spinosad has been found to be an effective toxicant for use in methyl eugenol and cue lure bucket traps. Fipronil is Objective 4 4a Female attractants - A 3 in 1 medfly food attractant has been shown to be nearly as effective as the commercially available product. This new formulation is easier to deploy than 3 single packets. 4b Basic sensory physiology - The GC-EAD system of measuring antennal stimulation by volatile semiochemicals has been set up and now allows us to correlate EAD responses to specific chemicals at physiologically relevant doses. 4c Improved male lures - An improved lure for male melon fly (melolure) and a more attractive lure for medfly (ceralure B1) has been developed in collaboration with ARS scientists in Beltsville, MD Objective 5 5a Spinosad bait spray optimization - Studies we conducted to look at the effects of border thickness, fly physiological state and attraction of flies to GF-120 baits or to wild guava host fruits. Fly physiological state, and border thickness effected the fly's response to GF-120. 5b BIOLURE mass-trapping - Mass trapping for male and female medfly using a commercially available 3 component food attractant has been show to be effective at suppression of medfly in persimmons. Objective 6 6a Areawide approaches - The areawide fruit fly IPM program has been very successful in suppressing fruit flies in Hawaii. See annual report for project number 0500-00044-007-00D. (FY 05) For FY 05 we plan to initiate the studies on the application of refugia flowering plants and flowering weeds for maintaining fruit fly parasitoids in and around cropping areas (1c). This research will focus on the use of flowering weeds and other flowering plants to provide an enviroment to conserve parasitods for biological control of insect pests of growers crops participating in area wide fruit fly pest management. Included in this study is the use of cover crops to attract beneficial insects and to provide a roosting place for their conservation and use to suppress melon flies in crop remnants after harvest of cucurbit crops. We also plan to employ stratified sampling methods to quantify and characterize host fruit selection and utilization among the four tephritid fruit fly species(1d). (Objective 1). The studies on melon fly SIT and parasitoid releases (2a) as well as multiple parasitoid releases (2b)need to be replicated (Objective 2). The spinosad/fipronil research has been completed (Objective 3). We plan to try and identify the attractive semiochemical in pana that are attractive to oriental fruit fly (4a) using GC-EAD and other basic sensory physiological techniques (4b). The improved male lures needs to undergo large scale field testing in cooperation with APHIS (4c) (Objective 4). As part of the areawide fruit fly IPM program we are continuing to refine the methodology needed to transfer specific research technology to the field (Objective 5 and 6) (FY 06) In FY 06 we anticipate having a new project plan that will address many of the same issues identified in the old project plan. Basic ecology of fruit flies, application of biological control in the field to suppress fruit fly populations, additional new toxicants and semiochemicals for use in fruit fly control and areawide management issues. The new objectives proposed are as follows: 1) Investigate biology, ecology and physiology of fruit flies 2) Investigate semiochemicals and trapping systems for fruit flies 3) Assess efficacy of biological control agents and sterile insects for fruit flies 4) Investigate reduced risk insecticide for use against fruit flies 5) Develop areawide IPM systems for fruit flies Additional studies are planed to study the ecology of the Malaysian fruit fly (objective 1) with an emphasis on field movements and host relationships. Research on female attractants will continue, looking a preferred hosts of the fruit flies as a basis for the research (objective 2). The studies on biological control will focus on how parasitoid can be optimized in diverse Hawaiian environments taking into account the unique environments present (objective 3). Specific use patterns for spinosad and fipronil will be looked at to support registration of these toxicants along with the semiochemical lures.(objective 4) All of these new research initiatives will be integrated into areawide staregies that will be implemented as part of the ARS and/or APHIS areawide program.( objective 5) (FY 07) In FY 07 we will integrate information on the ecology of Malaysian fruit fly with host fruiting phenology to develop predictive models for this fly. (objective 1). Semiochemical based lures will be evaluated in various trap designs to identify a low-cost disposable trap/bait station that could be used in areawide programs. We will also look at multiple fly trapping and new formulations for the identified attractants (objective 2). Biological control will continue with evaluations of new parasites for their ability to control fruit flies and the development of holistic models that could be used to predict efficacy of parasitoid/sterile insect interactions.(objective 3). Newer toxicants such as spinosad and fipronil will be incorporated into the new trap designs that come from objective 2 and evaluated for incorporation into areawide systems for use by growers and the public (Objectives 4 and 5). 4. What were the most significant accomplishments this past year? A. Fruit fly lures and attractants are needed to improve detection and control of these exotic pests. In a collaborative effort between USPBARC researchers in Hawaii, CAIB researchers in Beltsville and industry, new formulations of the fruit fly attractants methyl eugenol (oriental fruit fly), ceralure, melolure and cuelure (melon fly) combined with toxicants such as spinosad and fipronil were evaluated in the field against wild fly populations in Hawaii. The new lure formulations make deployment of the lures easier and compatible with their use in enclosed traps for fruit fly control and spinosad was found to be a suitable toxicant with methyl eugenol. These improvements will increase our ability for early detection of invasive alien fruit flies and ultimately make it more efficient for end users working in detection, control and eradication action programs to deploy traps for detection and control B. Novel combinations of biological control with and without chemical controls are needed for melon fly control. Releases of sterile melon flies and Psyttalia fletcheri parasitoids together before or after application of GF-120 to suppress wild melon fly populations was tested in field cages at USPBARC on Oahu. Release of sterile melon flies and Psyttalia fletcheri showed combined releases had fewer flies emerging from fruit than those withseparate techniques alone and that releases after applications of GF-120 produced outstanding results in field trials at the AWPM site at Waimea, reducing the melon fly population to near zero. This IPM approach is a viable alternative to insecticide treatments and would be useful to area-wide fruit fly control programs worldwide. 5. Describe the major accomplishments over the life of the project, including their predicted or actual impact. The U.S. Pacific Basin Agricultural Research Center has provided clients with environmentally acceptable technologies for fruit fly control, such as protein bait sprays and male annihilation. Substitution of spinosad for malathion bait sprays and for naled male annihilation treatments provides clients with user-friendly, economical and environmentally acceptable technology. Over the past 4 years braconid parasitoids have been mass-reared and released for augmentative programs throughout the world. F. arisanus has been exported to Mexico, Guatemala, French Polynesia, Italy, and Israel. In Hawaii, we are currently evaluating the potential of F. arisanus and P. fletcheri for use in IPM systems. These fruit fly control approaches will be major components of IPM programs for fruit flies not only in Hawaii, but also throughout the Pacific. Comparative life history, survival, and demographic studies for both wild and laboratory lines of Mediterranean fruit flies, oriental fruit flies, melon flies, and Malaysian fruit flies have provided new information on basic differences between the more temperate Mediterranean fruit fly and the more tropical oriental fruit fly and melon fly. These studies are important because they provide quantitative predictive models with respect to colonization, development, survivorship, longevity, and reproduction. Each of these factors is important to developing effective IPM control methodologies for fruit flies. Related behavioral studies have resulted in valuable information on the response of female fruit flies to various baits, lures and traps in climates similar to those found in major agricultural production areas in the U.S. mainland. This information may help predict how newly introduced pests behave in the field. In addition we have improved our formulations of new female attractants to augment existing male and female attractants. 6. What science and/or technologies have been transferred and to whom? When is the science and/or technology likely to become available to the end- user (industry, farmer, other scientists)? What are the constraints, if known, to the adoption and durability of the technology products? Major technologies transferred to growers in Hawaii and to fruit fly researchers worldwide include the importance of sanitation, GF-120 spinosad bait sprays, male annihilation treatments, sterile flies, and parasitoids. In cooperation with the University of Hawaii, State Department of Agriculture, growers and other organizations, we have secured special local needs registrations for agricultural chemicals, implemented a fruit fly IPM extension educational program, developed site specific implementation plans and have initiated trapping, sanitation and control measures within a defined grid area for sites on Hawaii, Oahu and Maui Islands. The general technology for areawide fruit fly control in Hawaii has been transferred to growers in the original demonstration zone and is now spreading island-wide. The possible constraints to full adoption of the technology are the lack of EPA registered chemicals, grower resistance to change and the costs of producing and releasing sterile fruit flies and parasitoids. Sterile flies and parasites may not be sustainable by the farmer and may require continued government assistance. Work on chemical registrations and grower education is continuing. 7. List your most important publications in the popular press and presentations to organizations and articles written about your work. Bautista, R.C., Harris, E.J., Vargas, R.I., Jang, E.B. 2002. Parasitization of melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), by Fopius arisanus and Psyttalia fletcheri, with notes on influence of fruit substrates on host preference by parasitoids [abstract]. The 6th International Symposium on fruit flies of Economic Importance, May 6-10, 2002, Stellenbosch, South Africa. Harris, E.J., Bautista, R.C., Jang, E.B. 2002. Development and Potential Use of a Strain of Fopius arisanus in Biological Control of Mediterranean Fruit Fly [abstract]. The 6th International Symposium on fruit flies of Economic Importance May 6-10, 2002, Stellenbosch, South Africa. Harris, E.J., Bautista, R.C., Vargas, R.I., Jang, E.B. 2003. Compatible Biological Control Methods: The case for Psyttalia fletcheri parasitoids and SIT for suppressing melon fly in Hawaii [abstract]. The ESA Annual Meeting October 26-29, 2003, Cincinnati, Ohio. Harris, E.J., Bautista, R.C., Vargas, R.I., Jang, E.B. 2004. Biological control of Tephritid Fruit flies: A novel technique for efficient mass production and field delivery of the egg parasitoid, Fopius arisanus [abstract]. XXII International Congress of Entomology, August 15-21, 2004, Brisbane, Australia. Jang, E.B., Carvalho, L., Khrimian, A., Oliver, J., Holler, T., White, J. 2004. Improved attractants for detection and control of Ceratitis and Bactrocera fruit flies [abstract]. Fifth Meeting of the Working Group on Fruit Flies of the Western Hemisphere, May 16-21, 2004, Fort Lauderdale, Florida. Jang, E.B. 2004. Preharvest field control as part of systems approaches to quarantine security [abstract]. XXII International Congress of Entomology, August 15-21, 2004, Brisbane, Australia. Vargas, R.I., Bautista, R.C., Harris, E.J., Revis, H.C. 2004. Biological Control of Tephritid Flies: The USDA-ARS Program in Hawaii and Efforts to Mitigate Fruit Fly Threats Worldwide through International Cooperation [abstract]. XXII International Congress of Entomology, August 15-21, 2004, Brisbane, Australia.

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications

  • Mcquate, G.T., Keum, Y., Sylva, C.D., Li, Q.X., Jang, E.B. 2004. Active ingredients in cade oil which synergize the attractiveness of alpha-ionol to male bactrocera latifrons (diptera: tephritidae). Journal of Economic Entomology. 97:862-870.
  • Rocha, K.L., Mangine, T.E., Harris, E.J., Lawrence, P.O. 2004. Immature stages of fopius arisanus (hymenoptera: braconidae) in bactrocera dorsalis (diptera: tephritidae). Florida Entomologist. 87(2):164-168.
  • Barry, J.D., Vargas, R.I., Miller, N.W., Morse, J.G. 2003. Feeding and foraging of wild and sterile mediterranean fruit flies (diptera: tephritidae) in the presence of spinosad bait. Journal of Economic Entomology. 96(5):1405-1411.
  • Harris, E.J., Liquido, N., Lee, C.Y. 2003. Patterns in appearance and fruit host utilization of fruit flies (diptera: tephritidae) on the kalaupapa peninsula, molokia hawaii. Hawaiian Entomological Society Proceedings. 36:69-78.
  • Harris, E.J., Liquido, N.J., Spencer, J.P. 2001. Distribution and host utilization of bactrocera latifrons (diptera: tephritidae) on the island of kauai, hawaii. Hawaiian Entomological Society Proceedings. 35:55-66.
  • Jackson, C.G., Vargas, R.I., Suda, D.Y. 2003. Populations of bactrocera cucurbitae (diptera: tephritidae) and its parasitoid, psytalia fletcheri (hymenoptera: braconidae) in coccinia grandis (cucurbitaceae) or ivy gourd on the island of hawaii. Hawaiian Entomological Society Proceedings. 36:39- 46.
  • Jang, E.B., Holler, T., Cristofaro, M., Lux, S., Raw, A., Moses, A., Carvalho, L.A. 2003. Improved attractants for mediterranean fruit fly, ceratitis capitata: responses of sterile and wild flies to (-) enantiomer of ceralure b1. Journal of Economic Entomology. 96(6):1719-1723.


Progress 10/01/02 to 09/30/03

Outputs
1. What major problem or issue is being resolved and how are you resolving it? Fruit flies are among the most serious agricultural pests, having a severe economic impact on tropical and subtropical agriculture in many parts of the world and posing an increased threat of establishment into new areas. In Hawaii fruit flies jeopardize development of a diversified fruit and vegetable industry, cause export fruits to undergo expensive quarantine treatments, and provide a reservoir for introduction into the mainland United States. Our unit researches and develops environmentally acceptable technologies for detection and control of fruit flies. Area- wide suppression of fruit flies and other key economic pests will allow for expansion of diversified agriculture in Hawaii. Intensive use of pesticides is generally effective, but causes undesirable side effects. We are resolving the problem by: 1) documenting the overuse of pesticides, 2) researching the population dynamics, spatial distribution, and dispersal of key pests, 3) finding better ways to monitor fruit flies, 4) registering environmentally friendly male annihilation and bait spray treatments for Hawaii, and 5) demonstrating improved methods of fruit fly control. For many fruits and ornamental flowers grown in Hawaii there are regulated insect pests other than fruit flies that prevent or interrupt exports. Little is known about the infestation biology of non-fruit fly pests of many Hawaiian tropical fruits and flowers. To increase our knowledge, we are conducting comprehensive pest surveys of ornamental flowers and tropical fruits to determine the impact of key pests. 2. How serious is the problem? Why does it matter? When pests (e.g. Hawaiian fruit flies) are introduced into the U.S. mainland, they often require large-scale eradication programs, sometimes at great public expense. In California where the total value of the fruit and vegetable industry has been estimated to be more than $14 billion annually, the California Department of Food and Agriculture has estimated that an established infestation of Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly) would cost from $855 million to $1.4 billion during the first year of establishment. In Hawaii production of fruits and vegetables is limited due to insect pests. Furthermore the presence of regulated pests in shipments of produce from Hawaii to other states or countries causes rejection of the shipment and loss of income to Hawaii's growers. One major goal of our laboratory is to facilitate the export of Hawaii's fruits, which will encourage expansion of the industry and create jobs. Knowledge of key pests that limit production and export of tropical fruits and ornamental flowers and their control is essential to secure the future growth of a tropical fruit industry. 3. How does it relate to the National Program(s) and National Program Component(s) to which it has been assigned? National Program 304, Crop Protection and Quarantine (Component 5) (70%): Research will provide new information on pest biology, spatial distributions, control and quarantine of fruit flies and associated pest insects. This information will be useful for: 1) development of ecologically based area-wide control and eradication methods, and 2) export of tropical fruits. National Program 308, Methyl Bromide Alternatives (Component 2) (30%): Research will provide alternative methods (systems approaches) to methyl bromide for control of fruit flies (and associated insect pests) and treatment of infested crops. 4. What were the most significant accomplishments this past year? Replacements for organophosphate insecticides are needed for control of tephritid fruit flies. At the U.S. Pacific Basin Agricultural Research Center (PBARC) a spinosad protein bait spray (GF-120), originally tested in Hawaii for suppression of Mediterranean fruit fly, was tested further for area-wide suppression of melon fly and oriental fruit fly as environmentally friendly alternatives to organophosphate insecticide bait sprays. Use patterns (attraction and toxicology) were defined for GF-120 with respect to placement on different border crops, dilution, weathering, and physiological state of flies. This information will be helpful to growers in Hawaii using GF-120 for area-wide control as well as other locations (U.S. trust Territories) where melon fly is established B1. Other Significant Accomplishment(s), if any: Improved lures for fruit flies are needed to aid action agencies in detection, delimition and control of these pests. PBARC, in collaboration with industry and ARS scientists (Beltsville Agricultural Research Center- Chemicals Affecting Insect Behavior Laboratory, Beltsville), tested a new lure for male Medflies (Ceralure B1) and showed that a racemic (+/-) mixture was nearly as good as the pure (-) ceralure B1, better than the standard (trimedlure). A new melon fly male attractant (Melolure) continues to out perform cuelure in field tests and new controlled release formulations of fruit fly lures have been formulated into a controlled release matrix that makes handling of the lures easier. These improvements will increase our ability for early detection of invasive alien fruit flies and ultimately make it more efficient for end users working in detection, control and eradication action programs to deploy traps for detection and control. B2. Other Significant Accomplishment(s), if any: Alternative toxicants are needed to replace organophosphates for attract and kill control technologies. At PBARC plastic bucket traps containing methyl eugenol or cue-lure with spinosad or permethrin were compared with naled, ddvp and malathion to evaluate suppression of oriental fruit fly and melon fly, respectively, under Hawaiian climatic conditions. Results suggest that spinosad is a promising substitute for organophosphate insecticides in bucket traps and that the use of male lure traps with methyl eugenol or cue-lure had no effect on attraction of females into test areas. These studies are important to developing use patterns for areawide use of methyl eugenol and cuelure and to obtain permanent registration of these attractants in the United States. B3. Other Significant Accomplishment(s), if any: Novel combinations of biological control with and without chemical controls are needed for melon fly control. Releases of sterile melon flies and Psyttalia fletcheri parasitoids together before or after application of GF-120 to suppress wild melon fly populations was tested in field cages at PBARC on Oahu. This year release of sterile melon flies and Psyttalia fletcheri showed combined releases had fewer flies emerging from fruit than those with separate techniques alone and that releases after applications of GF-120 produced outstanding results in field trials at the Areawide Pest Management Program site at Waimea, reducing the melon fly population to near zero. This IPM approach is a viable alternative to insecticide treatments and would be useful to area- wide fruit fly control programs worldwide. B4. Other Significant Accomplishment(s), if any: New attract and kill systems (AmuletRG (BactromatRG ME and CL) and protein bait sprays (BactrogelRG) developed overseas need to be tested under Hawaii conditions for possible registrations. At PBARC we tested AmuletRG dispensers under Hawaiian weather conditions for suppression of melon fly and oriental fruit fly. AmuletRG CL dispensers were effective up to 90 days or more and AmuletRG ME dispensers were effective up to 35 days. Our results suggest that the AmuletRG CL dispensers are satisfactory for use in Hawaii, however, the load capacity of AmuletRG ME dispensers could be increased to extend longevity; these results are important to reduce the use of organophosphate insecticides in fruit fly area-wide suppression programs worldwide. B5. Other Significant Accomplishment(s), if any: Fundamental knowledge on how insects detect volatile chemicals are needed to enable ARS scientists to develop new attractants for use in detection control and eradication of fruit flies. Using the insect antenna as a detector we separated complex odors (GC-EAD) to further identify active semiochemicals that affect fruit fly and parasitoid behavior. Our studies have shown that fruit flies can detect a wide range of compounds at low concentrations and that volatile blends of biologically relevant compounds can influence behavior. This information is important in further development of novel and improved lures for fruit flies. 5. Describe the major accomplishments over the life of the project, including their predicted or actual impact. The U.S. Pacific Basin Agricultural Research Center has provided clients with environmentally acceptable technologies for fruit fly control, such as protein bait sprays and male annihilation. Substitution of spinosad for malathion bait sprays and for naled male annihilation treatments provides clients with user-friendly, economical and environmentally acceptable technology. Over the past 4 years braconid parasitoids have been mass-reared and released for augmentative programs throughout the world. F. arisanus has been exported to Mexico, Guatemala, French Polynesia, Italy, and Israel. In Hawaii, we are currently evaluating the potential of F. arisanus and P. fletcheri for use in IPM systems. These fruit fly control approaches will be major components of IPM programs for fruit flies not only in Hawaii, but also throughout the Pacific. Comparative life history, survival, and demographic studies for both wild and laboratory lines of Medflies, oriental fruit flies, melon flies, and Malaysian fruit flies have provided new information on basic differences between the more temperate Medfly and the more tropical oriental fruit fly and melon fly. These studies are important because they provide quantitative predictive models with respect to colonization, development, survivorship, longevity, and reproduction. Each of these factors is important to developing effective IPM control methodologies for fruit flies. Related behavioral studies have resulted in valuable information on the response of female fruit flies to various baits, lures and traps in climates similar to those found in major agricultural production areas in the U.S. mainland. This information may help predict how newly introduced pests behave in the field. In addition we have improved our formulations of new female attractants to augment existing male and female attractants. 6. What do you expect to accomplish, year by year, over the next 3 years? Hawaii was selected as a recipient of USDA, ARS, Area-wide Pest Management (AWPM) funds for control of fruit flies. We are entering year 5 of the 5-year program. However, there has been a recent commitment to extend the program for 2 years. IPM approaches to fruit fly suppression are urgently needed in Hawaii. The goal of the Fruit Fly AWPM program is to develop and integrate biologically based pest management approaches that will result in area-wide suppression and control of fruit flies throughout selected agricultural areas of Hawaii. The technologies include: 1) field sanitation, 2) protein bait sprays and/or traps, 3) male or female annihilation using male lures and attractants, 4) augmentative parasitoid releases and 5) sterile insect releases. Progress to date includes identification of three geographical areas on three islands for program implementation. In cooperation with the University of Hawaii, Hawaii State Department of Agriculture, growers and other organizations, we have secured special local needs registrations for agricultural chemicals, implemented a fruit fly IPM extension educational program, developed site specific implementation plans and initiated trapping, sanitation and control measures within a defined grid area for sites on Hawaii, Oahu and Maui Islands. The program is resulting in a reduction in the use of organophosphate insecticides for fruit fly control, and further growth and development of diversified agriculture in Hawaii. Year 1: A. Complete sterile melon fly and parasitoid field evaluations. B. Complete spinosad GF-120 bait trials for oriental fruit fly. C. Complete fipronil male annihilation trials for melon fly and oriental fruit fly. D. Begin fipronil soil drench studies. E. Begin long term registration procedures for methyl eugenol and cue- lure. Year 2: A. Continue fipronil soil drench studies. B. Continue to provide ecological research support to evaluate technologies employed in area-wide demonstration sites. C. Continue registration procedures for methyl eugenol and cue-lure. D. Continue to test spinosad degradation in the field and to document the effects of spinosad bait sprays on non-target organisms. E. Continue to develop use patterns for areawide control of oriental fruit fly with GF-120 bait spray. F. Continue to evaluate non-target effects of GF-120, methyl eugenol, and cue-lure. G. Test integration of technologies for oriental fruit fly. Year 3: A. Area-wide IPM implementation for oriental fruit fly (sanitation, bait sprays, male annihilation, and parasites). B. Field test improved cera-lure for Medfly control in the field. C. Continue to develop use patterns for areawide control of oriental fruit fly with GF-120 bait spray. D. Continue to evaluate non-target effects of GF-120, methyl eugenol, and cue-lure. E. Continue to test integration of technologies for oriental fruit fly. F. Continue registration work on methyl eugenol and cue-lure. 7. What science and/or technologies have been transferred and to whom? When is the science and/or technology likely to become available to the end- user (industry, farmer, other scientists)? What are the constraints, if known, to the adoption and durability of the technology products? Our unit has provided most of the research support for the Hawaii Area- Wide Fruit Fly Integrated Pest Management Program. This includes research on ecology issues, sanitation, spinosad bait sprays, male annihilation, sterile flies and parasitoids. Information will be disseminated through the University of Hawaii, Manoa, College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources. A special local needs permit has been obtained for methyl eugenol and cue-lure use in the Hawaii AWPM program. A new spinosad bait spray for fruit fly control is presently being registered for not only Hawaii, but also the entire U.S. Efficacy data for spinosad bait sprays will be provided to clients such as APHIS, California Department of Food and Agriculture, and industry through published reports and annual meetings. Information on new AWPM technologies has been reported to CDFA, industry, and clients at annual meetings. We have begun permanent registration procedures for methyl eugenol and cue-lure to make the area-wide use of male annihilation sustainable after the end of ARS financing of the AWPM program. Methodologies for augmentative releases are being developed and promoted. Information on the dominant natural enemies attacking Medfly in coffee is not well documented and is being summarized. Over the next 3 years we hope to have one or more new fruit fly lures available for use by action agencies and regulatory groups that are more effective than existing attractants. An improved male attractant for Medfly is being patented. The major constraint to the project is the difficulty of precisely formulating the blends of identified compounds, which are female and male specific attractants for the several fruit fly species. Another constraint is the lack of knowledge regarding the variation in behavioral responses that these flies exhibit in their natural habitats. 8. List your most important publications in the popular press and presentations to organizations and articles written about your work. (NOTE: This does not replace your peer-reviewed publications listed below). Bautista, R.C., Harris, E.J., Vargas, R.I., Jang, E.B. Augmentative releases of Hymenopterous parasitoids - A component strategy in the IPM of Tephritid fruit flies in Hawaii. 4th National Integrated Pest Management Symposium. April 8-10, 2003. The Westin, Indianapolis, IN. Bolante, R. Local farmers get some relief from a federal program to suppress Hawaii's fruit fly population. Industry focus: pest control. June 2003. Hawaii Business magazine. p 57. Harris, E.J., Bautista, R.C., Vargas, R.I., Jang, E.B. Area-Wide IPM Methods and Strategies for suppression of Tephritid Fruit Flies in Hawaii. 4th National Integrated Pest Management Symposium. April 8-10, 2003. The Westin, Indianapolis, IN. Jang, E.B. Research leading to development of area-wide fruit fly IPM program in Hawaii Area-Wide Pest Management of Fruit Flies in Hawaii Symposium 10th Annual Conference of the Hawaiian Entomological Society. February 19-20, 2003. Radisson Waikiki Prince Kuhio, Honolulu, HI. Jang, E.B. (Organizer) 30th Annual International Chemoreception Workshop on Insects. January 22-26, 2003. Kailua-Kona, HI. Mau, R., Sugano, J., Hiraki, C. HAW-FLYPM Newsletter, University of Hawaii, College of Topical Agriculture and Human Resources/Cooperative Extension Service http://www.fruitfly.hawaii.edu/ McQuate, G.M. Corn Fields: Just a Place to Hang Out? -- or Fields of Dreams for the Melon Fly? Meeting of the Hawaiian Entomological Society. November 12, 2002. Honolulu, HI. McQuate, G.M. Bridge Host Research Trials and Update on Mass-Trapping Medfly Catches. Persimmon Growers Annual Meeting. January 29, 2003. Kula- Maui, HI. McQuate, G.M. Medfly Suppression in Persimmon and other Kula Medfly Hosts. USDA-ARS-PBARC Annual Fruit Fly Areawide Pest Management Progress Review and Conference. April 30, 2003. Wailea-Maui, HI. Vargas, R. (Organizer) Annual Area-Wide Pest Management Progress Review and Conference. April 28-May 1, 2003. Wailea Marriott, Maui, HI. Vargas, R. Biosystems and Bioterrorism Symposium -- Can Arthropods Be Used as Agents of Destruction. Plant Pests: The Medfly Threat. November 17-20, 2002. Entomological Society of America Meeting, Fort Lauderdale, FL. Vargas, R. (Organizer) Area-Wide Pest Management of Fruit Flies in Hawaii Symposium 10th Annual Conference of the Hawaiian Entomological Society. February 19-20, 2003. Radisson Waikiki Prince Kuhio, Honolulu, HI.

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications

  • Casana-Giner, V., Oliver, J.E., Jang, E.B., Carvalho, L., Khrimian, A., DeMilo, A.B., McQuate, G.T. Raspberry ketone formate as an attractant for the Melon fly, (Diptera: Tephritidae). 2003. Journal of Entomological Science. v. 38. p. 120-126.
  • Harris, E.J., Bautista, R.C. Effect of multiparasitism on the parasitization behavior of insect parasitoids. Koul, O., Dhaaliwal, G.S. editors. Taylor Francis, New York, N.Y. v. 3. Chapter 7. 2003. p. 121- 137 Predators and Parasitoids.
  • Jang, E.B. A prescription against fruit flies. Agriculture Hawaii. January- March 2003. v. 4: p. 6-7.
  • Mcquate, G.T., Jones, G.D., Sylva, C.D. 2003. Assessment of corn pollen as food source for two tephritid fruit fly species. Journal of Environmental Entomology. 32:141-150.
  • Vargas, R.I., Miller, N.W., Prokopy, R.J. Attraction and feeding responses of Mediterranean fruit fly and a natural enemy to protein baits laced with two novel toxins, phloxine B and spinosad. 2002. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata. v. 102. p. 273-282.
  • Casana-Giner, V., Navarro-Llopis, V., Jang, E.B. Implications of SAR of male medfly attractants in insect olfaction. 2002. SAR and QSAR in Environmental Research. v. 13. p. 629-640.


Progress 10/01/01 to 09/30/02

Outputs
1. What major problem or issue is being resolved and how are you resolving it? Fruit flies are among the most serious agricultural pests, having a severe economic impact on tropical and subtropical agriculture in many parts of the world and posing an increased threat of establishment into new areas. In Hawaii fruit flies jeopardize development of a diversified fruit and vegetable industry, cause export fruits to undergo expensive quarantine treatments, and provide a reservoir for introduction into the mainland United States. Our unit researches and develops environmentally acceptable technologies for detection and control of fruit flies. Area- wide suppression of fruit flies and other key economic pests will allow for expansion of diversified agriculture in Hawaii. Intensive use of pesticides is generally effective, but causes undesirable side effects. We are resolving the problem by: 1) documenting the overuse of pesticides, 2) researching the population dynamics, spatial distribution, and dispersal of key pests, 3) finding better ways to monitor fruit flies, 4) registering environmentally friendly male annihilation and bait spray treatments for Hawaii, and 5) demonstrating improved methods of fruit fly control. For many fruits and ornamental flowers grown in Hawaii there are regulated insect pests other than fruit flies that prevent or interrupt exports. Little is known about the infestation biology of non-fruit fly pests of many Hawaiian tropical fruits and flowers. To increase our knowledge, we are conducting comprehensive pest surveys of ornamental flowers and tropical fruits to determine the impact of key pests. 2. How serious is the problem? Why does it matter? When pests (e.g. Hawaiian fruit flies) are introduced into the U.S. mainland, they often require large-scale eradication programs, sometimes at great public expense. In California where the total value of the fruit and vegetable industry has been estimated to be more than $14 billion annually, the California Department of Food and Agriculture has estimated that an established infestation of Mediterranean fruit fly would cost from $855 million to $1.4 billion during the first year of establishment. In Hawaii production of fruits and vegetables is limited due to insect pests. Furthermore the presence of regulated pests in shipments of produce from Hawaii to other states or countries causes rejection of the shipment and loss of income to Hawaii's growers. One major goal of our laboratory is to facilitate the export of Hawaii's fruits, which will encourage expansion of the industry and create jobs. Knowledge of key pests that limit production and export of tropical fruits and ornamental flowers is essential to secure the future growth of a tropical fruit industry. 3. How does it relate to the national Program(s) and National Program Component(s) to which it has been assigned? National Program 304, Crop Protection and Quarantine (Component 5) (70%) : Research will provide new information on pest biology, spatial distributions, control and quarantine of fruit flies and associated pest insects. This information will be useful for: 1) development of ecologically based area-wide control and eradication methods, and 2) export of tropical fruits. National Program 308, Methyl Bromide Alternatives (Component 2) (30%): Research will provide alternative methods to methyl bromide for control of quarantine fruit flies (and associated insect pests) and systems approaches for treatment of infested crops. 4. What was your most significant accomplishment this past year? A. Single Most Significant Accomplishment: There is a need to develop environmentally friendly alternatives to organophosphate insecticides, for fighting fruit fly pests. Research was carried out to develop effective replacements against 4 species of fruit flies in Hawaii. At the U.S. Pacific Basin Agricultural Research Center (USPBARC) in Hawaii effective spinosad protein bait sprays and male annihilation treatments were developed for area-wide control of oriental fruit fly and melon fly. These treatments appear less harmful to humans and beneficial insects than traditional organophosphate insecticides and will be tested further in the Hawaii fruit fly area-wide pest management (AWPM) program. B1. Other Significant Accomplishments: Releases of sterile melon flies and Psyttalia fletcheri parasitoids together to suppress wild melon fly populations will be more effective than either method alone. Field cage tests are currently being conducted at USPBARC in Hawaii to assess the effectiveness of the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) in conjunction with releases of the parasitoid Psyttalia fletcheri. Preliminary results indicate that cages with both treatments have fewer flies emerging from fruit than those with separate techniques alone. This approach is a viable alternative to insecticide treatments and is useful to areawide fruit fly programs worldwide. B2. Other Significant Accomplishments: In anticipation of utilizing the egg parasitoid Fopius arisanus for augmentative releases in the Hawaii AWPM program, a study was undertaken to determine the quality of pre-released females and evaluate the suitability of various sugars as potential food supplements of released parasitoids in the field. We found that 70% of females assayed were mated and sufficiently gravid, thus indicating good quality of parasitoids prior to their target release age of 8-10 days old. In addition, we found that honey, maple syrup and molasses were suitable sugar sources that can prolong adult longevity and latent effectiveness of female parasitoids. Our findings provided a basis for development of field release strategies for fruit fly parasitoids. B3. Other Significant Accomplishments: An experiment to improve mass production of Psyttalia fletcheri, a larval parasitoid of melon fly, has been concluded. We found that by using a shallower oviposition dish (3 mm) and 4-day old host larvae, our parasitoid production was increased twofold from 35 % to 70 %. A collapsible cylindrical screen cage was designed and constructed to facilitate holding and field delivery of shipped parasitoids in the AWPM demonstration site. The cage that measures 60 cm (diameter) x 65 cm long is made from mesh screen and very light circular plastic lids. Access inside the cage is through a zipper that runs from top to bottom of the screen. Suspended with bungee cord from the ceiling of a holding room, a cage can hold as many as 20,000 parasitoids. Commencing in April 2002 to date, a total of 1.3 million P. fletcheri had been shipped from our rearing facility in Honolulu and released in the demonstration site in Waimea, Hawaii Island. B4. Other Significant Accomplishment: Melon flies are known to be associated with a range of non-host plants, including corn and castor bean. The attraction of melon flies to corn plants had not been reported to vary with corn developmental stage. We completed research which showed that melon flies and, to a lesser extent, oriental fruit flies, may show increased population levels in corn at the time of, and subsequent to, flowering and pollen shed. We suggest that these population increases may be tied to pollen consumption. Prior to this research, pollen had not been reported to be an important food source for tropical tephritid fruit flies. For control programs, it is important to recognize that both melon fly and oriental fruit fly populations may increase in corn during, and subsequent to, pollen shed. This attraction to pollen could also be utilized for control purposes through the development of a dipteran specific Bt corn, though research on the potential impact on nontarget species would be needed. B5. Other Significant Accomplishment: Improved attractants used in detection, delimitation and control of fruit flies are needed to control these exotic pests in areas where they exist or to prevent their establishment into new areas (ie: California). In cooperation with chemists at the CAIBL in Beltsville, researchers have developed improved male attractants for both melon fly and mediterranean fruit fly. This year we evaluated the Mediterranean fruit fly lure in different countries where the fly exists. We also further evaluated the melon fly lures against both laboratory and wild populations of melon fly. Both lures performed better than the standard (Trimedlure and cue-lure). These new lures could replace existing lures which have been the standard detection tool for over 30 years. B6. Other Significant Accomplishment: The research over the past year continued the process of identifying the active ingredient in cade oil that synergizes the attractiveness of alpha- ionol to Bactrocera latifrons males. Chemical fractions separated out of cade oil were bioassayed in an olfactometer with sexually mature Bactrocera latifrons for synergistic activity. Seven chemicals in cade oil were identified as possible synergists. Field assessment of these seven compounds is ongoing using releases of sterile flies. 5. Describe your major accomplishments over the life of the project, including their predicted or actual impact? The USPBARC has provided clients with environmentally acceptable technologies for fruit fly control, such as protein bait sprays and male annihilation. Substitution of spinosad for malathion bait sprays and naled male annihilation treatments provides clients with another user- friendly, economical and environmentally acceptable technology. Over the past 4 years braconid parasitoids have been mass-reared and released for augmentative programs throughout the world. We are currently evaluating the potential of F. arisanus and P. fletcheri for use in IPM systems in Hawaii. These fruit fly control approaches will be major components of IPM programs for fruit flies not only in Hawaii, but also throughout the Pacific. Comparative life history, survival, and demographic studies for both wild and laboratory lines of Mediterranean fruit flies, oriental fruit flies, melon flies, and Malaysian fruit flies have provided new information on basic differences between the more temperate Mediterranean fruit fly and the more tropical oriental fruit fly and melon fly. These studies are important because they provide quantitative predictive models with respect to colonization, development, survivorship, longevity, and reproduction. Each of these factors is important to developing effective control procedures for fruit flies. Related behavioral studies have resulted in valuable information on the response of female Medflies to various lures and traps in climates similar to those found in major agricultural production areas in the U.S. mainland. This information may help predict how newly introduced pests behave in the field. In addition we have improved our formulations of new female attractants to augment existing male and female attractants for Medfly, Malaysian fruit fly and melon fly. 6. What do you expect to accomplish, year by year, over the next 3 years? This project is replacing 5320-22430-17-00D. Hawaii was selected as a recipient of USDA-ARS, Area-wide Pest Management (AWPM) funds for control of fruit flies. We are entering year 4 of the 5-year program. IPM approaches to fruit fly suppression are urgently needed in Hawaii. The goal of the Fruit Fly Area-wide Pest Management (AWPM) program is to develop and integrate biologically based pest management approaches that will result in area-wide suppression and control of fruit flies throughout selected agricultural areas of Hawaii. The technologies include: 1) field sanitation, 2) protein bait sprays and/or traps, 3) male or female annihilation using male lures and attractants, 4) augmentative parasitoid releases and 5) sterile insect releases. Progress to date includes identification of three geographical areas on three islands for program implementation. In cooperation with the University of Hawaii, State Department of Agriculture, growers and other organizations, we have secured special local needs registrations for agricultural chemicals, implemented a fruit fly IPM extension educational program, developed site specific implementation plans and have initiated trapping, sanitation and control measures within a defined grid area for sites on Hawaii, Oahu and Maui Islands. The program will result in a reduction in the use of organophosphate and carbamate insecticides, and further growth and development of diversified agriculture in Hawaii. Year 1: A. Complete spinosad GF-120 bait trials for melon fly and oriental fruit fly. B. Complete fipronil male annihilation trials for melon fly and oriental fruit fly. C. Complete sterile melon fly and parasitoid combination evaluations. D. Expand rearing capabilities for melon fly and shift to aerial releases of sterile melon flies in selected areas of the AWPM program. E. Provide ecological research support for collection of baseline data for areawide demonstration sites. F. Continue to test spinosad and fipronil degradation in the field and to document the effects of spinosad bait sprays and fipronil male annihilation treatments on non-target organisms. Year 2: A. Continue to provide ecological research support to evaluate technologies employed in area-wide demonstration sites. B. Continue to test spinosad degradation in the field and to document the effects of spinosad bait sprays on non-target organisms. C. Continue to develop use patterns for areawide control of oriental fruit fly with GF-120 bait spray. D. Test integration of parasites with methyl eugenol based male annihilation suppression. E. Develop improved formulations for fruit fly lures Year 3: A. Area-wide IPM implementation for oriental fruit fly (sanitation, bait sprays, male annihilation, and parasites). B. Field test improved ceralure for Medfly control and melolure against melon fly in the field. 7. What technologies have been transferred and to whom? When is the technology likely to become available to the end user (industry, farmer other scientist)? What are the constraints, if known, to the adoption durability of the technology? Our unit will provide most of the research support for the "Hawaii Area- wide Integrated Pest Management of Fruit Flies Program." This includes research on ecology issues, sanitation, spinosad bait sprays, fruit fly semiochemicals, male annihilation, and parasitoids. Information will be disseminated through the University of Hawaii, Mania, College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources. A special local needs permit has been obtained for methyl eugenic and cue-lure use in the Hawaii Areawide Pest Management program. A new spinosad bait spray for fruit fly control is presently being registered for not only Hawaii, but also the entire U.S. Efficacy data for spinosad bait sprays will be provided to clients such as APHIS, CDFA, and industry through published reports and annual meetings. Methods used to evaluate the response of fruit flies in field cages have been shared with colleagues in Italy under a cooperative project. Information on seasonal changes in trap response has also been reported to CDFA, industry, and clients at annual meetings. We served as consultants to the Moscamed program in Guatemala. They are currently attempting to create a fruit-fly-free zone along the Mexico and Guatemala border. Rearing technologies for mass production of F. arisanus were transferred to USDA-APHIS in Guatemala. A cooperating Mexican scientist has taken the lead on development of mass production of the wasp for Mexico. Methodologies for augmentative releases are being developed and promoted. Information on the dominant natural enemies attacking Medfly in coffee is not well documented and is being summarized. Over the next 3 years we hope to have one or more fruit fly lures available for use by action agencies and regulatory groups that are more effective than existing attractants. An improved male attractant for Medfly has been patented. The major constraint to the project is the difficulty of precisely formulating the blends of identified compounds, which are female and male specific attractants for the several fruit fly species. Another constraint is the lack of knowledge regarding the variation in behavioral responses that these flies exhibit in their habitat areas. 8. List your most important publications and presentations, and articles written about your work (NOTE: this does not replace your review publications which are listed below) Harris, E.J., Bautista, R.C., Jang, E.B. Development and Potential Use of a Strain of Fopius arisanus in Biological Control of Mediterranean Fruit Fly. Poster Presentation at 6th International Symposium on Fruit Flies of Economic Importance. Stellenbosch, South Africa. May 6 - 10, 2002. Bautista, R.C., Harris, E.J., Vargas, R.I., Jang, E.B. Parasitization of melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillet), by Fopius arisanus and Psyttalia fletcheri, with notes on influence of fruit substrates on host preference by parasitoids. Poster Presentation at 6th International Symposium on Fruit Flies of Economic Importance. Stellenbosch, South Africa. May 6 - 10, 2002. Jang, E.B. Present situation of fruit fly control in Hawaii and prospects for collaboration with Okinawa. Invited talk given at the "Workshop on fruit fly control cooperation in the Asia-Pacific region." Research Institute for Subtropics. March 2002. Jang, E.B., Khriman, A., Casana-Giner, V. Holler, T., Carvalho, L. Field assessment of improved male lures for Mediterranean fruit fly. Poster Presentation at 6th International Symposium on Fruit Flies of Economic Importance. Stellenbosch, South Africa. May 6 - 10, 2002. Jang, E.B., Mau, R.F.L., Wong, L., Vargas, R.I. Hawaii areawide fruit fly pest management program. Poster Presentation at 6th International Symposium on Fruit Flies of Economic Importance. Stellenbosch, South Africa. May 6 - 10, 2002. McQuate, G.T., Jones, G.D., Sylva, C.D. Assessment of corn pollen as a food source for two tephritid fruit fly species. 6th International Symposium on Fruit Flies of Economic Importance. Stellenbosch, South Africa. May 6 - 10, 2002. Vargas, R. I., Miller, N.W, Prokopy, R.J. Spinosad as an organophosphate alternative for areawide fruit fly control in Hawaii. Poster Presentation at AAAS Pacific Division Meeting. Kamuela, Hawaii. June 2002.

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications

  • Bautista, R.C., Harris, E.J., Vargas, R.I. The fruit fly parasitoid Fopius arisanus: reproductive attributes of pre-released females and the use of added sugar as a potential food supplement in the field. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata. 2001. v. 101. p. 247-255.
  • Calvitti, M., Antonelli, M., Moretti, R., Bautista, R.C. Oviposition response and development of the egg-pupal parasitoid Fopius arisanus on Bactrocera oleae, a tephritid fruit fly pest of olive in the Mediterranean basin. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata. 2002. v. 102(1). p. 65-73.
  • Jang, E.B. Physiology of mating behavior in Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera:Tephritidae): Chemoreception and male accessory gland fluids in female post mating behavior. Florida Entomologist. 2002. v. 85. p. 89-93.
  • Raw, A., Jang, E.B. Attractant for the Mediterranean fruit fly, the method of preparation and use. 2002 US patent 6,375,943.