Source: AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE - US ARID-LAND RESEARCH CENTER submitted to
MANAGEMENT OF WATER SUPPLIES FOR IRRIGATION
Sponsoring Institution
Agricultural Research Service/USDA
Project Status
TERMINATED
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
0404654
Grant No.
(N/A)
Project No.
5347-13000-014-00D
Proposal No.
(N/A)
Multistate No.
(N/A)
Program Code
(N/A)
Project Start Date
Feb 27, 2002
Project End Date
Jan 28, 2007
Grant Year
(N/A)
Project Director
CLEMMENS A J
Recipient Organization
AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE - US ARID-LAND RESEARCH CENTER
21881 NORTH CARDON LANE
MARICOPA,AZ 85238
Performing Department
(N/A)
Non Technical Summary
(N/A)
Animal Health Component
60%
Research Effort Categories
Basic
40%
Applied
60%
Developmental
0%
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
40502102020100%
Goals / Objectives
To develop a series of improvements to existing methods for measuring water flow rates and volumes in rivers, streams, canals, and culverts (low pressure or not flowing full), and to develop a series of methods, hardware, and software for improving the control of water in open-channel distribution systems typical of irrigation projects or large water supply projects.
Project Methods
A series of laboratory studies is planned for currently identified water measurement problems. We will continue to support software developed for design and calibration of long-throated flumes, will cooperate with customers to evaluate their water measurement and accounting methods, and will work toward solutions to their flow measurement problems. A new canal automation system currently under development will be turned over to our CRADA partner. These new canal automation methods will be tested under both unsteady-flow simulation and with real operating canals. The mechanical/hydraulic controller (DACL), used to maintain constant flow rates at canal offtakes, will be improved to make it more usable in remote sites. Formerly 5344-13000-011-00D (1/02). Formerly 5344-13000-014-00D (2/06).

Progress 02/27/02 to 01/28/07

Outputs
Progress Report Objectives (from AD-416) To develop a series of improvements to existing methods for measuring water flow rates and volumes in rivers, streams, canals, and culverts (low pressure or not flowing full), and to develop a series of methods, hardware, and software for improving the control of water in open-channel distribution systems typical of irrigation projects or large water supply projects. Approach (from AD-416) A series of laboratory studies is planned for currently identified water measurement problems. We will continue to support software developed for design and calibration of long-throated flumes, will cooperate with customers to evaluate their water measurement and accounting methods, and will work toward solutions to their flow measurement problems. A new canal automation system currently under development will be turned over to our CRADA partner. These new canal automation methods will be tested under both unsteady-flow simulation and with real operating canals. The mechanical/hydraulic controller (DACL), used to maintain constant flow rates at canal offtakes, will be improved to make it more usable in remote sites. Formerly 5344-13000-011-00D (1/02). Formerly 5344-13000-014- 00D (2/06). Significant Activities that Support Special Target Populations This CRIS project terminated on January 28, 2007. Research progress that occurred from Oct. 1, 2006 to Jan. 28, 2007 (previous CRIS period) is reported in CRIS project 5347-13000-015-00D annual report (covering Oct. 2006-Sept 30, 2007). Accomplishments None. This project terminated Janaury 28, 2007 and was replaced by 5347- 13000-015-00D. Please see the annual report for the replacement proejct 5347-13000-015-00D. Significant Activities that Support Special Target Populations None. This project terminated Janaury 28, 2007 and was replaced by 5347- 13000-015-00D. Please see the annual report for the replacement proejct 5347-13000-015-00D.

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications


    Progress 10/01/05 to 09/30/06

    Outputs
    Progress Report 1. What major problem or issue is being resolved and how are you resolving it (summarize project aims and objectives)? How serious is the problem? Why does it matter? Competition for limited water resources among various users is increasing in many areas of the country, but particularly in the arid west. Extreme drought conditions and its impact on the health of natural habitats are exacerbating this problem. Because irrigated agriculture is the largest user of fresh water resources, water suppliers are being legally forced to reallocate existing supplies. An alternative to legal reallocation is freeing up water resources through improved water management (CAST 1996, National Research Council 1996). Important elements for improving agricultural water management are improved measurement, control, and ultimately, accountability of water resources at the irrigation project level. Water uses at the project or hydrologic unit scale are often poorly documented making meaningful management of water supplies difficult. Also, water supplies for agriculture from large irrigation projects are often not controlled well, resulting in over-delivery to individual users and ineffective use at the farm level. As water moves downstream through various projects and uses, its quality degrades as salts, trace metals, and other contaminants are concentrated, often to the point of being unusable or having a negative impact on the environment. The objectives of this project are to develop tools for improving the management of water supplies, particularly for irrigation. In some irrigation projects, up to 30% of diverted flows are unaccounted for. Losses occur in the form of operational spills and seepage, unaccounted for deliveries, and on-farm losses due to over-deliveries. These losses reflect the irrigation project's inability to properly measure and control water. Accurate measurement technologies have been developed and validated under laboratory conditions but field conditions often differ substantially from the ideal situation. Thus, flow measurement in the field can be difficult, inaccurate, and costly. Improved calibration procedures or even specialized measurement technologies are needed under non-standard conditions, which are typical in the field. Most canal systems are operated using manual procedures. Because control actions are undertaken one control structure at a time, they often result in delivery errors that increase with distance from the canal headgates. With current development of Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) technology it is now possible to think of developing and implementing centralized and automated canal control approaches that would allow the simultaneous operation of multiple control structures. These approaches promise to be more effective than current manual operations. The objectives of this project are to develop and apply new technology is provided for improving the operation and management of water projects, including canal automation/control and water measurement/accounting technology. With the tools developed under this project, large-scale water supplies will be better managed in arid regions. Also, water measurement, accounting, and control will be improved in irrigated agriculture, supporting more rational analysis of the impact of irrigated agriculture on the environment, and allowing more rational decisions by society about water allocation and use. Based on past successful technology transfer and the anticipated products, customers will include the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (USBR), Natural Resources Conservation Service, U.S. Geological Survey, Army Corp of Engineers, Bureau of Indian Affairs, State Departments of Water Resources (particularly Arizona and California), land-grant universities, civil and agricultural consulting engineers, and water purveyors (water conservancy districts, irrigation districts, municipalities, etc.). The research is part of National Program 201, Water Quality and Management. The project falls under Component 2, Irrigation and Drainage Management. Both objectives deal with agricultural water conservation and fit under Problem Area 2.3 (Water Conservation Management), Goal 2.3.1 (Water Conservation Technologies). The research also supports Goal 2.3.3 (Agricultural Water Conservation and Environmental Quality). 2. List by year the currently approved milestones (indicators of research progress) Year 1 (FY02) Water Measurement and Accounting Lab study on flow conditioning for pipes/culverts completed Water Control Initial version of canal automation system turned over to CRADA partner Feedback control method for branching canals developed and simulation testing comple Year 2 (FY03) Lab study on debris-shedding propeller meter completed Laboratory studies on submerged radial gates completed Improved interface for canal automation system provided to CRADA partner Field studies of canal automation on steep canal (WM at MSIDD) competed Simulation testing of Model Predictive Control for branching canal completed Year 3 (FY04) Field studies on surface-velocity-based method completed Verification of radial gate calibration method completed Final version of canal automation technology given to CRADA partner Field application of feedforward routing method completed Year 4 (FY05) Lab study on high sediment load flume completed Upstream control method developed and simulation testing completed Year 5 (FY06) Field study on water balance accuracy completed New DACL control system developed and lab testing completed Field studies of canal automation on canal with mild slope complete Our current project plans only extend through mid FY07. 4a List the single most significant research accomplishment during FY 2006. Influence of Project-Scale Water Distribution on Water Productivity (supports National Program 201, Water Resources Management, Problem Area 2.2, Managing Irrigation for Effective Water Use.) A methodology was developed to estimate the impact of water distribution within an irrigation project on its overall productivity. To date, it has been extremely difficult to quantify the benefits of improving irrigation water distribution for large projects based upon improvements in productivity, thereby making it difficult to justify needed improvements in water control. An engineer at the U.S. Arid-Land Agricultural Research Center, in cooperation with the International Water Management Institute in Ski Lanka, has developed a methodology to quantify the impact of poor water distribution within a project on water productivity, or the amount of agricultural output per unit of water diverted or used. This could have a significant impact on the ability of irrigation projects, particularly in developing nations, to justify needed infrastructure improvements and provide a means for evaluating which improvements will have the most impact. 4b List other significant research accomplishment(s), if any. Application of Model Predictive Control for Automating Irrigation Canals (supports National Program 201, Water Resources Management, Problem Area 2 Irrigation Water Management. It has been demonstrated that Model Predictive Control (MPC) can be effectively used to control irrigation canals. The automation of irrigation canals is a complex problem and the limitations of simple control methods make them difficult to implement successfully. MPC is capable of directly addressing these irrigation canal complexities, potentially streamlining implementation. Engineers at the U.S. Arid-Land Agricultural Research Center, in cooperation with researchers from Delft University of Technology, applied MPC to a real canal at the Maricopa Stanfield Irrigation and Drainage District in Arizona. The results demonstrate that MPC can effectively control irrigation canals and can be implemented with minimum complication, thus providing a useful tool for improving irrigation water management for large irrigation distribution systems. 4d Progress report. Radial gates A new series of laboratory studies was conducted on a model radial gate provided by the Salt River Project, to expand on runs made earlier. These new runs had a downstream channel that was significantly wider than the gate. Initial analyses of the data have confirmed the free-flow calibration method develop earlier. The analysis also confirmed earlier methods developed for dealing with the transition from free to submerged flow. The expectation was to develop a new method to determine this transition that would reduce the flow prediction errors. So far, alternative attempts have not improved the accuracy of flow predications. A few possible approaches remain to be tested. In the mean time, the Bureau of Reclamation has moved forward with the development of software to provide discharge estimates for radial gates based on two previously developed models of this transition. When developed, the improved description of the transition should be relatively straightforward to implement in this software. This initial version of the software treats each gate at a check structure as independent device and essentially ignores downstream interactions. Eventually, the calibration will have to take into account the interaction among gates on the downstream side of the structure. SacMan Implementation at CAIDD The Central Arizona Irrigation and Drainage District (CAIDD) has been purchasing equipment over the last several years in preparation for applying complete canal automation to their delivery system. During FY06, they received a grant from the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation to apply complete canal automation to three of their lateral canals, with cooperation from engineers at the U.S. Arid Land Agricultural Research Center. During FY06, a simulation model of a short section of main canal and three lateral canals on the north side of CAIDD was developed with the unsteady-flow simulation model Sobek. Based on analysis with this model, feedback controllers were designed and initial testing was conducted on the actual lateral canals through the canal automation software, SacMan (Software for Automated Canal Management). We expect complete implementation of automatic controls with SacMan on the north side of CAIDD by early 2007. Similar studies on CAIDDs Central Main Canal will start in the fall of 2006, with cooperation from Delft University of Technology. SacMan interface to HECRAS During 2005, a novel interface was developed that allows SCADA software (used to control real canals) to be interfaced with a simulation model of the canal, rather than the real canal. The first version was with the simulation model Sobek. A built-in Sobek interface to the software environment of Matlab allowed this to be developed relatively easily. Unfortunately, both Sobek and Matlab require a license for each use. To get around this, we are working with West Consultants to make the SCADA link to HecRas, a public-domain software product developed by the U.S. Army Corp of Engineers, and also widely used within the U.S. water resources community. We expect this interface to be available for testing in late FY2006. 5. Describe the major accomplishments to date and their predicted or actual impact. Engineers at the U.S. Water Conservation Laboratory, Phoenix, AZ, have developed a novel method for testing Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems for the remote control of irrigation canals. Currently, canal operators have no way to test their control system, except through actual operation of a canal. A logical interface was written so that the radio signal normally sent from the SCADA computer to the canal can be interpreted by computer software written to simulation water flow in a canal, and the information about the canal transmitted back. The interface also includes the ability to develop meaningful tests by externally adjusting gates or causing communications failures. With this software, SCADA operators can test SCADA software and logic, train new canal operators, develop new standard operating procedures, develop operating procedures for catastrophic failures (for example, canal breaches), or automatic control methods. Supports National Program 201, Water Resources Management, Problem Area 2. Irrigation Water Management. Engineers at the U.S. Water Conservation Laboratory, Phoenix Arizona tested and released a new software product, Software for Automated Canal Management or SacMan, to CRADA partner Automata, Inc., Nevada City, CA. This is the first comprehensive software package for canal automation available for water districts. The software includes a wide variety of control methods and options, suitable for most irrigation canal configurations. Extensive field testing was conducted at the Maricopa Stanfield Irrigation and Drainage District in central Arizona to verify the control concepts and to test the software implementation. This software could provide substantial improvement to the operation of water districts - reducing canal spills and other losses, improving service to farmers and other users (thereby reducing their water losses), and allowing water districts to control water for environmental benefits. Supports National Program 201, Water Resources Management, Problem Area 2. Irrigation Water Management. A new device for measuring water flow rate and total-load sediment transport rate in streams was developed by Engineers at the U.S. Water Conservation Laboratory, Phoenix, AZ. This new device is simple, accurate, reliable, and has no moving parts. Prior sampling devices were complicated, had moving parts, and often resulted in unreliable estimates of sediment discharge. Extensive laboratory studies of the new device were conducted to verify the concept, and its accuracy and reliability. Reducing erosion losses from range and crop lands is an important national priority. This device could help to provide more reasonable estimates of the amount of eroded material that is making its way into stream channels. Supports National Program 201, Water Resources Management, Problem Area 2. Irrigation Water Management. The feasibility and practicality of a new radial gate design, the Adler Gate, was verified through field and laboratory studies at the U.S. Water Conservation Laboratory, Phoenix, AZ. This new radial gate device allows the gate to operate either as an orifice (as a standard gate) to pass bed- load sediment or as a weir to pass floating debris. A field prototype was tested at a research facility at the Salt River Project and a smaller- scale device was tested in the hydraulics laboratory. This new gate can help water districts improve their operations and service to users, thereby potentially saving water. Supports National Program 201, Water Resources Management, Problem Area 2. Irrigation Water Management. Many water delivery systems do not provide water to users at the proper time and rate of flow, resulting in water losses and decreased production. The Canal Automation Team at the U.S. Water Conservation Laboratory developed a water demand scheduling program, called SacMan Order, to help water districts manage water demands and to route changes in demand through their canal system. SacMan Order, a part of Software for Automated Canal Management or SacMan, is a computer program that accumulates water orders, keeps track of demand at any point in the system,and determines when water needs to be released from each gate structure in order to get the right amount of water to the right place at the right time. This software developed in cooperation with a CRADA partner could significantly improve the ability of canal operators to satisfy customer demands, thereby improving the efficiency of water use. Supports National Program 201, Water Resources Management, Problem Area 2. Irrigation Water Management. The automatic control of canals has great potential for improving water management in the west. Past developments had only considered a single in- line canal and were unapplicable to a branching canal network. Engineers at the U.S. Water Conservation Laboratory developed a new automation scheme that can be applied to a branching canal network. The theory for control of canal networks was demonstrated through computer simulation for a majority of the canal system of the Salt River project. It demonstrated that such controls are both possible and can lead to improved canal operations, thereby improving the service to water users and potentially increasing their water use efficiency. Supports National Program 201, Water Resources Management, Problem Area 2. Irrigation Water Management. Methods currently in use to automate the operation of canal systems are based on simple control logic that is not always well suited for complex water distribution systems. A more flexible automatic control system, Model Predictive Control or MPC, was demonstrated at the U.S. Water Conservation Lab. to provide control at least as good as other methods, but with increased ability to handle real-world constraints. Simulation studies on the test canal of the American Society of Civil Engineers and on the Salt River Project canal network demonstrated that MPC was at least as effective as optimal control methods. The ability of MPC to handle real-world constraints will increase the likelihood of success for canal automation schemes at improving water management in the west. Supports National Program 201, Water Resources Management, Problem Area 2. Irrigation Water Management. Water released from the head of a canal arrives at the downstream end gradually. The difficulty in predicting the arrival of flow changes complicates the delivery of water to users. U.S. Water Conservation Lab researchers conducted a comprehensive analysis of feedforward control characteristics of canals and demonstrated that feedforward control based on volume compensation is as effective as computationally complex methods, when considering realistic operational constraints. The research team demonstrated through computer simulations that the feedforward control problem is not critically sensitive to accurate estimates of wave travel times. This approach greatly simplifies the method for scheduling demand changes for a canal and should make such approaches more acceptable to canal operators. Supports National Program 201, Water Resources Management, Problem Area 2. Irrigation Water Management. Irrigation expansion and groundwater decline in the lower Mississippi River Valley has prompted water users to explore alternative water sources, including increased stream diversions to the detriment of of sensitive river ecosystems. A study of water use by irrigated agriculture at a watershed scale was conducted by the Arkansas Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) and the U.S. Water Conservation Laboratory. This study demonstrated that the on-farm improvement planned by the NRCS, including storage reservoirs, tailwater pits, pipelines and booster pumps, could reduce the need for external water sources by more than 1/2 through the capture of rainfall runoff and irrigation tailwater, and that the overall irrigation efficiency is relatively insensitive to individual field application efficiency. This study demonstrates the importance of irrigation infrastructure in the humid south and their impact on reducing water diversions and groundwater pumping. Supports National Program 201, Water Resources Management, Problem Area 2. Irrigation Water Management. Improving the operation of large water projects is an important step in water conservation efforts to spread limited available water supplies. U. S. Water Conservation Lab Engineers, in cooperation with CRADA partner Automata Inc., developed a canal automation system, which includes Software for Automated Canal Management, or SacMan. The first version of SacMan was provided to Automata Inc. in 2002, covering manual control with intelligent assistance. This software, including future versions with full automatic control, has significant potential for improving water management in irrigation projects and the CRADA partner has already sold one copy and has interest from several other districts. Supports National Program 201, Water Resources Management, Problem Area 2. Irrigation Water Management. 6. What science and/or technologies have been transferred and to whom? When is the science and/or technology likely to become available to the end- user (industry, farmer, other scientists)? What are the constraints, if known, to the adoption and durability of the technology products? The SacMan order program was provided to the Salt River Project for testing its feasibility to assist with scheduling changes in water orders within their system. The new radial gate software developed by the Bureau of Reclamation based on our radial gate calibration method has been given to the Salt River Project and other Bureau customers for initial testing. The canal automation system implemented with SacMan is being implemented at the Central Arizona Irrigation and Drainage District. Hardware and Firmware has been implemented in the field to prepare for automatic control with SacMan. Testing with SacMan has been successful to date. We expect the district to take over operation of part of their system with SacMan in late 2006. 7. List your most important publications in the popular press and presentations to organizations and articles written about your work. (NOTE: List your peer reviewed publications below). Clemmens, A. J. 2006. Canal Automation. Resource Magazine. Vol 13(1) :7-8.

    Impacts
    (N/A)

    Publications

    • Bautista, E., Clemmens, A.J. 2005. Volume compensation method for routing irrigation canal demand changes. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering. 131(6):494-503
    • Bautista, E., Clemmens, A.J., Strand, R.J. 2006. Salt river project canal automation pilot project: simulation tests. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering. 132(2):143-152
    • Wahlin, B.T., Clemmens, A.J. 2006. Automatic downstream water-level feedback control of branching canal networks: application. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering. 132(3):208-219
    • Wahlin, B.T., Clemmens, A.J. 2006. Automatic downstream water-level feedback control of branching canal networks: theory. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering. 132:(3):198-207
    • Strand, R.J., Clemmens, A.J., Denny, N.T. 2005. Training scada operators with real-time simulation. United States Committee on Irrigation and Drainage Conference. p. 319-328
    • Clemmens, A.J., Wahlin, B.T. 2006. Accuracy of annual volume from current- meter based stage-discharges. Journal Hydrologic Engineering. 132(5):489- 501.
    • Clemmens, A.J. 2006. Improving irrigated agriculture performance through an understanding of the water delivery process. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering. 55:223-234


    Progress 10/01/04 to 09/30/05

    Outputs
    1. What major problem or issue is being resolved and how are you resolving it (summarize project aims and objectives)? How serious is the problem? What does it matter? Competition for limited water resources among various users is increasing in many areas of the country, but particularly in the arid west. Extreme drought conditions and its impact on the health of natural habitats are exacerbating this problem. Because irrigated agriculture is the largest user of fresh water resources, water suppliers are being legally forced to reallocate existing supplies. An alternative to legal reallocation is freeing up water resources through improved water management (CAST 1996, National Research Council 1996). Important elements for improving agricultural water management are improved measurement, control, and ultimately, accountability of water resources at the irrigation project level. Water uses at the project or hydrologic unit scale are often poorly documented making meaningful management of water supplies difficult. Also, water supplies for agriculture from large irrigation projects are often not controlled well, resulting in over-delivery to individual users and ineffective use at the farm level. As water moves downstream through various projects and uses, its quality degrades as salts, trace metals, and other contaminants are concentrated, often to the point of being unusable or having a negative impact on the environment. The objectives of this project are to develop tools for improving the management of water supplies, particularly for irrigation. In some irrigation projects, up to 30% of diverted flows are unaccounted for. Losses occur in the form of operational spills and seepage, unaccounted for deliveries, and on-farm losses due to over- deliveries. These losses reflect the irrigation project's inability to properly measure and control water. Accurate measurement technologies have been developed and validated under laboratory conditions but field conditions often differ substantially from the ideal situation. Thus, flow measurement in the field can be difficult, inaccurate, and costly. Improved calibration procedures or even specialized measurement technologies are needed under non-standard conditions, which are typical in the field. Most canal systems are operated using manual procedures. Because control actions are undertaken one control structure at a time, they often result in delivery errors that increase with distance from the canal headgates. With current development of Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) technology it is now possible to think of developing and implementing centralized and automated canal control approaches that would allow the simultaneous operation of multiple control structures. These approaches promise to be more effective than current manual operations. The objectives of this project are to develop and apply new technology for improving the operation and management of water projects, including canal automation/control and water measurement/accounting technology. The tools developed under this project will facilitate the management of large-scale supplies in arid regions. Furthermore, these tools will allow us to conduct more sound analyses of the impact of irrigated agriculture on the environment, as a result of improved water measurement, accounting, and control, and will ultimately lead to more rational decisions by society regarding water allocations and use. Based on past successful technology transfer and the anticipated products, customers will include the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (USBR), Natural Resources Conservation Service, U.S. Geological Survey, Army Corp of Engineers, Bureau of Indian Affairs, State Departments of Water Resources (particularly Arizona and California), land-grant universities, civil and agricultural consulting engineers, and water purveyors (water conservancy districts, irrigation districts, municipalities, etc.). The research is part of National Program 201, Water Quality and Management. The project falls under Component 2, Irrigation and Drainage Management. Both objectives deal with agricultural water conservation and fit under Problem Area 2.3 (Water Conservation Management), Goal 2.3.1 (Water Conservation Technologies). The research also supports Goal 2.3.3 (Agricultural Water Conservation and Environmental Quality). 2. List the milestones (indicators of progress) from your Project Plan. Water Measurement and Accounting Year 1 (FY02/FY03) Lab study on flow conditioning for pipes/culverts completed Year 2 (FY03/FY04) Lab study on debris-shedding propeller meter completed Laboratory studies on submerged radial gates completed Year 3 (FY04/FY05) Field studies on surface-velocity-based method completed Verification of radial gate calibration method completed Year 4 (FY05/FY06) Lab study on high sediment load flume completed Year 5 (FY06/FY07) Field study on water balance accuracy completed Water Control Year 1 (FY02/FY03) Initial version of canal automation system turned over to CRADA partner Feedback control method for branching canals developed and simulation testing completed Year 2 (FY03/FY04) Improved interface for canal automation system provided to CRADA partner Field studies of canal automation on steep canal (WM at MSIDD) competed Simulation testing of Model Predictive Control for branching canal completed Year 3 (FY04/FY05) Final version of canal automation technology given to CRADA partner Field application of feedforward routing method completed Year 4 (FY05/FY06) Upstream control method developed and simulation testing completed Year 5 (FY06/FY07) New DACL control system developed and lab testing completed Field studies of canal automation on canal with mild slope complete Our current project plans only extend through mid FY07. 3a List the milestones that were scheduled to be addressed in FY 2005. For each milestone, indicate the status: fully met, substantially met, or not met. If not met, why. 1. Laboratory study on high sediment load flume completed. Milestone Not Met Progress slowed by resource limitation (human,fiscal,equipment, etc. 2. Upstream control method developed and simulation tested Milestone Substantially Met 3. Field application of feedforward routing method developed. Milestone Fully Met 3b List the milestones that you expect to address over the next 3 years (FY 2006, 2007, and 2008). What do you expect to accomplish, year by year, over the next 3 years under each milestone? Our current project plans extend through only part of FY07. Many of the milestones for year 5 of this project did not materialize, so a discussion of additional research plans for FY06 is included. We will include discussion on direction of future research into FY07 & FY08. FY06/07 Milestones: Field study on water balance accuracy completed: This study was contingent on cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation. Their plans changed and this study was dropped. However, several other studies were undertaken to further develop the water balance methodology. A water balance study on a watershed in eastern Arkansas was completed. The study enabled NRCS to justify current irrigation development activities. A study on the accuracy of current meter data accuracy was completed, and the implications for this on the water balance for the Imperial Valley was determined. These studies require some additional analysis in FY06, after which they will be ready for publication. New DACL control system developed and lab testing completed. With the retirement of Replogle, this study was dropped. Field studies of canal automation on canal with mild slope completed. The control system developed in cooperation with our CRADA partner was purchased by the Central Arizona Irrigation and Drainage District. We will be attempting to implement SacMan on that canal system, rather than artificially selecting a canal with a mild slope. Implementation began in FY05 and likely will be completed in FY06 or FY07. This will eventually result in testing on canals with mild slopes, but the timing is currently not predictable. FY06 plans Software for Radial Gate Calibration: We expect to complete studies on radial gate calibration under submerged conditions. The software for radial gate calibration initially programmed in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation during FY05 will be released during FY06. Methodology for Upstream Control of Canal Water Levels Documented and made available: Refinements are needed in the methods currently used to control irrigation canals. We expect to develop improved methods for handling known disturbances. FY07 plans We expect to implement the new radial gate calibration procedures with cooperating irrigation districts, such as the Salt River Project. Such implementation is expected to yield important improvements in both the methodology and the software. We expect to develop improved methods for tuning automatic canal controllers, including; methods for robust tuning over a range of conditions, methods for tuning disturbance controllers, methods for tuning controllers with limited input/output adjustment, methods for tuning controllers where water levels are filtered to minimize the influence of reflection waves. Some of these may not be completed until FY08. Open loop canal control methods are straightforward, however, if the change in demand is not known soon enough (delayed), then there is not a clear strategy for implementing them, because of feedback interactions. We plan to develop a strategy for implementing delayed feedforward control actions. FY08 plans We expect the research on water measurement and accounting to evolve into the development of a watershed-based framework for examining irrigation projects, their water use and their impact on the environment. We expect the cooperation with NRCS in Arkansas regarding irrigation project development to continue, and we intend to work with conservation groups in Arizona to determine how best to examine this issue. Currently, different process models are used for the design of feedforward and feedback controllers. We expect to find a more unified process model approach so that these complementary control methods will be more compatible. 4a What was the single most significant accomplishment this past year? Engineers at the U.S. Water Conservation Laboratory, Phoenix, AZ, have developed a novel method for testing Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems for the remote control of irrigation canals. Currently, canal operators have no way to test their control system, except through actual operation of a canal. A logical interface was written so that the radio signal normally sent from the SCADA computer to the canal can be interpreted by computer software written to simulate water flow in a canal, and the information about the canal transmitted back. The interface also includes the ability to develop meaningful tests by externally adjusting gates or causing communications failures. With this software, SCADA operators can test SCADA software and logic, train new canal operators, develop new standard operating procedures, develop operating procedures for catastrophic failures (for example, canal breaches), or automatic control methods. 4d Progress report. The study on flow conditioning for pipes and culverts is underway and significant progress has been made in the laboratory. The study has been extended to include irrigation wells under field conditions. The objective is to characterize the flow distortions caused by piping components, such as valves and elbows, and to document the effect of distance to these disturbances on the accuracy of various common flow meters. This extended work will be completed by FY06. Through cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation, Water Resources Management Lab, we were able to analyze the data collected on radial gates by the Bureau in the early 1980s. This data supported our approach in calibrating submerged radial gates, but also showed some problems, suggesting that a wider range of data is needed to provide useful calibration. Preliminary field studies at the Salt River Project also supported our approach, but application to this site was not straightforward. Additional laboratory studies were conducted in FY04 and FY05. Results suggest that free-flow calibration will be sufficiently accurate with the proposed calibration approach. However, calibration under submerged conditions is proving to be more challenging. New lab data results in new analysis which prompts new lab tests. In the meantime, the Bureau of Reclamation, with financial support from the Salt River Project, is developing user-friendly computer software to implement this new calibration approach. A first draft of the software was developed during Y05, with release expect in FY06. During FY04, extensive testing of the SacMan canal automation software was conducted on a real operating canal at the Maricopa Stanfield Irrigation and Drainage District. We tested feedforward control, upstream control, downstream control, combinations of upstream and downstream control, etc. Additional testing is planned for late FY05 to apply Model Predictive Control to the test canal. Significant additional analysis of these data are needed before conclusive results can be presented. During FY05, the Central Arizona Irrigation and Drainage District began installing and using the SacMan control software. Currently, the SCADA software is operating 118 gates on their canal network. Several sites have been selected for initial automatic controls, the head of three lateral canals. Gate position sensors were installed. Initial trials are planned for late FY05. The SacMan software was provided to the Salt River Project (SRP), a large water supplier in the Phoenix area. SRP is interested in testing our automated routing procedures (SacMan Orders) manually on their system. An interface was developed to enable SacMan to retrieve data from SRP;s water ordering database system. Hydraulic analysis of one of SRPs main canals, the Southside Canal, was completed. The analysis generated data needed by our scheduling procedures. We expect SRP operators to use SacMan Orders output as general operational recommendations, which will be implemented manually. Eventually, we expect them to replace their manual procedures with SacMan Orders. 5. Describe the major accomplishments over the life of the project, including their predicted or actual impact. Engineers at the U.S. Water Conservation Laboratory, Phoenix Arizona tested and released a new software product, Software for Automated Canal Management or SacMan, to CRADA partner Automata, Inc., Nevada City, CA. This is the first comprehensive software package for canal automation available for water districts. The software includes a wide variety of control methods and options, suitable for most irrigation canal configurations. Extensive field testing was conducted at the Maricopa Stanfield Irrigation and Drainage District in central Arizona to verify the control concepts and to test the software implementation. This software could provide substantial improvement to the operation of water districts - reducing canal spills and other losses, improving service to farmers and other users (thereby reducing their water losses), and allowing water districts to control water for environmental benefits. A new device for measuring water flow rate and total-load sediment transport rate in streams was developed by Engineers at the U.S. Water Conservation Laboratory, Phoenix, AZ. This new device is simple, accurate, reliable, and has no moving parts. Prior sampling devices were complicated, had moving parts, and often resulted in unreliable estimates of sediment discharge. Extensive laboratory studies of the new device were conducted to verify the concept, and its accuracy and reliability. Reducing erosion losses from range and crop lands is an important national priority. This device could help to provide more reasonable estimates of the amount of eroded material that is making its way into stream channels. The feasibility and practicality of a new radial gate design, the Adler Gate, was verified through field and laboratory studies at the U.S. Water Conservation Laboratory, Phoenix, AZ. This new radial gate device allows the gate to operate either as an orifice (as a standard gate) to pass bed- load sediment or as a weir to pass floating debris. A field prototype was tested at a research facility at the Salt River Project and a smaller- scale device was tested in the hydraulics laboratory. This new gate can help water districts improve their operations and service to users, thereby potentially saving water. Many water delivery systems do not provide water to users at the proper time and rate of flow, resulting in water losses and decreased production. The Canal Automation Team at the U.S. Water Conservation Laboratory developed a water demand scheduling program, called SacMan Order, to help water districts manage water demands and to route changes in demand through their canal system. SacMan Order, a part of Software for Automated Canal Management or SacMan, is a computer program that accumulates water orders, keeps track of demand at any point in the system,and determines when water needs to be released from each gate structure in order to get the right amount of water to the right place at the right time. This software developed in cooperation with a CRADA partner could significantly improve the ability of canal operators to satisfy customer demands, thereby improving the efficiency of water use. The automatic control of canals has great potential for improving water management in the west. Past developments had only considered a single in-line canal and were unapplicable to a branching canal network. Engineers at the U.S. Water Conservation Laboratory developed a new automation scheme that can be applied to a branching canal network. The theory was tested through computer simulation of part of the Salt River project canal network. It demonstrated that such controls are both possible and can lead to improved canal operations, thereby improving the service to water users and potentially increasing their water use efficiency. Methods currently in use to automate the operation of canal systems are based on simple control logic that is not always well suited for complex water distribution systems. A more flexible automatic control system, Model Predictive Control or MPC, was demonstrated at the U.S. Water Conservation Lab. to provide control at least as good as other methods, but with increased ability to handle real-world constraints. Simulation studies on the test canal of the American Society of Civil Engineers and on the Salt River Project canal network demonstrated that MPC was at least as effective as optimal control methods. The ability of MPC to handle real-world constraints will increase the likelihood of success for canal automation schemes at improving water management in the west. Water released from the head of a canal arrives at the downstream end gradually. The difficulty in predicting the arrival of flow changes complicates the delivery of water to users. U.S. Water Conservation Lab researchers conducted a comprehensive analysis of feedforward control characteristics of canals and demonstrated that feedforward control based on volume compensation is as effective as computationally complex methods, when considering realistic operational constraints. The research team demonstrated through computer simulations that the feedforward control problem is not critically sensitive to accurate estimates of wave travel times. This approach greatly simplifies the method for scheduling demand changes for a canal and should make such approaches more acceptable to canal operators. Irrigation expansion and groundwater decline in the lower Mississippi River Valley has prompted water users to explore alternative water sources, including increased stream diversions to the detriment of of sensitive river ecosystems. A study of water use by irrigated agriculture at a watershed scale was conducted by the Arkansas Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) and the U.S. Water Conservation Laboratory. This study demonstrated that the on-farm improvement planned by the NRCS, including storage reservoirs, tailwater pits, pipelines and booster pumps, could reduce the need for external water sources by more than 1/2 through the capture of rainfall runoff and irrigation tailwater, and that the overall irrigation efficiency is relatively insensitive to individual field application efficiency. This study demonstrates the importance of irrigation infrastructure in the humid south and their impact on reducing water diversions and groundwater pumping. Improving the operation of large water projects is an important step in water conservation efforts to spread limited available water supplies. U.S. Water Conservation Lab Engineers, in cooperation with CRADA partner Automata Inc., developed a canal automation system, which includes Software for Automated Canal Management, or SacMan. The first version of SacMan was provided to Automata Inc. in 2002, covering manual control with intelligent assistance. This software, including future versions with full automatic control, has significant potential for improving water management in irrigation projects and the CRADA partner has already sold one copy and has interest from several other districts.

    Impacts
    (N/A)

    Publications

    • Clemmens, A.J., Bautista, E., Wahlin, B.T., Strand, R.J. 2005 Simulation of automatic canal control systems. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering. 131(4):324-335
    • Wahl, T.L., Clemmens, A.J., Replogle, J.A., Bos, M.G. 2005 Simplified design of flumes and weirs. International Commission on Irrigation and Drainage Journal. 54:231-247
    • Wahlin, B.T. 2004. Performance of model predictive control on asce test canal 1. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering. 130(3)227-238.
    • Allen, R.G., Clemmens, A.J., Burt, C.M., Solomon, K., O'Halloran, T. 2005. Prediction accuracy for project-wide evapotranspiration using crop coefficients and reference evapotranspiration. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering. 131(1):24-36.
    • Clemmens, A.J. 2004. Discussion of "transition effects in flow over side weirs". Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering. 131(4):392
    • Clemmens, A.J., Strand, R.J., Bautista, E. 2005. Field testing of sacman automated canal control system. In: United States Committee on Irrigation and Drainage Conference. p. 199-209.
    • Clemmens, A.J., Allen, R.G. 2005 Impact of agricultural water conservation on water availability. Proceedings of the World Water and Environmental Resources Congress. p. 535 (pdf)
    • Wahl, T.L., Clemmens, A.J. 2005 Applying new technologies to radial gate discharge measurements. Proceedings of the World Water and Environmental Resources Congress. p. 394 (pdf)
    • Clemmens, A.J., Strand, R.J., Bautista, E. Flexible approach to canal automation implementation. International Congress on Irrigation and Drainage. p. Q.52,R.6.07.
    • Clemmens, A.J. 2005. Raising the performance of surface irrigation. International Congress on Irrigation and Drainage. p. Q.52,P.1.06.
    • Clemmens, A.J. A process-based approach to improving the performance of irrigated agriculture. International Congress on Irrigation and Drainage. p. 1-16.


    Progress 10/01/02 to 09/30/03

    Outputs
    1. What major problem or issue is being resolved and how are you resolving it? Competition for limited water resources among various users is increasing in many areas of the country, but particularly in the arid west. Extreme drought conditions and its impact on the health of natural habitats are exacerbating this problem. Because irrigated agriculture is the largest user of fresh water resources, water suppliers are being legally forced to reallocate existing supplies. An alternative to legal reallocation is freeing up water resources through improved water management (CAST 1996, National Research Council 1996). Important elements for improving agricultural water management are improved measurement, control, and ultimately, accountability of water resources at the irrigation project level. Water uses at the project or hydrologic unit scale are often poorly documented making meaningful management of water supplies difficult. Also, water supplies for agriculture from large irrigation projects are often not controlled well, resulting in over-delivery to individual users and ineffective use at the farm level. As water moves downstream through various projects and uses, its quality degrades as salts, trace metals, and other contaminants are concentrated, often to the point of being unusable or having a negative impact on the environment. The objectives of this project are to develop tools for improving the management of water supplies, particularly for irrigation. 2. How serious is the problem? Why does it matter? In some irrigation projects, up to 30% Of diverted flows are unaccounted for. Losses occur in the form of operational spills and seepage, unaccounted for deliveries, and on-farm losses due to over-deliveries. These losses reflect the irrigation project's inability to properly measure and control water. Accurate measurement technologies have been developed and validated under laboratory conditions but field conditions often differ substantially from the ideal situation. Thus, flow measurement in the field can be difficult, inaccurate, and costly. Improved calibration procedures or even specialized measurement technologies are needed under non-standard conditions, which are typical in the field. Most canal systems are operated using manual procedures. Because control actions are undertaken one control structure at a time, they often result in delivery errors that increase with distance from the canal headgates. With current development of Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) technology it is now possible to think of developing and implementing centralized and automated canal control approaches that would allow the simultaneous operation of multiple control structures. These approaches promise to be more effective than current manual operations. 3. How does it relate to the National Program(s) and National Program Component(s) to which it has been assigned? The research is part of National Program 201, Water Quality and Management. The project falls under Component 2, Irrigation and Drainage Management. Both objectives deal with agricultural water conservation and fit under Problem Area 2.3 (Water Conservation Management), Goal 2.3.1 (Water Conservation Technologies). The research also supports Goal 2.3.3 (Agricultural Water Conservation and Environmental Quality). 4. What were the most significant accomplishments this past year? A. Many water delivery systems do not provide water to users at the proper time and rate of flow, resulting in water losses and decreased production. The Canal Automation Team at the U.S. Water Conservation Laboratory developed a water demand scheduling program, called SacMan Order, to help water districts manage water demands and to route changes in demand through their canal system. SacMan Order, a part of Software for Automated Canal Management or SacMan, is a computer program that accumulates water orders, keeps track of demand at any point in the system,and determines when water needs to be released from each gate structure in order to get the right amount of water to the right place at the right time. This software developed in cooperation with a CRADA partner could significantly improve the ability of canal operators to satisfy customer demands, thereby improving the efficiency of water use. B. The automatic control of canals, while providing significant potential for improving water management in the west, has found little application, at least partly because existing automation schemes only consider a single in-line canal and thus do not provide control for the entire canal network. Engineers at the U.S. Water Conservation Laboratory developed a new automation scheme that can be applied to an entire canal network. The theory for control of canal networks was demonstrated through computer simulation for a majority of the canal system of the Salt River project. It demonstrated that such controls are both possible and can lead to improved canal operations, thereby improving the service to water users and potentially increasing their water use efficiency. Methods currently in use to automate the operation of canal systems are based on simple control logic that is not always well suited for complex water distribution systems. A more flexible automatic control system, Model Predictive Control or MPC, was demonstrated at the U.S. Water Conservation Lab. to provide control at least as good as other methods, but with increased ability to handle real-world constraints. Simulation studies on the test canal of the American Society of Civil Engineers and on the Salt River Project canal network demonstrated that MPC was at least as effective as optimal control methods. The ability of MPC to handle real-world constraints will increase the likelihood of success for canal automation schemes at improving water management in the west. Water released from the head of the canal arrives at the downstream end gradually and often over a time that is difficult to predict, thereby complicating the delivery of water to users. A comprehensive analysis of wave travel in canal by the canal automation team at the U.S. Water Conservation Lab. demonstrated that volume compensation approaches provided control as good as more complex methods. The automation team developed and verified through computer simulation that properly accounting for the volume changes in a canal pool were more important for canal control than accurately estimating wave travel times. This approach greatly simplifies the method for scheduling demand changes for a canal and should make such approaches more acceptable to canal operators. Irrigation expansion and groundwater decline in the lower Mississippi River Valley has prompted water users to explore alternative water sources, including diversion of water from environmentally sensitive rivers. A study of water use by irrigated agriculture at a watershed scale was conducted by the Arkansas Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) and the U.S. Water Conservation Laboratory. This study demonstrated that the on-farm improvement planned by the NRCS, including storage reservoirs, tailwater pits, pipelines and booster pumps, could reduce the need for external water sources by more than 1/2 through the capture of rainfall runoff and irrigation tailwater, and that the overall irrigation efficiency is relatively insensitive to individual field application efficiency. This study demonstrates the importance of irrigation infrastructure in the humid south and their impact on reducing water diversions and groundwater pumping. D. Progress Report Laboratory studies on flow conditioning in pipes and culvert is continuing. The methodology for measuring velocity distributions is working, and the large 30" concrete pipe has been set up to handle the variety of tests planned. Some of the equipment for the field study extension to determine errors in flow meter installations has been purchased and is being evaluated. The main features of the SacMan canal automation software have been field tested at the Maricopa Stanfield Irrigation and Drainage District. An initial version of the software, handling manual control systems, was turned over to our CRADA partner. The control system has been installed at the Central Arizona Irrigation and Drainage District, Eloy, AZ. The initial installation has manual control, with full automatic control being phased in over the next few years. The first full version of the software will be provided in late FY03 or early FY04. Through cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation, Water Resources Management Lab, we were able to analyze the data collected on radial gates by the Bureau in the early 1980s. This data supported our approach in calibrating submerged radial gates, but also showed that a wider range of data is needed to provide useful calibration. Preliminary field studies at the Salt River Project also supported our approach. In FY03, we installed brackets during canal dry-up so that we could measure the pressure below the gate at the experimental site on the Salt River Project's Arizona Canal. NEW RADIAL GATE DESIGN New radial-gate designs for irrigation canals relocate the gate pivots above a canal bottom seal so that the gate can swing through the bottom location and serve either as an overflow weir or as a traditional underflow orifice. The prototype gate appears fully capable of meeting operational requirements related to controlling and measuring flow rates over an extended flow range involving either overshot (weir) or undershot (orifice) modes in a restricted width that would challenge previous radial gate structures. Both floating and bed-load trash are readily handled by the dual modes of operation. Special operational procedures for trash handling are offered when two gates can be operated in opposite modes at the same time. DESIGNING A TOTAL-LOAD, STREAM-FLOW SAMPLER Total-load stream flow sampling has been a perpetual problem in sediment monitoring to document erosion into reservoirs and evaluate watershed treatments. This is particularly important with the recent history of major forest fires. Usually a combination of bed-load sampling devices, suspended-load suction samplers, and a flume for total flow rate, are used. A total-load sediment sampler designed on a new and simplified concept performs all three of these functions well. It requires installation in sites that can provide an over-fall height greater than the maximum stream flow depth. Design parameters are offered to allow flow accuracies to within 3%, including unbiased sediment size distributions, a major problem with previous sampling systems. 5. Describe the major accomplishments over the life of the project, including their predicted or actual impact. Improving the operation of large water projects is an important step in water conservation efforts to spread limited available water supplies. Engineers from the U.S. Water Conservation Lab, in cooperation with CRADA partner Automata Inc., have developed a canal automation system, which includes Software for Automated Canal Management, or SacMan. The first version of SacMan was provided to Automata Inc. in 2002, covering manual control with intelligent assistance. This software, including future versions with full automatic control, has significant potential for improving water management in irrigation projects and the CRADA partner has already sold one copy and has interest from several other districts. 6. What do you expect to accomplish, year by year, over the next 3 years? By late FY03 or early FY04, we intend to complete transfer of the SacMan canal automation software to CRADA partner Automata, Inc. We will continue to make upgrades in functionality through FY05. By the end of FY04, we will have completed canal automation field studies on the WM canal, including upstream water-level control, downstream water-level feedback control, feedforward routing of demand changes, high-low limits, etc. By the end of FY06 we also hope to complete field application of this control system on canals in addition to WM. Timing of this depends on cooperation with irrigation districts. By the end of FY04, we hope to have a prototype system developed for the calibration of submerged radial gates. If possible, this will be programmed for computer application. By the end of FY05, we hope to have completed laboratory and field studies necessary to extend this calibration method to the full range of field conditions. By the end of FY04, we expect to complete the research on flow conditioning for pipes/culverts, providing recommendations on the accuracy of various meter installations and how that accuracy can be improved when meter installation is not ideal. The study plans to be extended to include field investigation of irrigation wells and ways to mitigate problems of flow disturbances by piping components, such as valves and elbows, and document the degradation of flow record for various common meters with distance from such disturbances. This extended work will be completed by FY06. By the end of FY05, we plan to complete studies on using surface velocities to infer flow rate in irrigation canals. By the end of FY04, we plan to complete studies on a modified radial gate that provides overshot and undershot flow 7. What science and/or technologies have been transferred and to whom? When is the science and/or technology likely to become available to the end- user (industry, farmer, other scientists)? What are the constraints, if known, to the adoption and durability of the technology products? In FY02, Dr. Clemmens assisted the South Australian government with planning for the rehabilitation of major irrigation works along the Lower Murray River. Technology transferred included 1)flow measurement techniques, including flume, weirs, and flow conditioning for pipe meters, 2) recommendations on improvements in surface irrigation layouts, including use of SRFR software developed under another CRIS project at the lab, 3) recommendations on the organization of the water users and the distribution system layout, and 4)recommendations on separating sources of drainage water to avoid water quality problems in the Murray River. Drs. Bautista and Replogle assisted the Lahontan Conservation District and the NRCS with rehabilitation priorities for water conservation in the Newlands Project, Fallon, NV. In FY03, Dr. Clemmens provided assistance to the Newlands Water Protective Association, Fallon, NV on water measurement and methods for improving field irrigation performance. Advise was also provided on improving irrigation performance for the Institute of the Americas and the Bureau of Reclamation during an Outreach Workshop in Greeley, CO dealing with the current drought. Surface irrigation modeling technology was provided to NRCS staff in Southern Arizona. Canal automation technology was provided to the Central Arizona Irrigation and Drainage District, in cooperation with CRADA partner, Automata, Inc. Central Arizona Irrigation and Drainage District (CAIDD) purchased the canal automation system developed by the U.S. Water Conservation Laboratory in cooperation with CRADA partner Automata, Inc. The canal automation system was installed in record time and allowed CAIDD to operate their canals remotely within a few months of ordering the system. The district has agreed to implement additional canal automation features provided by Software for Automated Canal MANagement (SacMan) over the next few years. Automata continues to actively market this product with their customers. A canal gate manufacturer, AquaSystems 2000/Inc. was assisted in installing a testing facility for calibrating special accordion-type, vertically-moving gate structures that incorporated the long-throated flume developed at the U.S. Water Conservation Laboratory as an improved measuring and control device for irrigated agriculture. These gates combine the upstream control capabilities of leaf gates, which are similar to lifting the downstream edge of a door across the canal that is hinged at the upstream edge, but without the large lifting force of the leaf gates. A water-resources products manufacturer, Plasti-Fab, cooperated in laboratory tests to determine head losses caused by their rubberized- hinge flap gates. The tests were conducted at the U.S. Water Conservation Laboratory. These gates are meant to replace standard iron flap gates, which are typically installed on the end of drain lines to prevent backflow and entry of animals. Detailed design information from the laboratory tests is used for the selection and computation of head loss from these special gates. Historical data for the standard iron flap gates, from 8-inch to 48-inch diameter, was gathered from several sources, reformatted in both metric and English units, and combined for both types of gates for ready application by drainage engineers. New concepts developed at the U.S. Water Conservation Laboratory were presented to the International Conference of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers, for designing and constructing total-load, stream- flow sediment samplers that can also serve as a stream-flow measuring device. Accurate total-load stream flow sampling has been a perpetual problem in sediment monitoring to document erosion into reservoirs and evaluate watershed treatments, which is increasingly important with the recent history of major forest fires. Usually a combination of bed-load sampling devices, suspended-load suction samplers, and a flume for total flow rate, are used. This new concept allows the performance of all three functions with one simplified device. 8. List your most important publications in the popular press and presentations to organizations and articles written about your work. (NOTE: This does not replace your peer-reviewed publications listed below). "District's Automated Canal System Reduces Labor-intensive Operation" published in US Water News, March 2003 V. 20(3) p.4, 24. "Canal Automation for Water Districts" published in Nov.-Dec. 2002 newsletter by Automata, Inc.

    Impacts
    (N/A)

    Publications

    • Bautista, E., Strelkoff, T., Clemmens, A.J. 2003. General characteristics of solutions to the open-channel flow feedforward control problem. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering. 129(2)129-137.
    • Wahlin, B.T., Clemmens, A.J. 2006. Performance of historic downstream canal control algorithms on asce test canal I. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering. 128(6):365-375.
    • Replogle, J.A., R. Adler, R.S. Gooch. Operational evaluations of new radial gate design. Proceedings of 2nd Int. Conference on Irrig. Drain. 2003. p. 421-433.
    • Wahlin, B.T., Bautista, E. 2006. Feedforward control with anticipation: volume compensation versus model predictive control. United States Committee On Irrigation And Drainage Conference. p. 487-496.
    • Clemmens, A.J., Strand, R.J., Feuer, L. 2003. Application of canal automation in central arizona. United States Committee of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering Conference. p.453-464.
    • Wahl, T.L., Clemmens, A.J., Replogle, J.A. The energy correction for calibration of submerged radial gates. United States Committee of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering Conference. p. 757-766.
    • Robinson, P., Clemmens, A.J., Carman, D.K., Dalmut, Z., Fortner, T. 2002. Irrigation development in eastern arkansas: water supplies, uses, and efficiencies. United States Committee of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering Conference. p. 283-292.
    • Clemmens, A.J., Replogle, J.A. 2003. Irrigation metering. Encyclopedia of Water Science. p. 495-497.
    • Clemmens, A.J. Canal automation. Encyclopedia of Water Science. 2003. p. 53-56.


    Progress 10/01/01 to 09/30/02

    Outputs
    1. What major problem or issue is being resolved and how are you resolving it? Competition for limited water resources among various users is increasing in many areas of the country, but particularly in the arid west. Extreme drought conditions and its impact on the health of natural habitats are exacerbating this problem. Because irrigated agriculture is the largest user of fresh water resources, water suppliers are being legally forced to reallocate existing supplies. An alternative to legal reallocation is freeing up water resources through improved water management (CAST 1996, National Research Council 1996). Important elements for improving agricultural water management are improved measurement, control, and ultimately, accountability of water resources at the irrigation project level. Water uses at the project or hydrologic unit scale are often poorly documented making meaningful management of water supplies difficult. Also, water supplies for agriculture from large irrigation projects are often not controlled well, resulting in over-delivery to individual users and ineffective use at the farm level. As water moves downstream through various projects and uses, its quality degrades as salts, trace metals, and other contaminants are concentrated, often to the point of being unusable or having a negative impact on the environment. The objectives of this project are to develop tools for improving the management of water supplies, particularly for irrigation. 2. How serious is the problem? Why does it matter? In some irrigation projects, up to 30% Of diverted flows are unaccounted for. Losses occur in the form of operational spills and seepage, unaccounted for deliveries, and on-farm losses due to over-deliveries. These losses reflect the irrigation project?s inability to properly measure and control water. Accurate measurement technologies have been developed and validated under laboratory conditions but field conditions often differ substantially from the ideal situation. Thus, flow measurement in the field can be difficult, inaccurate, and costly. Improved calibration procedures or even specialized measurement technologies are needed under non-standard conditions, which are typical in the field. Most canal systems are operated using manual procedures. Because control actions are undertaken one control structure at a time, they often result in delivery errors that increase with distance from the canal headgates. With current development of Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) technology it is now possible to think of developing and implementing centralized and automated canal control approaches that would allow the simultaneous operation of multiple control structures. These approaches promise to be more effective than current manual operations. 3. How does it relate to the national Program(s) and National Program Component(s) to which it has been assigned? The research is part of National Program 201, Water Quality and Management. The project falls under Component 2, Irrigation and Drainage Management. Both objectives deal with agricultural water conservation and fit under Problem Area 2.3 (Water Conservation Management), Goal 2.3.1 (Water Conservation Technologies). The research also supports Goal 2.3.3 (Agricultural Water Conservation and Environmental Quality). 4. What was your most significant accomplishment this past year? A. Improving the operation of large water projects is an important step in water conservation efforts to spread limited available water supplies. Engineers from the U.S. Water Conservation Lab, in cooperation with CRADA partner Automata Inc., have developed and canal automation system, which includes Software for Automated Canal MANagement ? SacMan. The first version of SacMan was provided to Automata Inc. in 2002, covering manual control with intelligent assistance. This software, including future versions with full automatic control, has significant potential for improving water management in irrigation projects and the CRADA partner has already sold one copy and has interest from several other districts. B. None. C. None. D. Progress Report Laboratory studies on flow conditioning in pipes and culvert is ongoing. The bugs have been worked out the the measurement methods and the pipe has been set up to handle the variety of tests planned. Several instrument manufacturers have cooperated in various tests and more such cooperation is expected. The main features of the SacMan canal automation software have been field tested. An initial version of the software, handling manual control systems, was turned over to our CRADA partner. The control system is being installed at the Central Arizona Irrigation and Drainage District, Eloy, AZ. The initial installation is manual control, with full automatic control being phased in over the next year or so. The first full version of the software will be provided in early FY03. Initial studies on the control of branching canals were successful. Both Linear Quadratic Regulators and Model Predictive Control were successfully applied to one of the ASCE test canals through computer simulation. The controller design methods were able to account for the interacting influences of the various branches. Through cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation, Water Resources Management Lab, we were able to analyze the data collected on radial gates by the Bureau in the early 1980s. This data supported our approach in calibrating submerged radial gates, but also showed that a wider range of data is needed to provide useful calibration. Preliminary field studies at the Salt River Project also supported our approach. 5. Describe your major accomplishments over the life of the project, including their predicted or actual impact? New project, no past significant accomplishments. See project 0401129, Water Project Management, for past research accomplishments. 6. What do you expect to accomplish, year by year, over the next 3 years? By the end of FY03, we expect to complete the research on flow conditioning for pipes/culverts, providing recommendations on the accuracy of various meter installations and how that accuracy can be improved when meter installation is not idea. We also intend to complete studies on a debris-shedding propeller meter by the end of FY04. This should have commercial application. By the end of FY03, we intend to complete transfer of the SacMan canal automation software to CRADA partner Automata, Inc. We will continue to make upgrades in functionality through FY05. By the end of FY03, we will have completed simulation studies on control of branching canal networks, with both LQR and Model predictive control methods. Field testing of branching canal logic will depend on cooperators willingness to run tests. We hope to have such tests in FY04 or 05. By the end of FY04, we will have completed canal automation field studies on the WM canal, including upstream water-level control, downstream water-level feedback control, feedforward routing of demand changes, high-low limits, etc. We also hope to complete field application of feedforward routing methods by the end of FY04, on canals in addition to WM. Timing of this depends on cooperation with irrigation districts. By the end of FY03, we hope to have a prototype system developed for the calibration of submerged radial gates. If possible, this will be programmed for computer application. By the end of FY04, we hope to have completed laboratory and field studies necessary to extend this calibration method to the full range of field conditions. By the end of FY04, we plan to complete studies on using surface velocities to infer flow rate. We also intend to complete a laboratory study on high sediment-load flumes and extend the flume-chute calibration system. 7. What technologies have been transferred and to whom? When is the technology likely to become available to the end user (industry, farmer other scientist)? What are the constraints, if known, to the adoption durability of the technology? Dr. Clemmens assisted the South Australian government with planning for the rehabilitation of major irrigation works along the Lower Murray River. Technology transferred included 1)flow measurement techniques, including flume, weirs, and flow conditioning for pipe meters, 2) recommendations on improvements in surface irrigation layouts, including use of SRFR software developed under another CRIS project at the lab, 3) recommendations on the organization of the water users and the distribution system layout, and 4)recommendations on separating sources of drainage water to avoid water quality problems in the Murray River. Drs. Bautista and Replogle assisted the Lahontan Conservation District and the NRCS with rehabilitation priorities for water conservation in the Newlands Project, Fallon, NV.

    Impacts
    (N/A)

    Publications

    • Wahl, T. L., A. J. Clemmens, M. G. Bos, and J. A. Replogle. Tools for design, calibration, construction and use of long-throated flumes and broad-crested weirs. p.p. 601-610. In USCID/EWRI Conference, San Luis Obispo, July 10-13, 2002.
    • Replogle, J. A. 2002. Some observations on irrigation flow measurements at the end of the millennium. Transactions of the ASAE 18(1):6-14.
    • Bautista, E. Mejoramiento del servicio de riego: un esfuerzo colaborativo entre organizaciones de riego e instituciones de investigacion. p. 1-10, CD-ROM. In 10th National Irrigation Congress, National Association of Irrigation Specialists, Chihuahua, MX, Aug. 16-18, 2000.
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