Source: AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE submitted to
IMPROVED ANIMAL MANURE TREATMENT METHODS FOR ENHANCED WATER QUALITY
Sponsoring Institution
Agricultural Research Service/USDA
Project Status
TERMINATED
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
0403851
Grant No.
(N/A)
Project No.
6657-13630-001-00D
Proposal No.
(N/A)
Multistate No.
S-1000
Program Code
(N/A)
Project Start Date
Apr 3, 2000
Project End Date
Apr 2, 2005
Grant Year
(N/A)
Project Director
HUNT P G
Recipient Organization
AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE
(N/A)
FLORENCE,SC 29503
Performing Department
(N/A)
Non Technical Summary
(N/A)
Animal Health Component
70%
Research Effort Categories
Basic
10%
Applied
70%
Developmental
20%
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
1330210202010%
1330330202010%
4035370202080%
Goals / Objectives
Develop improved systems for solids removal from liquid manures; develop and evaluate passive treatment technologies to capture or transform manure nutrients in constructed wetlands; develop and evaluate high-tech treatments to capture or transform manure nutrients including nitrification /denitrification reaction units and phosphorus removal units. Evaluate and improve treatment technologies for a farm-scale system to manage animal waste from swine production to protect water and air quality. Develop and evaluate cost-effective systems of swine wastewater treatment technologies that meet environmental regulations and can be used to replace lagoons on small and large farms. Elucidate and enhance microbial processes that allow systems of wastewater treatment technologies to more effectively capture nutrients, reduce emissions and kill pathogens. Document the effectiveness of swine wastewater treatment systems to reduce emissions of ammonia and volatile organic compounds associated with odor. Identify microorganisms that enhance performance of animal waste management systems.
Project Methods
Solids removal enhancement in both passive and high-tech systems will be enhanced by the use of polymers. Pretreatment, loading, sequencing, and cold temperature operations will be evaluated in research wetland of both continuous marsh and marsh-pond-marsh type. We are working with advanced stage of the use of polymer encapsulated nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria for more effective treatment of swine waste after solids removal. We are also expanding the types of wastewater treated with our P removal protocol. With new funds, we will expand investigation of a full-scale system that removes and stabilizes solids, removes N, captures P, and kills pathogens. We will also conduct analyses and simulation of project reliability and robustness. We will better define the microbial population involved in nitrification, denitrification, and odor consumption, and seek to find more effective organisms which can be used via immobilization. Collaborative research in the overall project will be conducted with ARS labs in Beltsville, MD; Bowling Green, KY; Fargo, ND; Tifton, GA, and Watkinsville, GA. Interactions will be enhanced with international cooperators from Brazil, Canada, and Japan to identify improved microorganisms for animal waste management.

Progress 04/03/00 to 04/02/05

Outputs
1. What major problem or issue is being resolved and how are you resolving it (summarize project aims and objectives)? How serious is the problem? What does it matter? Confined production of livestock, fish, and birds creates conflicts between the need to dispose of animal manures and the public's desire for an environment without odor, pollution, and pathogens. In the southeastern USA, many of these operations are located in close proximity to environmentally sensitive streams and only a few hundred miles from sensitive coastal estuaries. Degradation of coastal estuaries and waters would greatly affect tourism, fishing, and other industries. Our goal is to provide technologies that maintain or improve environmental quality while ensuring economically viable enterprises. Our approach involves the use of systems that are passive, high-tech mechanical, and blends of both technologies. Our passive-natural treatment approach involves capture and transformation of nutrients in constructed wetlands. Our high-technology treatment approach involves separation of solid and liquid manures, removal of nitrogen via nitrification/denitrification, phosphorus precipitation and recovery, and pathogen reduction. We are evaluating a full-scale animal waste treatment system to capture nutrients, reduce emissions of ammonia and nuisance odors, and kill harmful pathogens. We will also evaluate natural systems such as constructed wetlands as well as traditional problems such as the impact of manure land applications on soils and phosphorus and trace element accumulation in soils. Our research contributes primarily to Component 2, Nutrient Management, and complements Component 1, Atmospheric Emissions, and Component 3, Pathogens. This project plays a complementary role in Water Quality and Management (201) National program, within Component 3, Water Quality Protection and Management. 2. List the milestones (indicators of progress) from your Project Plan. Milestone 2000 - 1. Publish paper on solids and nutrient removal from flushed swine manure using polyacrylamides. 2. Publish paper on a pilot system for polymer immobilized nitrifying bacteria treatment of swine wastewater. 3. Publish paper on development of high-ammonia tolerant bacteria used for animal waste treatment. Milestone 2001 1. File patent for an improved protocol for phosphorus separation from animal wastewaters. Milestone 2002 - 1. Publish paper on application of hydrogel bead technology for nitrification and denitrification of animal wastewater. 2. Publish paper on bench prototype systems integrating solids removal and biological processes for nutrient removal. Milestone 2003 - 1. Publish paper on methods of phosphorus removal from animal waste. Milestone 2004 - 1. Publish papers on performance of pilot plant system that incorporates complete treatment (i.e., solids separation, nitrification, denitrification, and phosphorus removal). 3a List the milestones that were scheduled to be addressed in FY 2005. For each milestone, indicate the status: fully met, substantially met, or not met. If not met, why. 1. Publish papers on performance of pilot plant system that incorporates complete treatment (i.e., solids separation, nitrification, denitrification, and phosphorus removal). Milestone Fully Met 3b List the milestones that you expect to address over the next 3 years (FY 2006, 2007, and 2008). What do you expect to accomplish, year by year, over the next 3 years under each milestone? This is the final year of the project. A new CRIS project that will build on the accomplishments of this project has been developed. 4a What was the single most significant accomplishment this past year? In 2004, we reported that a new livestock waste treatment system was determined to meet the strict technical environmental performance standards defined as an Environmentally Superior Technology. The system was developed and patented by ARS scientists and implemented by private collaborators for treating wastewater from commercial swine- production facilities. We now report that this system was enhanced by the startup and successful operation of a facility for full-scale composting of the separated manure solids. The centralized solids processing facility produced quality composts that conserved 95-100% of the nitrogen and other nutrients into a stabilized product with an earthy scent that met "Class A" biosolids standards due to high pathogen reduction. These findings provide documentation of the successful operation of the total treatment system which has two components: 1) an on-farm wastewater treatment system consisting of liquid-solid separation, nitrification/ denitrification, and soluble phosphorus removal, and 2) a centralized solids processing facility where separated manure and cotton gin residue are aerobically composted and transformed into soil amendments, organic fertilizers, and potting soil. The on-farm system removed more than 97% of the suspended solids from wastewater. It stripped the water of 95% of its total phosphorus, 99% of its ammonia, 98% of its copper, more than 99% of its biochemical oxygen demand and odor-causing components, and produced a disinfected effluent. In addition, the old wastewater lagoon was converted into clean, aerated water that substantially reduced ammonia emissions. Thus, this system eliminates the discharge of animal waste to surface or ground waters; substantially eliminates the release from swine farms of ammonia, odor and disease-transmitting vectors and airborne pathogens; and eliminates contamination of soil or ground water with nutrients or heavy metals. The effort was part of an agreement between swine producers Smithfield Foods and Premium Standard Farms and North Carolina Attorney Generals office to identify and evaluate cleaner technologies that could replace current waste lagoons. The ARS research Center at Florence, SC, cooperated with North Carolina State University and private firms to design, construct, and evaluate the new technology. These findings overall showed that cleaner alternative technologies are technically and operationally feasible and that they can have significant positive impacts on the environment and the livestock industry. 4b List other significant accomplishments, if any. 1) Outstanding reduction on ammonia emissions and odor levels was determined at full-scale in an anaerobic lagoon converted to aerobic storage pond using treated effluent from ARS-patented system in Duplin Co. , NC. Environmental concerns about ammonia emissions and odor from anaerobic swine lagoons are due mainly to the large concentration in small geographic areas of large confined animal feeding operations. Air quality improvements were estimated by comparing reduction in ammonia emissions and odor levels between the renovated lagoon and a conventional anaerobic lagoon system. Ammonia emissions were determined by mass balances using passive ammonia flux samplers and selected odor compounds in lagoon water by gas chromatographic methods. These studies demonstrated the potential environmental benefits of using wastewater technologies alternatives that produce clean water and substantially reduce ammonia emissions from traditional anaerobic lagoons. 2) A field prototype system was tested to extract phosphorus from poultry litter and solid manure using the quick wash process developed by ARS-Florence scientists. Mass balances indicated that the quick wash process successfully extracted and recovered more than 50% of the phosphorus contained in solid manure. Phosphorus build-up in soils to excessively high levels due to animal manure application is often an environmental concern. The aim of this technology is to solve the problems of redistribution of phosphorus from solid manure when land is limited. 3) Scientists at the ARS Florence Center were able to isolate from animal wastewater the planctomycetes bacteria used in the anammox process. Short for "anaerobic ammonium oxidation," the process is more energy- efficient than traditional biological nitrogen-removal systems. They've highlighted anammox's commercial potential by removing nitrogen from wastewater at rates of 500 grams of nitrogen per cubic meter daily. This finding may lead to development of more economical treatment systems for animal wastewater. 4) Scientists have generally thought that relatively low quantities of inert, atmospheric di-nitrogen gas would be emitted from animal-waste treatment lagoons because of insufficient oxygen that is necessary to drive these biological processes in the lagoons. However, recent measurements and scientifically published data showed large amounts of di- nitrogen gas emission from swine treatment lagoons. These findings have called the assumptions about oxygen transfer into question. Based on 297 relevant experimental datasets published in the last five decades, researchers of the ARS Coastal Plains Research Center synthesized a new unified oxygen transfer equation to predict the amount of oxygen absorption rate into treatment lagoons. The analysis revealed that sufficient atmospheric oxygen can be supplied to treatment lagoons to support substantial biological transformation of ammonia to inert, atmospheric di-nitrogen gas formation. 5) Riparian wetland buffers are one of the most common and important natural resources conservation practices used in the USA and worldwide. They are particularly effective in reducing non-point source nitrogen pollution by denitrification. The denitrification levels were measured in different landscape position of a livestock-manure-impacted watershed. Measurements were made of the potential nitrogen removal along with the potential nitrous oxide (a greenhouse gas) production during denitrification. Most of the sites had very little or no production of nitrous oxide, but some hot spots existed. Understanding the causes of this denitrification differentiation in watershed riparian landscape is important. Initial data indicate that it is substantially related to the carbon and nitrogen ratio in the soil. 6) Phosphorus materials recovered from the full-scale wastewater treatment in Duplin Co., NC, and the manure wash field prototype systems were characterized for total phosphorus content and used in greenhouse experiments to determine plant response to different application rates of phosphorus byproducts. Phosphorus reuse is becoming important for the fertilizer industry because world phosphorus reserves are limited. Plant response trials indicated that phosphorus byproducts from both systems behaved as slow release phosphorus source when compared to commercial triple super phosphate used as a control. 4d Progress report. 1) This report serves to document research conducted under a Reimbursable Cooperative Agreement between ARS and North Carolina State University. (Project 6657-13630-001-05R "Evaluation of Environmentally Superior Technology: Full-Scale Swine Waste Treatment System.") A system of swine wastewater treatment technologies was developed to capture nutrients, reduce emissions of ammonia and nuisance odors, kill harmful pathogens, and generate value-added products from manure. The total system had two main components: 1) an on-farm wastewater treatment system, and 2) a centralized solids processing facility. Full-scale demonstration and verification were part of a Smithfield Foods-Premium Standard Farms/North Carolina Attorney General agreement to identify technologies to replace current lagoons with Environmentally Superior Technology. Objectives of this evaluation were to provide critical performance evaluation of the system and determine if the technology meets the criteria of Environmentally Superior Technology defined in section II.C of the Agreement. The on-farm technology used three process units consisting of polymer- enhanced solid-liquid separation, nitrification/denitrification, and soluble phosphorus removal, linked together into a practical system. The system was invented by Florence Soil Scientists Matias Vanotti, Ariel Szogi, and Patrick Hunt ("Wastewater Treatment System" US Patent No. 6, 893,567 Issued May 17, 2005). The first process unit in the system - the Ecopurin Solid-Liquid Separation Module, developed by the Spain-based firm Selco MC of Castellon - separated solids and liquids using polymer flocculation and dewatering equipment. The second process unit used the Biogreen Nitrogen Removal Module, developed by Hitachi Plant Engineering & Construction Co. in Tokyo, Japan. It used nitrifying bacteria entrapped in polymer pellets to enhance ammonia removal. The third process unit in the system was the Phosphorus Separation Module developed by ARS. This process recovered calcium phosphate and destroyed pathogens with the alkaline pH. The on-farm system was installed at Goshen Ridge, a 4,400-head finishing farm in Duplin County, NC, and evaluated intensively from March 1, 2003, to March 1, 2004, under steady-state conditions. The system removed 97.6% of the suspended solids, 99.7% of biological oxygen demand, 98.5% of total nitrogen, 98.7% of ammonia, 95% of total phosphorus, 98.7% of copper, and 99.0% of zinc. The treatment system also removed 97.9% of odor compounds in the liquid and reduced pathogen indicators to non- detectable levels. In less than a year, the anaerobic lagoon that was replaced with the treatment system was converted into an aerobic pond with ammonia concentration in the liquid of <30 mg/L that substantially reduced ammonia emissions. Evaluation of the on-farm system was included in a Phase I Final Report submitted to the Attorney General of North Carolina in July 2004: Vanotti, M.B. 2004. Evaluation of Environmentally Superior Technology. Available at: http://www.cals.ncsu. edu:8050/waste_mgt/smithfield_projects/phase1report04/A. 9Super%20Soil%20final.pdf. The composting demonstration technology was developed by Super Soil Systems USA, and it was installed at Hickory Grove farm in Sampson County, NC. It treated a mixture of manure and cotton gin trash residues using a mechanically agitated bed system with further stabilization in static windrows. The technology was evaluated intensively under steady-state conditions from June 1, 2004, to January 15, 2005. A total of 273 tons of raw manure solids was converted into 237 tons of quality compost with an earthy scent and rich texture that can be used for fertilizer manufacture, soil amendments, and potting soil. The process conserved 95-100% of the nitrogen and substantially eliminated pathogen indicators meeting Class A biosolids standards. Evaluation of the centralized solids processing facility was included in a Phase II Final Report submitted to the Attorney General of North Carolina in July 2005: Vanotti, M. B. 2005. Evaluation of environmentally superior technology. Phase II: http://www.cals.ncsu. edu/waste_mgt/smithfield_projects/phase2report05/reports/A1.pdf It was verified that both the on-farm liquid treatment system and the centralized solids processing facility were technically and operationally feasible. Based on performance results obtained, it was determined that they met the Agreements technical performance standards that define an Environmentally Superior Technology. 2) This report serves to document research conducted under a Reimbursable Cooperative Agreement between ARS and the USDA-Foreign Agricultural Service (Project 6657-13630-001-09R "Development of new generation low-cost treatment of ammonia to benefit the environment and promote sustainable livestock production"). Agricultural Research Service (ARS) scientists in South Carolina are breaking new ground in using innovative technological advances to remove ammonia from water discharged from animal processing facilities. Working with a Duplin County, North Carolina, swine facility, researchers from ARS Coastal Plains Soil, Water, and Plant Research Center in Florence, SC, recently became the first to isolate the bacteria used in the anammox process from animal wastewater. Anammox, which stands for anaerobic ammonium oxidation, is a newly discovered biologically mediated segment of the nitrogen cycle that uses bacteria to directly convert nitrite and ammonium to harmless dinitrogen gas. The ARS researchers soil scientists Matias Vanotti and Ariel Szogi isolated the bacteria from animal waste during studies aimed at developing process applications for anammox through continuous-flow treatment and microbial immobilization techniques. They have consistently obtained nitrogen removal rates of 500 g per cubic meter per day; their goal is to triple this amount in the next year using specially designed reactors. The anammox process uses planctomycetes bacteria to remove ammonium from wastewater without costly use of aeration or addition of expensive additives such as carbon. Its considered to be more energy-efficient than traditional biological nitrogen-removal systems because only part of the ammonium needs to be nitrified. In addition, the ARS researchers have launched a cooperative three-year project with Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria (EMBRAPA), Brazils government agency devoted to agricultural research, to develop new-generation, low-cost, anammox-based treatment of animal wastewater there and in the United States. In Brazil, the swine production industry has shifted geographically, with a high concentration in the southern region and a strong expansion towards the center-west region. These changes have had a high environmental impact, caused by the introduction of excess nutrients in soil and surface waters. Dr. Airton Kunz of EMBRAPAs Swine and Poultry visited the ARS-Florence laboratory during one month in Jan-Feb 2005. Four new anammox reactors were built: two for use in Concordia, Santa Catarina, Brazil, and the other two for work in Florence, South Carolina, USA. The reactors were seeded with local swine waste sludge, and parallel studies were started in both laboratories. Drs. Matias Vanotti and Ariel Szogi have planned a trip to Brazil to visit research projects in Concordia and discuss anammox advances with Dr. Kunz and cooperators at Federal University of Santa Catarina. Dr. Mari Cruz Garcia, a visiting scientist from the Spanish Agricultural Technology Institute working at ARS-Florence, successfully identified anammox bacteria using Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization (FISH) techniques. She trained Dr. Kunz on this molecular technique to facilitate identification of sludge and sediments in Brazil where anammox bacteria may be present. The following presentation and news release relate to research done under this project: Vanotti, M.B., K. Furukawa, M.C. Garcia-Gonzalez, and A.A. Szogi. 2005. Nitrogen removal with the anaerobic ammonia oxidation (Anammox) process using polymer gel biomass carrier seeded with swine effluent sludge. American Society of Agricultural Engineers Annual International Meeting, July 17-20, 2005, Tampa, Florida. ARS Information Staff made a news release July 22, 2005, summarizing activities of the project: http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/pr/2005/050722.htm. 3) This report serves to document research conducted under a cooperative agreement between ARS and North Carolina A&T State University (Project 6657-13630-001-06S Alternate Flooding and Draining to Enhance Nitrification in Marsh-Pond-Marsh Constructed Wetlands to Treat Swine Wastewater). While constructed wetlands can be very effective in the removal of nitrogen from swine wastewater, the removal is generally limited by the availability of oxygen to convert ammonia to nitrate. Efforts to improve the effectiveness of marsh-pond-marsh by alternating wetting and drying cycles were only partially successful. Thus, two types of aeration retrofit were investigated to determine both the improved ammonia conversion to nitrate and the amount of ammonia lost via volatilization. The more costly retrofit converted the ammonia with very little ammonia volatilization. The less costly method produced mixed results. Denitrification conversion of the nitrate into harmless dinitrogen seems to be active in both types of retrofits. 4) This report serves to document research conducted under a cooperative agreement between ARS and North Carolina State University (Project 6657- 13630-001-08S Technology Transfer for Animal Waste Treatment Improvements). We have continued to meet with NCSU representatives for update and coordination meetings and have communicated important facts about the progress of ARS waste treatment research and received information on the rapidly changing swine waster treatment situation in North Carolina. These included the Symposium on the State of the Science for Animal Manure and Waste Management sponsored by the National Center for Manure and Animal Waste Management and the CSREES Multiple State Committee, S- 1000, Animal Manure and Waste Utilization, Treatment and Nuisance Avoidance for a Sustainable Agriculture. 5. Describe the major accomplishments over the life of the project, including their predicted or actual impact. 1) Identification and demonstration of polymer-immobilized nitrifying bacteria technology as a potential solution to animal waste treatment. Results obtained with the pilot bioreactor have been excellent. The capacity for ammonia removal from swine wastewater exceeded design expectations based on municipal wastewater treatment systems. Compared to conventional systems, this technology allows an increase of about 1,000- fold more nitrifying bacteria to be retained in the reaction tanks. Thus, it both increased efficiency and reduced capital cost. This work showed for the first time that the technology can be applied for treatment of animal wastewater. When retrofit to swine lagoons, it has the potential for treating large amounts of ammonia that would otherwise volatilize and escape to the environment. 2) High ammonia-tolerant bacteria were used to treat concentrated animal wastewater; they enabled fast ammonia removal using aeration treatment without the problem of ammonia volatilization loss. The concept of using specialized bacteria cultures for varied strength animal wastewaters is a novel approach that has the potential for development of feasible technologies for animal wastewater as well as other environmental applications where biological treatment of high-strength wastewaters is a problem. 3) Constructed wetlands were demonstrated to be effective in treating swine wastewater by removing large amounts of nitrogen (>5000 kg N/ha/yr). Constructed wetlands can be successfully used in an overall livestock management system especially where land is limited for manure application. 4) Phosphorus applications in excess of crop needs have increased the concentration of phosphorus in soils and have raised serious concern about potential negative effects on surface and ground water quality. Soil phosphorus and groundwater-soluble phosphorus were measured in a Coastal Plain swine manure spray field. We found that soil phosphorus concentrations were many times greater than plant nutritional needs and also that phosphorus had leached through the soil to the groundwater. The impact of this finding shows that sandy soils have a finite capacity of phosphorus sorption and that management practices should insure that these capacities are not exceeded. 5) High-rate separation of solids and liquids from swine wastewater is a critical step for development of alternative systems without lagoons. We evaluated the effectiveness of polymer flocculants (PAM) to enhance solid- liquid separation in a pilot unit in partnership with North Carolina State University at the Lake Wheeler Rd. Laboratory in Raleigh, NC. Flocculation treatment improved drainage characteristics of the sand filter and removed 98% of total suspended solids, 87% of biological oxygen demand, 62% of total nitrogen, and 76% total phosphorus. It was demonstrated that: a) PAM is an effective treatment for separating solids and recovering organic nutrients, and b) the lower biological oxygen demand strength of the effluent makes the use of aeration treatment for biological nitrogen removal effective. 6) Phosphorus and nitrogen are not present in manure in the same proportion needed by crops, and when manure is applied based on a crops nitrogen requirement, excessive phosphorus is applied resulting in phosphorus soil accumulation, runoff, leaching, and surface water eutrophication. We, in cooperation with North Carolina State University, invented and filed a patent for a wastewater treatment system where phosphorus is precipitated to produce an effluent with the desired Nitrogen:Phosphorus ratio in the range of 15 to 300. The system uses relatively little chemicals, prevents ammonia volatilization, and kills pathogens. The technology can be used to retrofit animal lagoons or in systems where the lagoon is omitted; such a system has been planned as a full-scale demonstration at a 4,360-pig farm in North Carolinas Duplin County as part of the Smithfield Foods/NC Attorney General agreement to replace current lagoons with environmentally superior technology. 7) Constructed wetlands are an important method of treating animal wastewater, but there is concern that they may be evolving excessive ammonia during the treatment process. In cooperation with North Carolina State University, we used an open-tunnel device to measure ammonia volatilization from continuous marsh-type constructed wetlands in Duplin Co., NC. We found that ammonia volatilization was not a major loss mechanism, and we also found that pre-wetland nitrification essentially eliminated ammonia volatilization from these constructed wetlands. Our findings support the use of constructed wetlands as an effective component of animal waste treatment systems. 8) Design guidelines for constructed wetlands used in treatment of swine waste are evolving as more information on their function becomes available. In collaboration with North Carolina State University and the Natural Resources Conservation Service, we evaluated constructed wetland treatment of swine lagoon effluent with loading rates from 3 to 25 kg/ha/day, and we calculated design parameters for comparison with current design methods for constructed wetlands in municipal wastewater treatment systems. We found that the design equations used for municipal wastewater treatment systems were minimally adequate for designs for swine lagoon wastewater treatment with the use of appropriate parameters for swine waste treatment. Although our results show the utility of current design concepts, they also point to the need for more refined data and design concepts for construction and operation of animal wastewater treatment wetland. 9) Constructed wetlands are an important method of treating animal wastewater, and there is a need to better understand nitrogen loss by denitrification. In cooperation with North Carolina State University, we used denitrification enzyme assay to assess the impact of operational parameters on denitrification in continuous marsh-type constructed wetlands with sloped bottoms in Duplin Co., NC. We found denitrification potential to be significant and higher in wetlands growing bulrush compared to cattails. We also found that denitrification potential decreased down the length of the wetland as water depth increased from about 45 to 90 mm. We concluded that both plant community and the shallow portion of the sloped wetland were very important for denitrification removal of nitrogen from wastewater. 10) Phosphorus concentrations have risen substantially in some coastal streams and rivers because of the accumulation of excess phosphorus in many Coastal Plain soils. Our objective was to determine if excess soil phosphorus concentrations could be immobilized by alum-treated drinking water treatment residual (WTR) material. In preliminary laboratory experiments, we found that the alum-treated WTR material sorbed high amounts of phosphorus. The outcome of this experiment suggests that the WTR material may be useful soil amendment to immobilize phosphorus and reduce its off-site movement. 11) High concentration of phosphorus in both liquid and solid animal manures is a problem for its land application. We tested several protocols for extraction of phosphorus from the solid phase of manures with subsequent recovery of the released phosphorus from the liquid phase. Some specific extraction and recovery protocols showed significant effectiveness. If these protocols can be further developed into functional systems, they could substantially reduce excess phosphorus application and provide a source of recyclable phosphorus. 12) It is important to assess the ability of riparian zones to mitigate phosphorus movement to streams even when the contiguous fields are very high in phosphorus. We assessed movement of phosphorus from fields containing soils with excess phosphorus concentrations into surface water systems. The riparian areas were effective at reducing the movement of phosphorus-enriched eroded sediments and dissolved phosphorus in groundwater flowing through the riparian zone. These results underline the importance of riparian areas in the Coastal Plain region, particularly where intensive nitrogen and phosphorus applications have occurred. 13) Concern has increased about the potential for contamination of water, food, and air by pathogens present in manure. We evaluated pathogen reduction in a multi-stage pilot system where first the solids and liquid in swine manure are separated with polymer, followed by biological nitrogen removal using nitrification and denitrification, and then phosphorus extraction through a newly developed calcium precipitation process. Each step of the treatment system was evaluated for its effectiveness in reducing total and fecal coliforms, enterococci, and salmonellae counts on selective and differential nutrient media. We found that nitrogen treatment is very effective in reducing pathogens and that the phosphorus treatment produces a sanitized effluent which may be important for biosecurity reasons. 6. What science and/or technologies have been transferred and to whom? When is the science and/or technology likely to become available to the end- user (industry, farmer, other scientists)? What are the constraints, if known, to the adoption and durability of the technology products? 1) Vanotti, M.B., Szogi, A.A, and Hunt, P.G. 2005. Wastewater Treatment System. U.S. Patent No. 6,893,567 Issued May 17, 2005. 2) A final report on the evaluation of a full-scale centralized system that processed manure solids. It was deemed to meet the technical requirements of an Environmentally Superior Technology": Vanotti, M.B. 2005. Evaluation of environmentally superior technology: Swine waste treatment system for elimination of lagoons, reduced environmental impact, and improved water quality (Centralized composting unit). Phase II: Final Report for Technology Determination per Agreements between NC Attorney General & Smithfield Foods, Premium Standard Farms, and Frontline Farmers. July 26, 2005. <http://www.cals.ncsu. edu/waste_mgt/smithfield_projects/phase2report05/reports/A1.pdf>. 3) Discussed development of superior treatment technology with EPA Research Triangle Park, Durham, NC. August 2, 2005. 4) Tour of full-scale on-farm treatment system by NRCS representatives and directors of Israels Land Development Authority (KKL). August 4, 2005. 7. List your most important publications in the popular press and presentations to organizations and articles written about your work. (NOTE: List your peer reviewed publications below). Popular press: 1) Turning pig manure into fertilizer and clean water, article in Chemical Engineering magazine, April 2005. 2) Eleccion de las mejores tecnicas disponibles para la gestion ambiental de purines, Spanish article in Anaporc, the magazine of the Spanish Scientific Association of Swine Production, November 2004. 3) Blue Lagoons on Pig Farms? A new waste-handling system can make it a reality, article in ARS Agricultural Research magazine, March 2005. 4) Bacteria propel gains in ammonia removal News release by ARS Information Staff, July 22, 2005. Access: http://www.ars.usda. gov/is/pr/2005/050722.htm. 5) 3 alternatives cited to handle hog waste: Cleaner method for disposal sought, article by The Associated Press in The News & Observer, NC. July 26, 2005. Presentations to organizations: 1) Presentation at the 25th ANAPORC (Spanish Scientific Association of Swine Production) in Pamplona, Spain, on selection of best available technologies for environmental management of pig manure, October 1, 2004. 2) Seminar at the INRA Laboratoire de Biotechnologie de l'Environnement in Narbonne, France, on advanced manure treatment technology, October 4, 2004. 3) Presentations (2) at the 11th International Conference of the FAO Network Ramiran 2004, in Murcia, Spain, October 6-9, 2004. 4) Presentations (4) at the American Society of Agronomy Annual Meeting, Seattle, Washington, November 1-4, 2004. 5) Presentation at the EPA Regional Science Workshop on Animal Feeding Operations: Science and Technical Support Needs, College Park, on advances in manure treatment research, December 69, 2004. 6) Annual Soil and Water Conservation Association Meetings of North and South Carolina, January 2005. 7) Presentation Development of environmentally superior technology in North Carolina: The Super Soil project, at the State of Science of Animal Manure and Waste Management Symposium, San Antonio, Texas, January 5-7, 2005. 8) Seminar at the Department of Soil Science, North Carolina State University, on phosphorus separation process, February 1, 2005. 9) Seminar at the Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, North Carolina State University, on environmentally superior treatment technology development, February 8, 2005. 10) University seminar at the Faculty of Engineering, University of Kumamoto, Japan, on advances in manure treatment research, May 9, 2005. 11) Seminar at the Industrial Technology Center, Wakayama City, Japan, on advances in treatment of high-strength effluents, May 10, 2005. 12) International Meeting of the Society of Wetland Scientists, Charleston, South Carolina, June 6-9, 2005. 13) Presentations (2) at the Annual International Meeting of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers, Tampa, Florida, July 18-20, 2005.

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications

  • Hunt, P.G., Matheny, T.A., Stone, K.C. 2004. Denitrification in a coastal plain riparian zone contiguous to a heavily loaded swine wastewater spray field. Journal of Environmental Quality. 33:2367-2374.
  • Novak, J.M., Watts, D.W., Stone, K.C. 2004. Copper and zinc accumulation, profile distribution, ane crop removal in coastal plain soils receiving long-term, intensive applications of swine manure. Transactions of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers. 47(5):1513-1522.
  • Poach, M.E., Hunt, P.G., Reddy, G.B., Stone, K.C., Johnson, M.H., Grubbs, A. 2004. Swine wastewater treatment by marsh-pond-marsh constructed wetlands under varying nitrogen loads. Ecological Engineering. 23:165-175.
  • Stone, K.C., Poach, M.E., Hunt, P.G., Reddy, G.B. 2004. Marsh-pond-marsh constructed wetland design analysis for swine lagoon wastewater treatment. Ecological Engineering. 23:127-133.
  • Szogi, A.A., Vanotti, M.B., Rice, J.M., Humenik, F.J., Hunt, P.G. 2004. Nitrification options for pig wastewater treatment. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research. 47:439-448.
  • Vanotti, M.B., Millner, P.D., Hunt, P.G., Ellison, A.Q. 2004. Removal of pathogen and indicator microorganisms from liquid swine manure in multi- step biological and chemical treatment. Bioresource Technology. 96:209-214.
  • Vanotti, M.B., Rice, J.M., Ellison, A.Q., Hunt, P.G., Humenik, F.J., Baird, C.L. 2005. Solid-liquid separation of swine manure with polymer treatment and sand filtration. Transactions of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers. 48(4):1567-1574.
  • Hunt, P.G., Matheny, T.A., Poach, M.E., Reddy, G.B. 2004. Denitrification enzyme activity in a marsh-pond-marsh wetland used for swine wastewater treatment as influenced by alternate wetting and drying cycles. Proceedings of the 11th International RAMIRAN Conference, October 6-9, 2004, Murcia, Spain. p. 327-332.
  • Hunt, P.G., Poach, M.E., Liehr, S.K. 2004. Nitrogen cycling in wetland systems. Nutrient Management in Agricultural Watersheds - A Wetlands Solution Symposium, May 24-26, 2004, Wexford, Ireland. p. 93-104.
  • Vanotti, M.B. 2005. Evaluation of environmentally superior technology: Swine waste treatment system for elimination of lagoons, reduced environmental impact, and improved water quality (Centralized composting unit). Phase II: Final Report for Technology Determination per Agreements between North Carolina Attorney General & Smithfield Foods, Premium Standard Farms, and Frontline Farmers. Available: http://www.cals.ncsu. edu/waste_mgt/smithfield_projects/phase2report05/reports/A1.pdf.
  • Vanotti, M.B., Szogi, A.A., Hunt, P.G., Ellison, A.Q., Millner, P.D. 2004. Development of environmentally superior technology to replace swine lagoons in the usa. Proceedings of the 11th RAMIRAN Conference, October 6- 9, 2004, Murcia, Spain. p. 151-154.
  • Vanotti, M.B., Szogi, A.A., Hunt, P.G., Ellison, A.Q., Millner, P.D., Humenik, F.J. 2005. Development of environmentally superior technology in North Carolina: The super soil project. Symposium on the State of the Science of Animal Manure and Waste Management, January 5-7, 2005, San Antonio, Texas. 6 p.2005 CD-ROM.
  • Basta, N.T., Dayton, E.A., Novak, J.M., Moore Jr, P.A., Watts, D.W. 2004. Immobilization of phosphorus and manure using Al-based treatments and byproducts [abstract]. Proceedings of the 4th International Phosphorus Workshop, August 16-19, 2004, Wageningen, The Netherlands. 2004 CDROM.
  • Hunt, P.G., Poach, M.E., Szogi, A.A. 2004. Constructed wetland nitrogen balances [abstract]. Agronomy Abstracts. 2004 CDROM.
  • Hunt, P.G., Matheny, T.A., Poach, M.E., Reddy, G.B. 2005. Denitrification enzyme activity in constructed wetlands and riparian zones [abstract]. 9th International Symposium on Biogeochemistry of Wetlands, March 20-23, 2005, Baton Rouge, Louisiana. p. 48.
  • Novak, J.M., Stone, K.C., Hunt, P.G., Szogi, A.A., Watts, D.W., Johnson, M. H. 2004. Dissolved phosphorus retention and release characteristics of riparian zones and in-stream wetlands [abstract]. American Water Research Association Conference, June 28-30, 2004, Lake Tahoe, California. 2004 CDROM.
  • Novak, J.M., Watts, D.W. 2004. Utilization of alum-based water treatment residuals to reduce soil extractable P concentrations [abstract]. Agronomy Abstracts. 2004 CDROM.
  • Poach, M.E., Adams, S., Hunt, P.G., Cohen, A.D. 2004. Constructing floating wetlands to improve the water quality of agricultural ponds [abstract]. Agronomy Abstracts. 2004 CDROM.
  • Ro, K.S., Hunt, P.G., Liehr, S.K., Poach, M.E. 2004. Surficial oxygen transfer in lagoons [abstract]. Agronomy Abstracts. 2004 CDROM.
  • Szogi, A.A., Loughrin, J.H., Vanotti, M.B. 2004. Reduction of malodorous compounds from treated anaerobic swine lagoon [abstract]. Agronomy Abstracts. 2004 CDROM.
  • Szogi, A.A., Vanotti, M.B., Stansbery, A.E. 2005. Reduction of ammonia emissions from treated anaerobic swine lagoons [abstract]. Proceedings of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers Annual International Meeting, July 17-20, 2005, Tampa, Florida. 2005 CDROM.
  • Vanotti, M.B., Furukawa, K., Garcia-Gonzalez, M.C., Szogi, A.A. 2005. Nitrogen removal with the anaerobic ammonia oxidation (Anammox) process using polymer gel biomass carrier seeded with swine effluent sludge [abstract]. Proceedings of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers Annual International Meeting, July 17-20, 2005, Tampa, Florida. 2005 CDROM.


Progress 10/01/03 to 09/30/04

Outputs
1. What major problem or issue is being resolved and how are you resolving it (summarize project aims and objectives)? How serious is the problem? What does it matter? Confined production of livestock, fish, and birds creates conflicts between the need to dispose of animal manures and the public's desire for an environment without odor, pollution, and pathogens. In the southeastern USA, many of these operations are located in close proximity to environmentally sensitive streams and only a few hundred miles from sensitive coastal estuaries. Degradation of coastal estuaries and waters would greatly affect tourism, fishing, and other industries. Our goal is to provide technologies that maintain or improve environmental quality while ensuring economically viable enterprises. Our approach involves the use of systems that are passive, high-tech mechanical, and blends of both technologies. Our passive-natural treatment approach involves capture and transformation of nutrients in constructed wetlands. Our high technology treatment approach involves separation of solid and liquid manures, removal of nitrogen via nitrification/denitrification, phosphorus precipitation and recovery, and pathogen reduction. We are evaluating a full-scale animal waste treatment system to capture nutrients, reduce emissions of ammonia and nuisance odors, and kill harmful pathogens. We are also evaluating natural systems such as constructed wetlands as well as traditional problems such as the impact of manure land applications on soils and P and trace element accumulation in soils. Our research contributes primarily to Component 2, Nutrient Management, and complements Component 1, Atmospheric Emissions, and Component 3, Pathogens. This project plays a complementary role in Water Quality and Management (201) National program, within Component 3, Water Quality Protection and Management. 2. List the milestones (indicators of progress) from your Project Plan. Milestone FY 1999 - Patent filed for an improved protocol for P separation from animal wastewaters. Milestone 2OO0 - Paper published on a pilot system for polymer immobilized nitrifying bacteria treatment of swine wastewater. Paper published on development of high-ammonia tolerant bacteria used for animal waste treatment. Milestone 2002 - Paper published on application of hydrogel bead technology for nitrification and denitrification of animal wastewater. Paper published on bench prototype systems integrating solids removal and biological processes for nutrient removal. Milestone 2003 - Paper published on methods of P removal from animal waste. Milestone 2004 - Papers published on performance of pilot plant system that incorporates complete treatment (i.e., solids separation, nitrification, denitrification, and phosphorus removal). 3. Milestones: A. List the milestones that were scheduled to be addressed in FY 2004. How many milestones did you fully or substantially meet in FY 2004 and indicate which ones were not fully or substantially met, briefly explain why not, and your plans to do so. Milestone 2004 - Papers published on performance of pilot plant system that incorporates complete treatment (i.e., solids separation, nitrification, denitrification, and phosphorus removal). This milestone was met with the filing of a final report on the evaluation of a full-scale system that incorporated the USDA-ARS developed and patented technology. The evaluation was done as part of the agreement between the Attorney General of North Carolina and leading pork-producing companies. It was deemed to meet the technical requirements of an "Environmentally Superior Technology." The report can be viewed on the web at [<http://www.cals.ncsu. edu:8050/waste_mgt/smithfield_projects/phase1report04/A. 9Super%20Soil%20final.pdf>]. B. List the milestones (from the list in Question #2) that you expect to address over the next 3 years (FY 2005, 2006, & 2007). What do you expect to accomplish, year by year, over the next 3 years under each milestone? This is the final year of the project. A new CRIS project that will build on the accomplishments of this project is being developed. 4. What were the most significant accomplishments this past year? A. Single Most Significant Accomplishment during FY 1004. The new system outperforms the lagoon method of treating hog waste. A new system developed by ARS scientists and collaborators for treating wastewater from commercial swine-production facilities was determined to meet the strict technical environmental performance standards that define an Environmentally Superior Technology. Specifically, the new technologies must eliminate the discharge of animal waste to surface or ground waters, and substantially eliminate the release from swine farms of ammonia, odor and disease-transmitting vectors and airborne pathogens and eliminate contamination of soil or groundwater with nutrients or heavy metals. The effort was funded in part by pork producers Smithfield Foods and Premium Standard Farms under agreements the two companies reached with the North Carolina Attorney General to identify and evaluate technologies that could replace the lagoon and spray field system now used in most North Carolina swine farms. The ARS research Center at Florence, SC, cooperated with North Carolina State University and private firms to design, construct, and evaluate the new system. Details of the system's design and function can be viewed at [http://www.cals.ncsu. edu:8050/waste_mgt/smithfield_projects/phase1report04/A. 9Super%20Soil%20final.pdf] B. Other significant accomplishment(s). Scientists at the ARS Florence Center successfully demonstrated the environmental advantages of a new technology of swine wastewater treatment where soluble phosphorus is recovered as calcium phosphate with addition of only small quantities of liquid lime. This technology helps swine producers to reduce phosphorus application to land and meet their nutrient management plans. ARS Florence scientists found that this process produces phosphate with high content of plant available phosphorus. Thus, the recovered calcium phosphate can be recycled into a marketable fertilizer without further processing. C. Significant activities that support special target populations. None D. Progress Report. 1) This report serves to document research conducted under a Reimbursable Cooperative Agreement between ARS and North Carolina State University. Additional details of research can be found in the report for the parent project 6657-13630-001-00D, Improved Animal Manure Treatment Methods for Enhanced Water Quality. Systems of treatment technologies are needed that capture nutrients, reduce emissions of ammonia and nuisance odors, and kill harmful pathogens. A system of swine wastewater treatment technologies was developed to accomplish many of these tasks. The project was a collaborative effort involving scientists, engineers and personnel from private businesses, university and USDA. The project addressed one of the nation's greatest environmental problems - the cleanup and disposal of manure from swine-production wastewater. The system greatly increased the efficiency of liquid and solid separation by addition of a safe chemical that causes fine particles to clump for easy separation. The separated solids are treated by composting at a central facility while only the relatively small, liquid fraction must be treated on the farm. The ammonia emissions are eliminated by passing the liquid through a module where immobilized bacteria transformed ammonia to dinitrogen gas, an inert form of nitrogen which composes the majority of the world atmosphere. Subsequently, very light alkaline treatment of the wastewater in a phosphorus module precipitated calcium phosphate and killed pathogens. Treated wastewater was recycled to clean hog houses and for crop irrigation. This method of on-farm treatment was invented by ARS scientists M.B. Vanotti, A.A. Szogi, and P.G. Hunt ("Wastewater Treatment System" Serial No 09/903,620 Allowed April 21, 2004, US Patent & Trademark Office, Washington, DC). The system went through full-scale demonstration and verification as part of the Agreements between the Attorney General of North Carolina and Smithfield Foods, Premium Standard Farms, and Frontline Farmers to identify technologies that can replace current lagoons with Environmentally Superior Technology. Objectives of this evaluation were to provide critical performance evaluation of the Swine Manure Treatment System to determine if the technology meets the criteria of Environmentally Superior Technology defined in the Agreement. Specifically, evaluation of technical and operational feasibility and performance standards related to the elimination of discharge of animal waste into waters, the substantial elimination of atmospheric emissions of ammonia, the substantial elimination of odor, the substantial elimination of release of disease-transmitting vectors and airborne pathogens, and the substantial elimination of nutrient and heavy metal contamination of soil and groundwater. The evaluation involved completed design, permitting, construction, startup, and one-year operation period under steady-state conditions. The full-scale demonstration facility was installed on a 4,400-head finishing farm in Duplin County, North Carolina. The system was constructed and operated by a private firm called Super Soil Systems USA of Clinton, NC. The process made use of three modules. The first - the Ecopurin Solid- Liquid Separation Module, developed by the Spain-based firm Selco MC - quickly separated solids and liquids. The second step used the Biogreen Nitrogen Removal Module, developed by Hitachi Plant Engineering & Construction Co. in Tokyo, Japan. After biological N treatment, the liquid went to the final step, the Phosphorus Separation Module. Developed by ARS, this phase is where phosphorus is recovered as calcium phosphate with addition of only small quantities of liquid lime and without losses of ammonia. Additionally, pathogens are destroyed by alkaline pH. Major goals in the demonstration and verification of the new wastewater treatment system for swine manure at full scale were achieved including replacement of anaerobic lagoon treatment, and consistent treatment performance, with varying solid and nutrient loads typical in animal production, and cold and warm weather conditions. It was verified that the technology is technically and operationally feasible. Based on performance results obtained, it was determined by the Agreements Designee and Advisory Panel that the treatment system meets the technical performance standards that define an Environmentally Superior Technology. A comprehensive Final Report for the on-farm waste treatment system was completed and submitted to the Attorney General of North Carolina: Vanotti, M.B. 2004. Evaluation of Environmentally Superior Technology: Swine waste treatment for elimination of lagoons, reduced environmental impact, and improved water quality. (Solids separation / Nitrification-denitrification / soluble phosphorus removal / solids processing system). Final Report for Technology Determination per Agreements Between the Attorney General of North Carolina and Smithfield Foods, Premium Standard Farms, and Frontline Farmers. July 26, 2004. [http://www.cals.ncsu. edu:8050/waste_mgt/smithfield_projects/phase1report04/A. 9Super%20Soil%20final.pdf] 2) This report serves to document research conducted under a cooperative agreement between ARS and North Carolina A&T State University (Project # 6657-13630-001-06S "Alternate Flooding and Draining to Enhance Nitrification in Marsh-Pond-Marsh Constructed Wetlands to Treat Swine Wastewater"). Additional details of the research can be found in the report for the parent project 6657-13630-001-00D. The goal of this research is to investigate methods to enhance swine wastewater nitrification in marsh-pond-marsh constructed wetlands. As a result of data analyses in FY 2003 that indicated a one-week interruption of wastewater application was insufficient to improve the nitrogen removal ability of the wetlands, retrofits on four of the marsh-pond- marsh wetlands were investigated in FY 2004. Retrofits consist of pond aeration for two wetlands plus a retrofit item done under a CRADA with a private company. Initial results indicate that the retrofitted wetlands are more effective in nitrogen removal than they were before retrofits. 3) This report serves to document research conducted under a cooperative agreement between ARS and North Carolina State University (Project # 58- 6657-3-210 "Technology Transfer for Animal Waste Treatment Improvements"). Additional details of the research can be found in the report for the parent project 6657-13630-001-00D. We have met with NCSU representatives for several update and coordination meetings and have communicated important facts about the progress of ARS waste treatment research and received information on the rapidly changing swine waster treatment situation in North Carolina. Meetings have occurred in Raleigh and Florence. Much of the activity has revolved around communication and dialogue of issues related to the determination of Superior Waste Treatment technologies in accordance with the agreement of the NC State Attorney General and leading pork producing companies. 4) The use of an industrial SCADA system (Supervisory control and data acquisition) was successfully demonstrated in an on-farm manure treatment plant. This wireless network application was developed so that treatment conditions in a cluster of farms can be monitored and controlled from a central facility. This innovation will facilitate adoption and operation of the new treatment technologies and reduce labor costs. 5. Describe the major accomplishments over the life of the project, including their predicted or actual impact. 1) Identification and demonstration of polymer-immobilized nitrifying bacteria technology as a potential solution to animal waste treatment. Results obtained with the pilot bioreactor have been excellent. The capacity for ammonia removal from swine wastewater exceeded design expectations based on municipal wastewater treatment systems. Compared to conventional systems, this technology allows an increase of about 1,000- fold more nitrifying bacteria to be retained in the reaction tanks. Thus, it both increased efficiency and reduced capital cost. This work showed for the first time that the technology can be applied for treatment of animal wastewater. When retrofit to swine lagoons, it has the potential for treating large amounts of ammonia that would otherwise volatilize and escape to the environment. 2) High ammonia-tolerant bacteria were used to treat concentrated animal wastewater; they enabled fast ammonia removal using aeration treatment without the problem of ammonia volatilization loss. The concept of using specialized bacteria cultures for varied strength animal wastewaters is a novel approach that has the potential for development of feasible technologies for animal wastewater as well as other environmental applications where biological treatment of high-strength wastewaters is a problem. 3) Constructed wetlands were demonstrated to be effective in treating swine wastewater by removing large amounts of nitrogen (>5000 kg N/ha/yr). Constructed wetlands can be successfully used in an overall livestock management system especially where land is limited for manure application. 4) Phosphorus applications in excess of crop needs have increased the concentration of phosphorus in soils and have raised serious concern about potential negative effects on surface and ground water quality. Soil phosphorus and groundwater-soluble phosphorus were measured in a Coastal Plain swine manure spray field. We found that soil phosphorus concentrations were many times greater than plant nutritional needs and also that phosphorus had leached through the soil to the groundwater. The impact of this finding shows that sandy soils have a finite capacity of phosphorus sorption and that management practices should insure that these capacities are not exceeded. 5) High-rate separation of solids and liquids from swine wastewater is a critical step for development of alternative systems without lagoons. We evaluated the effectiveness of polymer flocculants (PAM) to enhance solid- liquid separation in a pilot unit in partnership with North Carolina State University at the Lake Wheeler Rd. Laboratory in Raleigh, NC. Flocculation treatment improved drainage characteristics of the sand filter and removed 98% of total suspended solids, 87% of BOD, 62% of TKN, and 76% TP. It was demonstrated that: a) PAM is an effective treatment for separating solids and recovering organic nutrients, and b) the lower BOD strength of the effluent makes the use of aeration treatment for biological N removal effective. 6) Phosphorus and nitrogen are not present in manure in the same proportion needed by crops, and when manure is applied based on a crop's nitrogen requirement, excessive phosphorus is applied resulting in phosphorus soil accumulation, runoff, leaching, and surface waters eutrophication. We, in cooperation with North Carolina State University, invented and filed a patent for a wastewater treatment system where phosphorus is precipitated to produce an effluent with the desired N:P ratio in the range of 15 to 300. The system uses relatively little chemicals, prevents ammonia volatilization, and kills pathogens. The technology can be used to retrofit animal lagoons or in systems where the lagoon is omitted; such a system has been planned as a full-scale demonstration at a 4,360-pig farm in North Carolina's Duplin County as part of the Smithfield Foods/NC Attorney General agreement to replace current lagoons with environmentally superior technology. 7) Constructed wetlands are an important method of treating animal wastewater, but there is concern that they may be evolving excessive ammonia during the treatment process. In cooperation with North Carolina State University, we used an open-tunnel device to measure ammonia volatilization from continuous marsh-type constructed wetlands in Duplin Co., NC. We found that ammonia volatilization was not a major loss mechanism, and we also found that pre-wetland nitrification essentially eliminated ammonia volatilization from these constructed wetlands. Our findings support the use of constructed wetlands as an effective component of animal waste treatment systems. 8) Design guidelines for constructed wetlands used in treatment of swine waste are evolving as more information on their function becomes available. In collaboration with North Carolina State University and the Natural Resources Conservation Service, we evaluated constructed wetland treatment of swine lagoon effluent with loading rates from 3 to 25 kg/ha/day, and we calculated design parameters for comparison with current design methods for constructed wetlands in municipal wastewater treatment systems. We found that the design equations used for municipal wastewater treatment systems were minimally adequate for designs for swine lagoon wastewater treatment with the use of appropriate parameters for swine waste treatment. Although our results show the utility of current design concepts, they also point to the need for more refined data and design concepts for construction and operation of animal wastewater treatment wetland. 9) Constructed wetlands are an important method of treating animal wastewater, and there is a need to better understand nitrogen loss by denitrification. In cooperation with North Carolina State University, we used denitrification enzyme assay to assess the impact of operational parameters on denitrification in continuous marsh-type constructed wetlands with sloped bottoms in Duplin Co., NC. We found denitrification potential to be significant and higher in wetlands growing bulrush compared to cattails. We also found that denitrification potential decreased down the length of the wetland as water depth increased from about 45 to 90 mm. We concluded that both plant community and the shallow portion of the sloped wetland were very important for denitrification removal of nitrogen from wastewater. 10) Phosphorus concentrations have risen substantially in some Coastal streams and rivers because of the accumulation of excess phosphorus in many Coastal Plain soils. Our objective was to determine if excess soil phosphorus concentrations could be immobilized by alum-treated drinking water treatment residual (WTR) material. In preliminary laboratory experiments, we found that the alum-treated WTR material sorbed high amounts of phosphorus. The outcome of this experiment suggests that the WTR material may be useful soil amendment to immobilize phosphorus and reduce its off-site movement. 11) High concentration of phosphorus in both liquid and solid animal manures is a problem for its land application. We tested several protocols for extraction of phosphorus from the solid phase of manures with subsequent recovery of the released phosphorus from the liquid phase. Some specific extraction and recovery protocols showed significant effectiveness. If these protocols can be further developed into functional systems, they could substantially reduce excess phosphorus application and provide a source of recyclable phosphorus. 12) It is important to assess the ability of riparian zones to mitigate phosphorus movement to streams even when the contiguous fields are very high in phosphorus. We assessed movement of P from fields containing soils with excess P concentrations into surface water systems. The riparian areas were effective at reducing the movement of P-enriched eroded sediments and dissolved P in groundwater flowing through the riparian zone. These results underline the importance of riparian areas in the Coastal Plain region, particularly where intensive nitrogen and phosphorus applications have occurred. 13) Concern has increased about the potential for contamination of water, food, and air by pathogens present in manure. We evaluated pathogen reduction in a multistage pilot system where first the solids and liquid in swine manure are separated with polymer, followed by biological N removal using nitrification and denitrification, and then P extraction through a newly developed calcium precipitation process. Each step of the treatment system was evaluated for its effectiveness in reducing total and fecal coliforms, enterococci, and salmonellae counts on selective and differential nutrient media. We found that N treatment is very effective in reducing pathogens and that the P treatment produces a sanitized effluent which may be important for biosecurity reasons. 6. What science and/or technologies have been transferred and to whom? When is the science and/or technology likely to become available to the end- user (industry, farmer, other scientists)? What are the constraints, if known, to the adoption and durability of the technology products? 1) A final report on the evaluation of a full-scale system that incorporated the USDA-ARS developed and patented technology. The evaluation was done as part of the agreement between the Attorney General of North Carolina and leading pork-producing companies. It was deemed to meet the technical requirements of an "Environmentally Superior Technology." The report can be viewed on the web at [<http://www.cals. ncsu.edu:8050/waste_mgt/smithfield_projects/phase1report04/A. 9Super%20Soil%20final.pdf>]. 2) Vanotti, M.B., Szogi, A.A., Hunt, P.G. U.S. Patent Application 09/903, 620 "Wastewater Treatment System" was allowed April 21, 2004; U.S. Patent is expected to issue Nov. 2004. The invention was found to outperform the lagoon method of treating waste and praised as a very significant milestone in the search for alternatives. The invention is being licensed to industry. 3) A CRADA was developed among USDA-ARS, NCA&TSU, and a private company to develop a retrofit product that could improve the effectiveness of marsh-pond-marsh constructed wetlands in treatment of swine wastewater. 4) Representatives of a major equipment company visited with Florence scientists on new treatment technology development and toured full-scale system. 5) A Virtual Tour of full-scale wastewater treatment system at Goshen Ridge farm was produced in cooperation with the Dept. Communications Services, NCSU and available for purchase at http://www.cals.ncsu. edu/waste_mgt/. 6) Discussed development of treatment technology and showed full-scale system to a delegation from China's State Environmental Protection Administration (SEPA) and provincial environmental protection bureaus, hosted by the American Meat Institute and EPA's Office of International Affairs. EPA is assisting SEPA in developing, piloting, and evaluating voluntary industrial pollution prevention and energy efficiency partnership programs. April 28, 2004. 7) Provided training to engineers at the South Carolina ASAE State Section Professional Development meeting on "Development of Environmentally Superior Technology to Replace Swine Lagoons" and "Extraction of Phosphorus in Swine Lagoons". Columbia, SC, May 26. 7. List your most important publications in the popular press and presentations to organizations and articles written about your work. Wastewater treatment system developed at Florence was featured in the following newspapers and media: "Hog Lagoon Alternatives Offered," cover page article in The Fayetteville Observer, NC. July 27, 2004. "Ahead on Hogs," editorial in The News & Observer, NC. July 29, 2004. "New Hog-Waste Systems Touted," cover page article in The News & Observer, NC. July 27, 2004. "Super Lagoon Substitute?" editorial in The News & Observer, NC. June 28, 2004. "Technologies tried; are they true?" cover page article in The Fayetteville Observer, NC. December 19, 2003. "A Search for Pearls of Wisdom in the Matter of Swine," article in The New York Times, NY. July 7, 2004. "Researchers unveil two new hog waste alternatives," article by Associated Press. July 27, 2004. "2 ways to replace hog-waste lagoons?" cover page article by the Charlotte Observer, NC. July 27, 2004. "Two waste management technologies may be alternatives for swine industry," news release by Communication Services, North Carolina State University. "Hog waste system may work, but farmers may balk at cost," article in The News & Observer, NC. June 21, 2004. "Waste from Millions of Pigs Creates Environmental Challenge," webcast and article in Voice of America News, Our World. May 29, 2004.

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications

  • Vanotti, M.B. 2004. Evaluation of environmentally superior technology: Swine waste treatment system for elimination of lagoons, reduced environmental impact, and improved water quality (Solids separation/nitrification-denitrification/soluble phosphorus removal/solids processing system). Final Report for Technology Determination per Agreements Between the Attorney General of North Carolina and Smithfield Foods, Premium Standard Farms, and Frontline Farmers. July 26, 2004. Available: http://www.cals.ncsu. edu:8050/waste_mgt/smithfield_projects/phase1report04/A. 9Super%20Soil%20final.pdf.
  • Novak, J.M., Watts, D.W. 2004. Increasing the phosphorus sorption capacity of southeastern coastal plain soils using water treatment residuals. Soil Science 169(3):206-214.
  • Poach, M.E., Hunt, P.G., Reddy, G.B., Stone, K.C., Matheny, T.A., Johnson, M.H., Sadler, E.J. 2004. Ammonia volatilization from marsh-pond-marsh constructed wetlands treating swine manure. Journal of Environmental Quality 33:844-851.
  • SZOGI, A.A., VANOTTI, M.B. UTILIZATION OF NUTRIENTS FROM ANIMAL MANURE: LEGISLATION AND TECHNOLOGY SOLUTIONS. JOURNAL OF SOILS AND SEDIMENTS. 2003. v. 3. p. 260-262.
  • Vanotti, M.B., Szogi, A.A., Hunt, P.G. 2003. Extraction of soluble phosphorus from swine wastewater. Transactions of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers. 46(6):1665-1674.
  • CHASTAIN, J.P., VANOTTI, M.B. CORRELATION EQUATIONS TO PREDICT THE SOLIDS AND PLANT NUTRIENT REMOVAL EFFICIENCIES FOR GRAVITY SETTLING OF SWINE MANURE. PROCEEDINGS OF ANIMAL, AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD PROCESSING WASTES SYMPOSIUM. 2003. p. 487-495.
  • HUNT, P.G., POACH, M.E., SZOGI, A.A., REDDY, G.B., STONE, K.C., HUMENIK, F. J., VANOTTI, M.B. OPERATIONAL COMPONENTS AND FUNCTIONAL DESIGN OF CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS USED FOR TREATMENT OF SWINE WASTEWATER. PROCEEDINGS OF ANIMAL, AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD PROCESSING WASTES SYMPOSIUM. 2003. p. 124- 131.
  • SZOGI, A.A., HUNT, P.G., HUMENIK, F.J. NITROGEN DISTRIBUTION IN SOILS OF CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS TREATING LAGOON WASTEWATER. SOIL SCIENCE SOCIETY OF AMERICA JOURNAL. 2003. v. 67. p. 1943-1951.
  • Szogi, A.A., Hunt, P.G., Sadler, E.J., Evans, D.E. 2004. Characterization of oxidation-reduction processes in constructed wetlands for swine wastewater treatment. Applied Engineering In Agriculture. 20(2):189-200.
  • SZOGI, A.A., VANOTTI, M.B., HUNT, P.G. EXTRACTION OF SOLUBLE PHOSPHORUS IN SWINE LAGOONS. PROCEEDINGS OF ANIMAL, AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD PROCESSING WASTES SYMPOSIUM. 2003. p. 596-602.
  • VANOTTI, M.B. PATHOGEN CONTROL IN LIQUID SWINE MANURE USING ADVANCED TREATMENT IN USA. PROCEEDINGS OF INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS IN ANIMAL HYGIENE. 2003. v. 1. p. 135-140.
  • VANOTTI, M.B., HUNT, P.G., ELLISON, A.Q., SZOGI, A.A., HUMENIK, F.J., MILLNER, P.D. SUPER SOIL PROJECT: SOLIDS SEPARATION, NITRIFICATION- DENITRIFICATION, SOLUBLE PHOSPHORUS REMOVAL, AND SOLIDS PROCESSING SYSTEM FOR TREATING SWINE MANURE. PROCEEDINGS OF NATIONAL WORKSHOP ON CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS/BMPS FOR NUTRIENT REDUCTION AND COASTAL WATER PROTECTION. 2003.p. 58-61.
  • VANOTTI, M.B., HUNT, P.G., SZOGI, A.A., ELLISON, A.Q. EXTRACTION OF SOLUBLE PHOSPHORUS IN A SWINE WASTE TREATMENT SYSTEM WITHOUT LAGOON. PROCEEDINGS OF ANIMAL, AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD PROCESSING WASTES SYMPOSIUM. 2003. P. 603-611.
  • Vanotti, M.B., Hunt, P.G., Szogi, A.A., Humenik, F.B., Millner, P.D., Ellison, A.Q. 2003. Solids separation, nitrification-denitrification, soluble phosphorus removal, solids processing system. In: Proceedings of the North Carolina Animal Waste Management Workshop. p. 30-35.
  • HUNT, P.G., MATHENY, T.A., REDDY, G.B., POACH, M.E. DENITRIFICATION ENZYME ASSAY IN CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS TREATING SWINE WASTEWATER. AGRONOMY ABSTRACTS [abstract]. 2003 CDROM.
  • NOVAK, J.M., WATTS, D.W. SORPTION OF INORGANIC PHOSPHORUS BY ALUM-BASED WATER TREATMENT RESIDUALS. AGRONOMY ABSTRACTS [abstract]. 2003 CDROM.
  • Novak, J.M., Watts, D.W. 2004. Reduction in excess soil phosphorus concentrations using water treatment residuals [abstract]. Sustainable Land Application Conference. p. 114.
  • POACH, M.E., HUNT, P.G. NITRIFICATION OF SWINE WASTEWATER PULSED THROUGH VERTICAL-FLOW, MEDIA FILTERS. AGRONOMY ABSTRACTS [abstract]. 2003 CDROM.
  • SZOGI, A.A., VANOTTI, M.B., ELLISON, A.Q., HUNT, P.G. REMOVAL OF SOLUBLE PHOSPHORUS IN A SWINE WASTE TREATMENT WITHOUT LAGOON: DEWATERING AND VALUE OF PHOSPHORUS PRODUCT [abstract]. AGRONOMY ABSTRACTS. 2003 CDROM.
  • VANOTTI, M.B., ELLISON, A.Q., SZOGI, A.A., HUNT, P.G. REMOVAL OF SOLUBLE P IN A SWINE WASTE TREATMENT WITHOUT LAGOON: PROCESS AND QUALITY OF THE LIQUID EFFLUENT [abstract]. AGRONOMY ABSTRACTS. 2003 CD-ROM.


Progress 10/01/02 to 09/30/03

Outputs
1. What major problem or issue is being resolved and how are you resolving it? Confined production of livestock, fish, and birds creates conflicts between the need to dispose of animal manures and the public's desire for an environment without odor, pollution, and pathogens. Our goal is to provide technologies that maintain or improve environmental quality while ensuring economically viable enterprises. Our approach involves the use of systems that are passive, high-tech mechanical, and blends of both technologies. Our passive-natural treatment approach involves capture and transformation of nutrients in constructed wetlands. Our high technology treatment approach involves separation of solid and liquid manures, removal of nitrogen via nitrification/denitrification, phosphorus precipitation and recovery, and pathogen reduction. We will also be evaluating the impact of manure land applications on soils and P and trace element accumulation in soils. 2. How serious is the problem? Why does it matter? Confined production of livestock, fish, and birds generates large amounts of manure that must be utilized or disposed of properly to prevent environmental degradation. However, in many areas with large concentrations of animals, there is insufficient cropland to assimilate the nutrients in manures. In these areas, traditional methods of manure utilization/disposal pose serious environmental problems. In the southeastern USA, many of these operations are located in close proximity to environmentally sensitive streams and only a few hundred miles from sensitive coastal estuaries. Degradation of coastal estuaries and waters would greatly affect tourism, fishing, and other industries. 3. How does it relate to the National Program(s) and National Program Component(s) to which it has been assigned? This project is part of the Manure and Byproducts Utilization (206) National Program. Specifically, the project addresses the nutrient management and treatment. Our research contributes primarily to Component 2, Nutrient Management, and complements Component 1, Atmospheric Emissions, and Component 3, Pathogens. We are evaluating a full-scale animal waste treatment system to capture nutrients, reduce emissions of ammonia and nuisance odors, and kill harmful pathogens. The system, which uses technologies developed and pilot-tested by CPSWPRC, is being demonstrated at full-scale as part of the Smithfield Foods-Premium Standard Farms/North Carolina Attorney General agreement to replace current lagoons with environmentally superior technology. This research is done in collaboration with North Carolina State University engineers and scientists. This project plays a complementary role in Water Quality and Management (201) National program, within Component 3, Water Quality Protection and Management. 4. What were the most significant accomplishments this past year? A. What were the most significant accomplishments this past year? There is a pressing need to develop and demonstrate animal waste treatment systems that capture nutrients, reduce emissions of ammonia and nuisance odors, kill harmful pathogens, and function without anaerobic lagoon. The ARS research Center at Florence, SC, cooperated with North Carolina State University and Super Soils Systems USA to design and construct a new system of treatment technologies (based substantially on ARS research) that can accomplish many of the tasks listed above; it was installed full scale at a 4,360-pig farm in Duplin County, NC, as part of the Smithfield Foods-Premium Standard Farms/NC Attorney General agreement to replace current lagoons with Environmentally Superior Technology. The system; which separates solids and liquids using polymer technology, removes the ammonia with immobilized microorganisms, and recovers the soluble phosphorus; has been successfully stabilized and brought to steady-state operation with treatment performance that exceeded design expectations. It has the potential for major positive impact as a functional advance in the treatment of animal waste. B. Other Significant Accomplishment(s), if any: 1) There is an urgent need to develop and demonstrate animal waste treatment systems that reduce odor in animal production units because of public nuisance as well as environmental considerations. The ARS Research Center at Florence, SC, cooperated with North Carolina State University, and Super Soil Systems USA to assess the odor reduction of a new system for wastewater treatment using odor trap chambers and GC and GC-MS analytical methods. The system dramatically reduced effluent nuisance odors. Successful operational and economic performance of the waste treatment system should have a major impact on reduction and control of odor emissions from animal waste at farm scale. 2) Constructed wetlands are an important method of treating animal wastewater, and there is a need to better understand nitrogen loss by denitrification in different type of wetlands. In cooperation with North Carolina A&T State University; the USDA-ARS, Florence, SC, used denitrification enzyme assay to assess the impact of operational parameters on swine wastewater denitrification in marsh-pond-marsh wetlands. We investigated the impact of enhanced aerobic conditions via a one week drying cycle followed by one, two, or three weeks of wastewater applications vs. continual application for increased nitrogen removal. Although soil redox potential values were higher during the drying cycle, the one week interruption of application was insufficient to promote the prevalence of aerated soil conditions, nitrogen removal efficiencies, or denitrification enzyme assay (DEA) values, indicating either sloped wetland bottoms for quicker drainage or more active methods of aeration will be needed. C. Significant Accomplishments/Activities that Support Special Target Populations: It is important to improve nitrogen removal methods for swine wastewater treatment. The USDA-ARS, Florence, SC, evaluated swine wastewater treatment in marsh-pond-marsh wetlands in Greensboro, NC, via a specific cooperative agreement with North Carolina A&T State University. We attempted to enhance the oxidation status of the wetlands by alternating wetting and drying cycles, but it appears we will need faster drainage during drying periods of active aeration. This research provides a better understanding of an alternative method for treatment of animal waste for farmers with limited resources, and the cooperation with NC A&T State University facilitates transfer of the technology to African-American farmers. 5. Describe the major accomplishments over the life of the project, including their predicted or actual impact. 1) A potential major advance in nitrogen removal in animal waste treatment was the identification and demonstration of polymer-immobilized nitrifying bacteria technology. Results obtained with the pilot bioreactor have been excellent. The capacity for ammonia removal from swine wastewater exceeded design expectations based on municipal wastewater treatment systems. Compared to conventional systems, this technology allows an increase of about 1,000-fold more nitrifying bacteria to be retained in the reaction tanks. Thus, it both increased efficiency and reduced capital cost. This work showed for the first time that the technology can be applied for treatment of animal wastewater. When retrofit to swine lagoons, it has the potential for treating large amounts of ammonia that would otherwise volatilize and escape to the environment. 2) High ammonia-tolerant bacteria were used to treat concentrated animal wastewater; they enabled fast ammonia removal using aeration treatment without the problem of ammonia volatilization loss. The concept of using specialized bacteria cultures for varied strength animal wastewaters is a novel approach that has the potential for development of feasible technologies for animal wastewater as well as other environmental applications where biological treatment of high-strength wastewaters is a problem. 3) Constructed wetlands were demonstrated to be effective in treating swine wastewater by removing large amounts of nitrogen (>5000 kg N/ha/yr). Constructed wetlands can be successfully used in an overall livestock management system especially where land is limited for manure application. 4) Phosphorus applications in excess of crop needs have increased the concentration of phosphorus in soils and have raised serious concern about potential negative effects on surface and ground water quality. Soil phosphorus and groundwater-soluble phosphorus were measured in a Coastal Plain swine manure spray field. We found that soil phosphorus concentrations were many times greater than plant nutritional needs and also that phosphorus had leached through the soil to the groundwater. The impact of this finding shows that sandy soils have a finite capacity of phosphorus sorption and that management practices should insure that these capacities are not exceeded. 5) High-rate separation of solids and liquids from swine wastewater is a critical step for development of alternative systems without lagoons. We evaluated the effectiveness of polymer flocculants (PAM) to enhance solid- liquid separation in a pilot unit in partnership with North Carolina State University at the Lake Wheeler Rd. Laboratory in Raleigh, NC. Flocculation treatment improved drainage characteristics of the sand filter and removed 98% of total suspended solids, 87% of BOD, 62% of TKN, and 76% TP. It was demonstrated that: a) PAM is an effective treatment for separating solids and recovering organic nutrients, and b) the lower BOD strength of the effluent makes the use of aeration treatment for biological N removal effective. 6) Phosphorus and nitrogen are not present in manure in the same proportion needed by crops, and when manure is applied based on a crop's nitrogen requirement, excessive phosphorus is applied resulting in phosphorus soil accumulation, runoff, leaching, and surface waters eutrophication. We, in cooperation with North Carolina State University, invented and filed a patent for a wastewater treatment system where phosphorus is precipitated to produce an effluent with the desired N:P ratio in the range of 15 to 300. The system uses relatively little chemicals, prevents ammonia volatilization, and kills pathogens. The technology can be used to retrofit animal lagoons or in systems where the lagoon is omitted. 7) Constructed wetlands are an important method of treating animal wastewater, but there is concern that they may be evolving excessive ammonia during the treatment process. In cooperation with North Carolina State University, we used an open-tunnel device to measure ammonia volatilization from continuous marsh-type constructed wetlands in Duplin Co., NC. We found that ammonia volatilization was not a major loss mechanism, and we also found that pre-wetland nitrification essentially eliminated ammonia volatilization from these constructed wetlands. Our findings support the use of constructed wetlands as an effective component of animal waste treatment systems. 8) Design guidelines for constructed wetlands used in treatment of swine waste are evolving as more information on their function becomes available. In collaboration with North Carolina State University and the Natural Resources Conservation Service, we evaluated constructed wetland treatment of swine lagoon effluent with loading rates from 3 to 25 kg/ha/day, and we calculated design parameters for comparison with current design methods for constructed wetlands in municipal wastewater treatment systems. We found that the design equations used for municipal wastewater treatment systems were minimally adequate for designs for swine lagoon wastewater treatment with the use of appropriate parameters for swine waste treatment. Although our results show the utility of current design concepts, they also point to the need for more refined data and design concepts for construction and operation of animal wastewater treatment wetland. 9) Constructed wetlands are an important method of treating animal wastewater, and there is a need to better understand nitrogen loss by denitrification. In cooperation with North Carolina State University, we used denitrification enzyme assay to assess the impact of operational parameters on denitrification in continuous marsh-type constructed wetlands with sloped bottoms in Duplin Co., NC. We found denitrification potential to be significant and higher in wetlands growing bulrush compared to cattails. We also found that denitrification potential decreased down the length of the wetland as water depth increased from about 45 to 90 mm. We concluded that both plant community and the shallow portion of the sloped wetland were very important for denitrification removal of nitrogen from wastewater. 10) Phosphorus concentrations have risen substantially in some coastal streams and rivers because of the accumulation of excess phosphorus in many Coastal Plain soils. Our objective was to determine if excess soil phosphorus concentrations could be immobilized by alum-treated drinking water treatment residual (WTR) material. In preliminary laboratory experiments, we found that the alum-treated WTR material sorbed high amounts of phosphorus. The outcome of this experiment suggests that the WTR material may be useful soil amendment to immobilize phosphorus and reduce its off-site movement. 11) High concentration of phosphorus in both liquid and solid animal manures is a problem for its land application. We tested several protocols for extraction of phosphorus from the solid phase of manures with subsequent recovery of the released phosphorus from the liquid phase. Some specific extraction and recovery protocols showed significant effectiveness. If these protocols can be further developed into functional systems, they could substantially reduce excess phosphorus application and provide a source of recyclable phosphorus. 12) It is important to assess the ability of riparian zones to mitigate phosphorus movement to streams even when the contiguous fields are very high in phosphorus. We assessed movement of P from fields containing soils with excess P concentrations into surface water systems. The riparian areas were effective at reducing the movement of P-enriched eroded sediments and dissolved P in groundwater flowing through the riparian zone. These results underline the importance of riparian areas in the Coastal Plain region, particularly where intensive nitrogen and phosphorus applications have occurred. 13) Concern has increased about the potential for contamination of water, food, and air by pathogens present in manure. We evaluated pathogen reduction in a multistage pilot system where first the solids and liquid in swine manure are separated with polymer, followed by biological N removal using nitrification and denitrification, and then P extraction through a newly developed calcium precipitation process. Each step of the treatment system was evaluated for its effectiveness in reducing total and fecal coliforms, enterococci, and salmonellae counts on selective and differential nutrient media. We found that N treatment is very effective in reducing pathogens and that the P treatment produces a sanitized effluent which may be important for biosecurity reasons. 6. What do you expect to accomplish, year by year, over the next 3 years? Year 1: Improve treatment performance and nutrient removal mechanisms of marsh-pond-marsh wetlands when operated with a floating cover and aeration of the pond section. Determine copper and zinc accumulation and movement in a constructed wetland and a spray field used for manure disposal. Advance the understanding of the P binding potential of wastewater treatment residuals. Certify the performance of a full-scale system that treats swine waste without lagoons which operates via solids separation and utilization, nitrification and denitrification, phosphorus removal, pathogen reduction, and subsurface irrigation. Increase the understanding of the level and completeness of denitrification in the treatment system components. Advance the knowledge level of methods for improvements in emissions from components of the treatment systems and rehabilitated lagoons. Improve the engineering reliability of the animal treatment systems for various operational and weather situations via engineering analyses of potential failures and causes scenarios. Improve methods to more rapidly extract phosphorus from solid manures and make prototype evaluations of methods to more rapidly extract phosphorus from solid manures. Improve the knowledge basis of the functionality of the treated effluent in subirrigation. Year 2: Enhance constructed wetlands for nitrification and phosphorus treatment. Advance the knowledge of the P binding potential of wastewater treatment residuals with soils from overloaded sites. Advance the knowledge of operational performance and effectiveness of a full-scale system that treats swine waste without lagoons which operates via solids separation and utilization, nitrification and denitrification, phosphorus removal, pathogen reduction, and subsurface irrigation. Advance the knowledge of method for reducing emissions from components of the treatment systems and rehabilitated lagoons. Advance reliable engineering assessment of the system for various operation and weather situations. Improve the knowledge of the functionality of the treated effluent in subirrigation. 7. What science and/or technologies have been transferred and to whom? When is the science and/or technology likely to become available to the end- user (industry, farmer, other scientists)? What are the constraints, if known, to the adoption and durability of the technology products? A group of about 30 scientists and representatives of ARS, NRCS, and EPA toured the treatment system installed at Goshen farm as part of the Animal Waste Treatment Technologies Workshop, ARS National Program #206 "Manure and By-product Utilization." The National Pork Board's Environmental Committee toured the Goshen treatment system. Phosphorus removal module technology announced in News Release 0025.03 by Agriculture Secretary Ann Veneman. An accompanying bilingual article (English and Spanish) was published in the internet by ARS Information Staff (www.ars.usda.gov/is/pr/2003/030124.htm). Directors of Environmental Management Systems (EMS), a partner of NRCS for Farm Bill implementation programs, visited and toured full-scale treatment project in North Carolina. Representatives of farm machinery industry visited with Florence scientists on new treatment technology development and toured full-scale system. A Virtual Tour of Smithfield project at Goshen farm was filmed by Dept. of Communications Services, NCSU, to be shown at the NCSU Waste Management Workshop Oct. 16-17, 2003. 8. List your most important publications in the popular press and presentations to organizations and articles written about your work. (NOTE: This does not replace your peer-reviewed publications listed below). Full-scale treatment project was featured in cover page article "Modern Agriculture: Technology Helps Farmers" in The Fayetteville Observer, NC. Phosphorus removal technology featured in The Kiplinger Agriculture Letter, Promising Agricultural Research Developments section (vol. 74, No. 4) "Putting swine production wastewater to good use." Phosphorus removal technology was also reported in the Water Environment & Technology (WET) magazine of the Water Environment Federation (May 2003) "Swine Wastewater Can Benefit Environment Two Ways." Wastewater treatment system developed at Florence was featured in Industries in Transition newsletter and Water Technology News newsletter (April 2003) "Pig Farm Runoff Turned to Fertilizer." Phosphorus removal and recovery from animal waste was presented at the Fertilizer Industries Roundtable discussion in Charleston, SC (October 2002). Made an invited presentation and held discussions in and around Burlington, Vermont, on animal waste management with several individuals and groups (state resources, NRCS, Lake Champlain Protection committee, and University professors). Held a Customer Dialogue workshop for about 60 customers and cooperators in Florence (January 2003). Made poster presentations to both the North and South Carolina Soil and Water Conservation Associations (January 2003). Made poster presentation to South Carolina Agricultural Exposition (January 2003).

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications

  • HUNT, P.G., MATHENY, T.A., SZOGI, A.A. DENITRIFICATION IN CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS USED FOR TREATMENT OF SWINE WASTEWATER. JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY. 2003. V. 32. P. 727-735.
  • HUNT, P.G., SZOGI, A.A., HUMENIK, F.J., RICE, J.M., MATHENY, T.A., STONE, K.C. CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS FOR TREATMENT OF SWINE WASTEWATER FROM AN ANAEROBIC LAGOON. TRANSACTIONS OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERS. 2002. V. 45. P. 639-647.
  • NOVAK, J.M., CHAN, A.S.k. DEVELOPMENT OF P-HYPERACCUMULATOR PLANT STRATEGIES TO REMEDIATE SOILS WITH EXCESS P CONCENTRATIONS. CRITICAL REVIEWS IN PLANT SCIENCES. 2002. V. 21. P. 493-509.
  • NOVAK, J.M., HUNT, P.G., STONE, K.C., WATTS, D.W., JOHNSON, M.H. RIPARIAN ZONE IMPACT ON PHOSPHORUS MOVEMENT TO A COASTAL PLAIN BLACK WATER STREAM. JOURNAL OF SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION. 2002. V. 57. P. 127-133.
  • POACH, M.E., HUNT, P.G., SADLER, E.J., MATHENY, T.A., JOHNSON, M.H., STONE, K.C., HUMENIK, F.J., RICE, J.M. AMMONIA VOLATILIZATION FROM CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS THAT TREAT SWINE WASTEWATER. TRANSACTIONS OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERS. 2002. V. 45. P. 619-627.
  • VANOTTI, M.B., RASHASH, D.M.C., HUNT, P.G. SOLID-LIQUID SEPARATION OF FLUSHED SWINE MANURE WITH PAM: EFFECT OF WASTEWATER STRENGTH. TRANSACTIONS OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERS. 2002. V. 45. P. 1959- 1969.
  • RIZZUTI, A.M., COHEN, A.D., HUNT, P.G., ELLISON, A.Q. RETENTION OF NITROGEN AND PHOSPHOROUS FROM LIQUID SWINE AND POULTRY MANURES USING HIGHLY CHARCTERIZED PEATS. JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND HEALTH. 2002. V. 37. P. 587-611.
  • STONE, K.C., HUNT, P.G., SZOGI, A.A., HUMENIK, F.J., RICE, J.M. CONSTRUCTED WETLAND DESIGN AND PERFORMANCE FOR SWINE LAGOON WASTEWATER TREATMENT. TRANSACTIONS OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERS. 2002. V. 45. P. 723-730.
  • HUNT, P.G., POACH, M.E., REDDY, G.B., STONE, K.C., VANOTTI, M.B., HUMENIK, F.J. SWINE WASTEWATER TREATMENT IN CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS. RECYCLING OF AGRICULTURAL MUNICIPAL AND INDUSTRIAL RESIDUES. 2002. P. 315-318.
  • HUNT, P.G., POACH, M.E., SZOGI, A.A. SWINE WASTEWATER TREATMENT IN CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS. CD-ROM. AGRONOMY ABSTRACTS. 2002.
  • HUNT, P.G., VANOTTI, M.B., SZOGI, A.A. TECHNOLOGIES FOR RECYCLING ANIMAL MANURES. CD-ROM. ANNUAL FERTILIZER INDUSTRY ROUND TABLE. 2002. 5 P.
  • NOVAK, J.M. UTILIZATION OF WATER TREATMENT RESIDUAL MATERIAL TO BIND INORGANIC PHOSPHORUS. CD-ROM. WATER ENVIRONMENT FEDERATION. 2003. 7 P.
  • SZOGI, A.A., VANOTTI, M.B., HUNT, P.G. EXTRACTION AND RECOVERY OF PHOSPHORUS FROM SWINE WASTEWATER. AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY ANNUAL MEETING. 2002.
  • SZOGI, A.A., VANOTTI, M.B., HUNT, P.G. ALTERNATIVE TREATMENT AND RECOVERY OF PHOSPHORUS FROM ANAEROBIC LAGOONS. CD-ROM. AGRONOMY ABSTRACTS. 2002.
  • VANOTTI, M.B. PAM AND MANURE LIQUID-SOLIDS SEPARATION AND NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT. SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION SOCIETY PROCEEDINGS. 2002.
  • VANOTTI, M.B., HUNT, P.G., ELLISON, A.Q., SZOGI, A.A., RICE, J.M., HUMENIK, F.J., MILLNER, P.D. DEVELOPMENT OF A TOTAL MANURE TREATMENT SYSTEM ALTERNATIVE TO LAGOON-SPRAYFIELD TECHNOLOGY IN NORTH CAROLINA. CD-ROM. AGRONOMY ABSTRACTS. 2002.
  • VANOTTI, M.B., MILLNER, P.D., HUNT, P.G., ELLISON, A.Q. CONTROL OF PATHOGENS IN LIQUID SWINE MANURE USING NITROGEN AND PHOSPHORUS TREATMENT. PORCI MONOGRAPH NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH (SPAIN). 2002. V. 7. P. 69-79.
  • POACH, M.E., HUNT, P.G., VANOTTI, M.B., STONE, K.C., MATHENY, T.A., JOHNSON, M.H., SADLER, E.J. IMPROVED NITROGEN TREATMENT BY CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS RECEIVING PARTIALLY NITRIFIED SWINE WASTEWATER. ECOLOGICAL ENGINEERING. 2003. V. 20. P. 183-197.


Progress 10/01/01 to 09/30/02

Outputs
1. What major problem or issue is being resolved and how are you resolving it? Confined production of livestock, fish, and birds creates conflicts between the need to dispose of animal manures and the public's desire for an environment without odor, pollution, and pathogens. Our goal is to provide technologies that maintain or improve environmental quality while ensuring economically viable enterprises. Our approach involves the use of systems that are passive, high-tech mechanical, and blends of both technologies. Our passive-natural treatment approach involves capture and transformation of nutrients in constructed wetlands. Our high technology treatment approach involves separation of solid and liquid manures, removal of nitrogen via nitrification/denitrification, phosphorus precipitation and recovery, and pathogen reduction. We will also be evaluating the impact of manure land applications on soils and P and trace element accumulation in soils. 2. How serious is the problem? Why does it matter? Confined production of livestock, fish, and birds generates large amounts of manure that must be utilized or disposed of properly to prevent environmental degradation. However, in many areas with large concentrations of animals, there is insufficient cropland to assimilate the nutrients in manures. In these areas, traditional methods of manure utilization/disposal pose serious environmental problems. In the southeastern USA, many of these operations are located in close proximity to environmentally sensitive streams and only a few hundred miles from sensitive coastal estuaries. Degradation of coastal estuaries and waters would greatly affect tourism, fishing, and other industries. 3. How does it relate to the national Program(s) and National Program Component(s) to which it has been assigned? This project is part of the Manure and Byproducts Utilization (206) National Program. Specifically, the project addresses the nutrient management and treatment. Our research contributes primarily to Component 2, Nutrient Management, and complements Component 1, Atmospheric Emissions and Component 3, Pathogens. We are evaluating a full-scale animal waste treatment system to capture nutrients, reduce emissions of ammonia and nuisance odors, and kill harmful pathogens. The system, which uses technologies developed and pilot-tested by CPSWPRC, is being demonstrated at full-scale as part of the Smithfield Foods-Premium Standard Farms/North Carolina Attorney General agreement to replace current lagoons with environmentally superior technology. This research is done in collaboration with North Carolina State University engineers and scientists. This project plays a complementary role in Water Quality and Management (201) National program, within Component 3, Water Quality Protection and Management. 4. What was your most significant accomplishment this past year? A. Single Most Significant Accomplishment During FY 2002: There is a pressing need to develop and demonstrate animal waste treatment systems that function without anaerobic lagoon. We cooperated with North Carolina State University and Super Soils Systems USA to design and construct a new full-scale manure treatment system (based substantially on ARS research) at a 4,360-pig farm in Duplin County, NC, as part of the Smithfield Foods/NC Attorney General agreement to replace current lagoons with Environmentally Superior Technology. The system; which separates solids and liquids using polymer technology, removes the ammonia with immobilized microorganisms, recovers the soluble phosphorus, and processes the solids to produce plant growth media; has moved through design optimization and construction. If the system is successful both operationally and economically, it should have major impact as a functional advance in the treatment of animal waste. B. Other Significant Accomplishments: 1) Constructed wetlands are an important method of treating animal wastewater, and there is a need to better understand nitrogen loss by denitrification. In cooperation with North Carolina State University, we used denitrification enzyme assay to assess the impact of operational parameters on denitrification in continuous marsh-type constructed wetlands with sloped bottoms in Duplin Co., NC. We found denitrification potential to be significant and higher in wetlands growing bulrush compared to cattails. We also found that denitrification potential decreased down the length of the wetland as water depth increased from about 45 to 90 mm. We concluded that both plant community and the shallow portion of the sloped wetland were very important for denitrification removal of nitrogen from wastewater. 2) Phosphorus concentrations have risen substantially in some Coastal streams and rivers because of the accumulation of excess phosphorus in many Coastal Plain soils. Our objective was to determine if excess soil phosphorus concentrations could be immobilized by alum-treated drinking water treatment residual (WTR) material. In preliminary laboratory experiments, we found that the alum-treated WTR material sorbed high amounts of phosphorus. The outcome of this experiment suggests that the WTR material may be useful soil amendment to immobilize phosphorus and reduce its off-site movement. 3) High concentration of phosphorus in both liquid and solid animal manures is a problem for its land application. We tested several protocols for extraction of phosphorus from the solid phase of manures with subsequent recovery of the released phosphorus from the liquid phase. Some specific extraction and recovery protocols showed significant effectiveness. If these protocols can be further developed into functional systems, they could substantially reduce excess phosphorus application and provide a source of recyclable phosphorus. 4) It is important to assess the ability of riparian zones to mitigate phosphorus movement to streams even when the contiguous fields are very high in phosphorus. We assessed movement of P from fields containing soils with excess P concentrations into surface water systems. The riparian areas were effective at reducing the movement of P-enriched eroded sediments and dissolved P in groundwater flowing through the riparian zone. These results underline the importance of riparian areas in the Coastal Plain region, particularly where intensive nitrogen and phosphorus applications have occurred. 5) Concern has increased about the potential for contamination of water, food, and air by pathogens present in manure. We evaluated pathogen reduction in a multistage pilot system where first the solids and liquid in swine manure are separated with polymer, followed by biological N removal using nitrification and denitrification, and then P extraction through a newly developed calcium precipitation process. Each step of the treatment system was evaluated for its effectiveness in reducing total and fecal coliforms, enterococci, and salmonellae counts on selective and differential nutrient media. We found that N treatment is very effective in reducing pathogens and that the P treatment produces a sanitized effluent which may be important for biosecurity reasons. C. Significant Accomplishments/Activities that Support Special Target Populations: We evaluated swine wastewater treatment in a marsh-pond-marsh wetlands system via a specific cooperative agreement with North Carolina A&T State University. These systems provide a valuable alternative for treatment of animal waste for farmers with limited resources, and the cooperation with NC A&T State University facilitates transfer of the technology to African- American farmers. 5. Describe your major accomplishments over the life of the project, including their predicted or actual impact? 1) Identification and demonstration of polymer-immobilized nitrifying bacteria technology as a potential solution to animal waste treatment. Results obtained with the pilot bioreactor have been excellent. The capacity for ammonia removal from swine wastewater exceeded design expectations based on municipal wastewater treatment systems. Compared to conventional systems, this technology allows an increase of about 1,000- fold more nitrifying bacteria to be retained in the reaction tanks. Thus, it both increased efficiency and reduced capital cost. This work showed for the first time that the technology can be applied for treatment of animal wastewater. When retrofit to swine lagoons, it has the potential for treating large amounts of ammonia that would otherwise volatilize and escape to the environment. 2) High ammonia-tolerant bacteria were used to treat concentrated animal wastewater; they enabled fast ammonia removal using aeration treatment without the problem of ammonia volatilization loss. The concept of using specialized bacteria cultures for varied strength animal wastewaters is a novel approach that has the potential for development of feasible technologies for animal wastewater as well as other environmental applications where biological treatment of high-strength wastewaters is a problem. 3) Constructed wetlands were demonstrated to be effective in treating swine wastewater by removing large amounts of nitrogen (>5000 kg N/ha/yr). Constructed wetlands can be successfully used in an overall livestock management system especially where land is limited for manure application. 4) Phosphorus applications in excess of crop needs have increased the concentration of phosphorus in soils and have raised serious concern about potential negative effects on surface and ground water quality. Soil phosphorus and groundwater-soluble phosphorus were measured in a Coastal Plain swine manure spray field. We found that soil phosphorus concentrations were many times greater than plant nutritional needs and also that phosphorus had leached through the soil to the groundwater. The impact of this finding shows that sandy soils have a finite capacity of phosphorus sorption and that management practices should insure that these capacities are not exceeded. 5) High-rate separation of solids and liquids from swine wastewater is a critical step for development of alternative systems without lagoons. We evaluated the effectiveness of polymer flocculants (PAM) to enhance solid- liquid separation in a pilot unit in partnership with North Carolina State University at the Lake Wheeler Rd. Laboratory in Raleigh, NC. Flocculation treatment improved drainage characteristics of the sand filter and removed 98% of total suspended solids, 87% of BOD, 62% of TKN, and 76% TP. It was demonstrated that: a) PAM is an effective treatment for separating solids and recovering organic nutrients, and b) the lower BOD strength of the effluent makes the use of aeration treatment for biological N removal effective. 6) Phosphorus and nitrogen are not present in manure in the same proportion needed by crops, and when manure is applied based on a crop's nitrogen requirement, excessive phosphorus is applied resulting in phosphorus soil accumulation, runoff, leaching, and surface waters eutrophication. We, in cooperation with North Carolina State University, invented and filed a patent for a wastewater treatment system where phosphorus is precipitated to produce an effluent with the desired N:P ratio in the range of 15 to 300. The system uses relatively little chemicals, prevents ammonia volatilization, and kills pathogens. The technology can be used to retrofit animal lagoons or in systems where the lagoon is omitted; such a system has been planned as a full-scale demonstration at a 4,360-pig farm in North Carolina's Duplin County as part of the Smithfield Foods/NC Attorney General agreement to replace current lagoons with environmentally superior technology. 7) Constructed wetlands are an important method of treating animal wastewater, but there is concern that they may be evolving excessive ammonia during the treatment process. In cooperation with North Carolina State University, we used an open-tunnel device to measure ammonia volatilization from continuous marsh-type constructed wetlands in Duplin Co., NC. We found that ammonia volatilization was not a major loss mechanism, and we also found that pre-wetland nitrification essentially eliminated ammonia volatilization from these constructed wetlands. Our findings support the use of constructed wetlands as an effective component of animal waste treatment systems. 8) Design guidelines for constructed wetlands used in treatment of swine waste are evolving as more information on their function becomes available. In collaboration with North Carolina State University and the Natural Resources Conservation Service, we evaluated constructed wetland treatment of swine lagoon effluent with loading rates from 3 to 25 kg/ha/day, and we calculated design parameters for comparison with current design methods for constructed wetlands in municipal wastewater treatment systems. We found that the design equations used for municipal wastewater treatment systems were minimally adequate for designs for swine lagoon wastewater treatment with the use of appropriate parameters for swine waste treatment. Although our results show the utility of current design concepts, they also point to the need for more refined data and design concepts for construction and operation of animal wastewater treatment wetlands. 6. What do you expect to accomplish, year by year, over the next 3 years? FY2003: Evaluate treatment performance and nutrient removal mechanisms of marsh-pond-marsh wetlands when operated with varying intervals for pulse application of wastewater. Evaluate design parameters for marsh-pond- marsh constructed wetlands compared to performance and existing design models. Determine copper and zinc accumulation and movement in a constructed wetland and a spray field used for manure disposal. Continue laboratory determinations of the P binding potential of wastewater treatment residuals. Participate in the establishment and evaluation of a full-scale system that treats swine waste without lagoons which operates via solids separation and utilization, nitrification and denitrification, phosphorus removal, pathogen reduction, and subsurface irrigation. Continue to evaluate methods to more rapidly extract phosphorus from solid manures. FY2004: Complete the initial evaluation and explore modifications of the lagoon-less swine waste treatment system. Evaluate modification to constructed wetlands for enhanced nitrification and phosphorus treatment. Evaluate at plot scale a method of mitigating soils that are overloaded with phosphorus from animal waste applications. FY2005: Make modification to the lagoon-less system based on initial evaluation. Continue the enhancement of constructed wetlands for animal wastewater treatment. Evaluate a prototype system for increased phosphorus extraction from solid waste. Evaluate a field scale mitigation of a phosphorus overloaded soil. Complete the evaluation of subsurface irrigation with treated swine wastewater. Evaluate a pilot scale phosphorus extraction and recovery system. 7. What technologies have been transferred and to whom? When is the technology likely to become available to the end user (industry, farmer other scientist)? What are the constraints, if known, to the adoption durability of the technology? 1) We cooperated with several companies to facilitate technology transfer that was sufficient to allow design of a full-scale system for treatment of swine waste without lagoons. The system is designed to separate and utilize solids as well as remove nutrients, lower ammonia emissions, and reduce pathogens. It was selected and funded to be tested as a potential "Superior Technology" as part of the Smithfield Foods Agreement with the State of North Carolina. The project is being constructed and operated by Super Soil Systems Inc. of Clinton, NC; and it should start operating by late 2002. The initial evaluation phase as a "Superior Technology" should be completed within 18 months after startup. 2) We cooperated with North Carolina State University in its full-scale demonstration of constructed wetland treatment of swine wastewater. 3) Filed a patent on a phosphorus removal system for animal wastewater treatment and initiated licensing of the technology. 4) Held a dialogue workshop for approximately fifty customers and stakeholders annually in the last three years. 5) Presented research findings at the Water Environment Federation/US EPA Symposium 'Innovative processes to produce useful materials and energy from biosolids and animal manure.' 8. List your most important publications and presentations, and articles written about your work (NOTE: this does not replace your review publications which are listed below) 1) Made a presentation on animal waste treatment to Watershed Heros Conference of the Farm Bureau and created a 60-second presentation for their website. 2) Made a presentation on swine waste treatment technology at the Arkansas Farm Bureau Annual Meeting.

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications

  • Poach, M., Hunt, P., Sadler, J., Matheny, T., Johnson, M., Stone, K., Humenik, F. An enclosure system to measure ammonia volatilized from constructed wetlands. 7th International Conference on Wetland Systems for Water Pollution Control. 2000. v. 1. Abstract p. 379.
  • Poach, M.E., Hunt, P.G., Stone, K.C., Vanotti, M.B., Johnson, M.H., Matheny, T.A., Humenik, F.J., Rice, J.M. Nitrogen removal from swine wastewater by constructed wetlands: Effect of pre-wetland nitrification. CD-ROM. American Society of Agronomy Annual Meeting Abstracts. 2001.
  • Stone, K.C., Hunt, P.G., Humenik, F.J., Rice J.M. Design and prediction of constructed wetland treatment for swine wastewater. 7th International Conference on Wetland Systems for Water Pollution Control. 2000. v. 3. Abstract pg. 1485.
  • Vanotti, M.B., Hunt, P.G., Ellison, A.Q., Szogi, A.A., Rice, J.M., Humenik, F.J., Baird, C.L. Nutrient removal from liquid swine manure using PAM, nitrification/denitrification and phosphorus treatment. CD-ROM. American Society of Agronomy Annual Meeting Abstracts. 2001.
  • Watts, D.W., Novak, J.M., Szogi, A.A., Stone, K.C., Hunt, P.G., Humenik, F. G., Rice, J.M. Copper and zinc accumulation in a constructed wetland treating swine wastewater. CD-ROM. American Society of Agronomy Annual Meeting Abstracts. 2001.
  • Chastain, J.P., Vanotti, M.B., Wingfield, M.M. Effectiveness of liquid- solid separation for treatment of flushed dairy manure. A case study. Applied Engineering in Agriculture. 2001. v. 17. p. 343-354.
  • Hunt, P.G., Poach, M.E. State of the art for animal wastewater treatment in constructed wetlands. Water Science Technology. 2001. v. 44. p. 19-25.
  • Szogi, A.A., Hunt, P.G. Distribution of ammonium-N in the water-soil interface of a surface-flow constructed wetland for swine wastewater treatment. Water Science Technology. 2001. v. 44. p. 157-162.
  • Vanotti, M.B., Hunt, P.G. Treatment and sustainable management of manure and by-products: Problems and solutions in USA. Porci Monograph National Institute of Agriculture Research. 2001. v. 65. p. 67-83.
  • Vanotti, M.B., Hunt, P.G., Rice, J.M., Humenik, F.J. Nitrifying high- strength wastewater. Industrial Wastewater. 2000. p. 30-36.
  • Hunt, P.G., Szogi, A.A., Humenik, F.J., Reddy, G.B., Poach, M.E., Sadler, E.J., Stone, K.C. Treatment of swine wastewater in wetlands with natural and agronomic plants. Proceedings of 9th International Workshop of the European Cooperative Research Network (RAMIRAN). 2000. p. 187-192.
  • Vanotti, M.B, Millner, P.D., Hunt, P.G., Ellison, A.Q. Destruction of pathogens in liquid swine manure by biological nitrogen removal and phosphorus treatment. CD-ROM. Proceedings of 10th International Workshop of the European Cooperative Research Network (RAMIRAN). 2002.
  • Vanotti, M.B., Rice, J.M., Ellison, A.Q., Hunt, P.G., Humenik, F.J., Baird, C.L. Solids-liquid separation of swine manure with polymer treatment and filtration. CD-ROM. 2002. American Society of Agricultural Engineers. Paper No. 024158.
  • Vanotti, M.B., Rice, J.M., Hunt, P.G., Humenik, F.J., Ellison, A.Q., Baird, C.A., Millner P. Szogi, A.A. Evaluation of polymer solids separation, nitrification-denitrification and soluble phosphorus removal system for treating swine manure. CD-ROM. Proceedings of International Symposium Addressing Animal Production and Environmental Issues. 2001. 4 p.
  • Vanotti, M.B., Szogi, A.A., Hunt, P.G. Extraction of soluble phosphorus from swine wastewater. CD-ROM. 2002. American Society of Agricultural Engineers. Paper No. 024098.
  • Ellison, A.Q., Vanotti, M.B., Hunt, P.G. Treatment of high ammonia landfill leachate with nitrifying pellets. CD-ROM. American Society of Agronomy Annual Meeting Abstracts. 2001.
  • Hunt, P.G., Matheny, T.A., Poach, M.E., Reddy, G.B. Denitrification in constructed wetlands used for swine wastewater treatment. CD-ROM. American Society of Agronomy Annual Meeting Abstracts. 2001.
  • Novak, J.M., Watts, D.W., Stone, K.C., Johnson, M.H., Szogi, A.A., Hunt, P. G. Phosphorus dynamics in a freshwater in-stream wetland: Exchange between sediments and water column. CD-ROM. American Society of Agronomy Annual Meeting Abstracts. 2001.
  • Poach, M.E., Hunt, P.G., Sadler, E.J., Matheny, T.A., Johnson, M.H., Stone, K.C., Humenik F.J. Ammonia volatilization from wetlands constructed to treat confined-animal waste. American Society of Agronomy Annual Meeting Abstracts. 2000. p. 49.


Progress 10/01/00 to 09/30/01

Outputs
1. What major problem or issue is being resolved and how are you resolving it? Confined production of livestock, fish, and birds creates conflicts between the need to dispose of animal manures and the public's desire for an environment without odor, pollution, and pathogens. Our goal is to provide technologies that maintain or improve environmental quality while ensuring economically viable enterprises. Our approach involves the use of systems that are passive, high-tech mechanical, and blends of both technologies. Our passive-natural treatment approach involves capture and transformation of nutrients in constructed wetlands. Our high technology treatment approach involves separation of solid and liquid manures, removal of nitrogen via nitrification/denitrification, phosphorus precipitation and recovery, and pathogen reduction. We will also be evaluating the impact of manure land applications on soils P and trace element accumulation in soils. 2. How serious is the problem? Why does it matter? Confined production of livestock, fish, and birds generates large amounts of manure that must be utilized or disposed of properly to prevent environmental degradation. However, in many areas with large concentrations of animals, there is insufficient cropland to assimilate the nutrients in manures. In these areas, traditional methods of manure utilization/disposal pose serious environmental problems. In the southeastern USA, many of these operations are located in close proximity to environmentally sensitive streams and only a few hundred miles from sensitive coastal estuaries. Degradation of coastal estuaries and waters would greatly affect tourism, fishing, and other industries. 3. How does it relate to the National Program(s) and National Component(s)? This project is part of the Manure and Byproducts Utilization (206) National Program. Specifically, the project addresses the nutrient management and treatment. It also interfaces with the Water Quality and Management (201) National Program and Soil Management and Quality (202) National Program. 4. What were the most significant accomplishments this past year? A. Single Most Significant Accomplishment During FY 2000 Year: When manure application is based on a crop's nitrogen requirement, excessive phosphorus is applied resulting in phosphorus soil accumulation, runoff, leaching and surface waters eutrophication. In cooperation with North Carolina State University, discovered a wastewater treatment system where phosphorus is precipitated and recovered to produce a prescribed effluent with the desired N:P ratio in the range of 15 to 300 which uses relatively little chemicals, prevents ammonia volatilization, and kills pathogens. The technology can be used to retrofit animal lagoons or in systems where the lagoon is omitted; such a system is being implemented as a full-scale demonstration at a 4,360-pig farm in North Carolina's Duplin County as part of the Smithfield Foods/NC Attorney General agreement to replace current lagoons with environmentally superior technology. B. Other Significant Accomplishments: 1) Development of alternative manure treatment methods is essential for environmentally safe management of enormous quantities of manure produced by confined operations. A pilot wastewater treatment unit was successfully tested during year 2000 in cooperation with North Carolina State University at its Waste Management Center in Raleigh. The solids contained in flush water were effectively separated with polyacrylamide (PAM) treatment, and the liquid was purified using a nitrification/ denitrification module with immobilized bacteria technology. The system lowered nitrogen concentration from about 675 parts per million to fewer then 25. It was verified for the first time that nitrification treatment of fresh manure after PAM separation is technically feasible; the purified and deodorized liquid can be recycled to clean hog houses or for crop irrigation with the advantage that the land required for nutrient disposal is greatly reduced and lagoons are eliminated. 2) Constructed wetlands are an important method of treating animal wastewater, but there is concern that they may be evolving excessive ammonia during the treatment process. In cooperation with North Carolina State University, we used an open-tunnel device to measure ammonia volatilization from continuous marsh-type constructed wetlands in Duplin Co., NC. We found that ammonia volatilization was not a major loss mechanism, and we also found that pre-wetland nitrification essentially eliminated ammonia volatilization from these constructed wetlands. Our findings support the use of constructed wetlands as an effective component of animal waste treatment systems. 3) Design guidelines for constructed wetlands used in treatment of swine waste are evolving as more information on their function becomes available. In collaboration with North Carolina State University and the Natural Resources Conservation Service, we evaluated constructed wetland treatment of swine lagoon effluent with loading rates from 3 to 25 kg/ha/day, and we calculated design parameters for comparison with current design methods for constructed wetland in municipal wastewater treatment systems. We found that the design equations used for municipal wastewater treatment systems were adequate for designs of swine lagoon wastewater treatment, with the use of appropriate parameters for swine waste treatment. Although our results show the utility of current design concepts, they also point to the need for more refined data and design concepts for construction and operation of animal wastewater treatment wetland. C. Significant Accomplishments/Activities that Support Special Target Populations: We evaluated swine wastewater treatment in a marsh-pond-marsh wetlands system via a specific cooperative agreement with North Carolina A&T State University. These systems provide a valuable alternative for treatment of animal waste for farmers with limited resources, and the cooperation with NC A&T State University facilitates transfer of the technology to African-American farmers. 5. Describe the major accomplishments over the life of the project including their predicted or actual impact. Major accomplishments include: 1) Identification and demonstration of polymer-immobilized nitrifying bacteria technologies as a potential solution to animal waste treatment. Results obtained with the pilot bioreactor have been excellent. The capacity for ammonia removal from swine wastewater exceeded design expectations based on municipal wastewater treatment systems. Compared to conventional systems, it allows an increase of about 1,000-fold more nitrifying bacteria to be retained in the reaction tanks. Thus, it both increased efficiency and decreased capital cost. This work showed for the first time that the technology can be applied for treatment of animal wastewater. When used to retrofit hog lagoons, it has the potential for treating large amounts of ammonia that would otherwise volatilize and escape to the environment. 2) High-ammonia-tolerant bacteria were used to treat concentrated animal wastewater; they enabled fast ammonia removal using aeration treatment without the problem of ammonia volatilization loss. The concept of using specialized bacteria cultures for varied strength animal wastewaters is a novel approach that has the potential for development of feasible technologies for animal wastewater as well as other environmental applications where biological treatment of high-ammonia wastewaters is a problem. 3) Constructed wetlands were demonstrated to be effective in treating swine wastewater by removing large amounts of nitrogen (>5000 kg N/ha/yr). Constructed wetlands can be successfully used in an overall livestock management system especially where land is limited for manure application. 4) Phosphorus applications in excess of crop needs have increased the concentration of phosphorus in soils and have raised serious concern about potential negative effects on surface and ground water quality. Soil phosphorus and groundwater-soluble phosphorus were measured in a Coastal Plain swine manure spray field. We found that soil phosphorus concentrations were many times greater than plant nutritional needs and also that phosphorus had leached through the soil to the groundwater. The impact of this finding shows that sandy soils have a finite capacity of phosphorus sorption and that management practices should insure that these capacities are not exceeded. 5) High-rate separation of solids and liquids from swine wastewater is a critical step for development of alternative systems without lagoons. The efficacy of polyacrylamide (PAM) polymers has been proven at the bench level, we needed prototype performance data before full scale on-farm units are constructed. The Deskins sand filtration system seemed to offer possibilities. It has been used in small municipalities and could be adapted to animal wastewater. A Deskins prototype sand filter was designed and installed in a swine operation near Raleigh, NC, in partnership with North Carolina State University to evaluate polymer injection and filter separation treatment of flushed swine manure. The system consisted of two sand beds providing weekly treatment of 6000 gallons of flushed manure. Results of one year evaluation showed effective separation of solids and a quick drainage. The system reduced 98% of the total and volatile suspended solids concentration and produced a remarkably clear effluent. This solids reduction also decreased biochemical oxygen demand (85%), organic nitrogen (89%), and organic phosphorus (89%). These results indicate that: a) PAM is an effective treatment for recovering organic nutrients, and b) the lower BOD strength of the effluent makes possible the use of aeration treatment for biological N removal. 6. What do you expect to accomplish, year by year, over the next 3 years? Year 1: Evaluate design parameters for constructed wetlands based on performance of evaluated systems to include ammonia volatilization and pre-wetland nitrification. Evaluate a pilot system for polymer immobilized nitrifying bacteria treatment of swine wastewater. Determine copper and zinc accumulation and movement in a constructed wetland and a spray field used for manure disposal. Determine in the laboratory the phosphorus binding potential of wastewater treatment residuals. Determine trace element accumulation and movement in a spray field used for manure disposal. Participate in the establishment and evaluation of a full scale system that treats swine waste without lagoons via solids separation and utilization, nitrification and denitrification, phosphorus removal, pathogen reduction, and subsurface irrigation. Evaluate methods to more rapidly extract phosphorus from solid manures. Year 2: Complete the initial evaluation of the lagoon-less swine waste treatment system. Evaluate a full scale lagoon retrofit system that will nitrify wastewater, remove phosphorus, and reduce pathogen. Evaluate modification to constructed wetlands for enhanced nitrification and phosphorus treatment. Evaluate methods of mitigating soils that are overloaded with phosphorus from animal waste applications. Year 3: Make modification to the lagoon-less system based on initial evaluation. Complete the initial evaluation of the lagoon retrofit system. Continue the enhancement of constructed wetland for animal wastewater treatment. Evaluate a prototype system for increased phosphorus extraction from solid waste. Evaluate a field scale mitigation of a phosphorus overloaded soil. Complete the evaluation of subsurface irrigation with treated swine wastewater. 7. What science and/or technologies have been transferred and to whom? When is the science and/or technology likely to become available to the end user (industry, farmer, other scientists)? What are the constraints if known, to the adoption & durability of the technology product? 1) We cooperated with several companies to facilitate technology transfer that was sufficient to allow design of a full scale system for treatment of swine waste without lagoons. The system is designed to separate and utilize solids as well as remove nutrients, lower ammonia emissions, and reduce pathogens. It was selected and funded to be tested as a potential "Superior Technology" as part of the Smithfield Foods Agreement with the State of North Carolina. The project should be constructed and start operating by early 2002. The initial evaluation phase as a 'Superior Technology" should be completed within 18 months after startup. 2) Filed a patent on a phosphorus removal system for animal wastewater treatment. 3) Held a dialogue workshop for approximately fifty customers and stakeholders. 8. List your most important publications in the popular press (no abstracts) and presentations to non-scientific organizations and articles written about your work (NOTE: this does not replace your peer-reviewed publications which are listed below) 1) Made a presentation on animal waste treatment to the Southern Regional commodity personnel of the Farm Bureau. 2) Assisted National Pork Producers Council with curriculum development on manure treatment technologies available to help producers manage nutrients. 3) Nitrifying high-strength wastewater. Industrial Wastewater. 2000. Sept./Oct. p. 30-36. 4) State-of-the-art technology cleans up wastewater from large-scale animal production. Agriculture Research Magazine [http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/AR/archive/jul01/swine0701.htm].

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications

  • Vanotti, M.B., Hunt, P.G., Rice, J.M., Humenik, F.J. Treatment systems for liquid swine manure using polymers and biological nutrient removal. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop of the European Cooperative Research Network (RAMIRAN). 2000. p. 101-106.
  • Vanotti, M.B., Rice, J.M., Howell, S.L., Hunt, P.G., Humenik, F.J. Advanced treatment system for liquid swine manure using solid-liquid separation and nutrient removal unit processes. Proceedings of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers' Animal, Agricultural and Food Processing Wastes 8th International Symposium. 2000. p. 393-400.


Progress 10/01/99 to 09/30/00

Outputs
1. What major problem or issue is being resolved and how are you resolving it? Confined production of livestock, fish, and birds creates conflicts between the need to dispose of animal manures and the public's desire for an environment without odor, pollution, and pathogens. Our goal is to provide technologies that maintain or improve environmental quality while ensuring economically viable enterprises. Our approach involves passive, low, and high technological methods. Our passive approach involves evaluating and designing technologies to capture and transform nutrients in constructed wetlands. Our low technology approach involves developing improved systems for solids removal from liquid manures. Our high technology approach involves developing and evaluating treatment systems to capture or transform manure nutrients including nitrification/denitrification reaction units and phosphorus removal units. We will also be evaluating the impact of manure land applications on soils P and trace element accumulation in soils. 2. How serious is the problem? Why does it matter? 3. How does it relate to the National Program(s) and National Component(s)? 4. What were the most significant accomplishments this past year? 5. Describe the major accomplishments over the life of the project including their predicted or actual impact. 6. What do you expect to accomplish, year by year, over the next 3 years? 7. What science and/or technologies have been transferred and to whom? When is the science and/or technology likely to become available to the end user (industry, farmer, other scientists)? What are the constraints if known, to the adoption & durability of the technology product? 8. List your most important publications in the popular press (no abstracts) and presentations to non-scientific organizations and articles written about your work (NOTE: this does not replace your peer-reviewed publications which are listed below)

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications

  • Novak, J.M., Watts, D.W., Hunt, P.G., Stone, K.C. Phosphorus movement through a Coastal Plain soil after a decade of intensive swine manure application. Journal of Environmental Quality. 2000. v.29(4). p.1310-1315.
  • Watts, D.W., Novak, J.M., Johnson, M.H., Stone, K.C. Storm flow export of metolachlor from a Coastal Plain watershed. Journal of Environmental Science and Health. 2000. v.B35(2). p.75-186.
  • Stone, K.C., Hunt, P.G., Szogi, A.A., Humenik, F.J., Rice, J.M. Constructed wetland design and performance for swine lagoon waste water treatment. 2000. American Society of Agricultural Engineers Paper No. 00-4148.
  • Hunt, P.G., Vanotti, M.B. Animal residual treatment and soil and water resource management. Proceedings of Animal Residuals Management Conference. 1999. 10p. (CD-ROM).
  • Rice, J.M., Szogi, A.A., Humenik, F.J., Hunt, P.G. Long term data for constructed wetlands for swine wastewater. Proceedings of 3rd National Workshop on Constructed Wetlands/BMPs for Nutrient Reduction and Coastal Water Protection. 1999. p.24-26.