Source: Agricultural Research Service submitted to
BREEDING AND ENHANCEMENT OF POTATOES FOR IMPROVED DISEASE RESISTANCE, QUALITY, AND MARKETING
Sponsoring Institution
Agricultural Research Service/USDA
Project Status
TERMINATED
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
0403295
Grant No.
(N/A)
Project No.
1275-21000-140-00D
Proposal No.
(N/A)
Multistate No.
(N/A)
Program Code
(N/A)
Project Start Date
Feb 6, 2000
Project End Date
May 26, 2004
Grant Year
(N/A)
Project Director
HAYNES K G
Recipient Organization
Agricultural Research Service
BLDG 003 BARC W RM 331
BELTSVILLE,MD 20705-2351
Performing Department
(N/A)
Non Technical Summary
(N/A)
Animal Health Component
75%
Research Effort Categories
Basic
25%
Applied
75%
Developmental
0%
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
2031310108020%
2041310108010%
2111310108020%
2121310108050%
Goals / Objectives
Specific objectives include evaluation and enhancement through traditional and molecular breeding of potato germplasm and clonal selections for resistance to: 1) fungal pathogens causing late blight, early blight, fusarium, rhizoctonia and silver scurf; 2) bacterial pathogens causing bacterial wilt and common scab; 3) nematode transmitted viral disease corky ringspot; 4) internal heat necrosis, a physiological disorder. Germplasm will be evaluated and enhanced for different market outlets.
Project Methods
Germplasm needs to be enhanced and cultivars developed with resistance to fungal, bacterial and viral pathogens, and physiological disorders. An understanding of the underlying mechanisms involved in host plant resistance and host-pathogen-environment interactions will enable us to more effectively enhance the potato germplasm base for disease resistance for future cultivar development. In combination with resistance to diseases and physiological disorders, germplasm will be enhanced and cultivars developed for different marketing outlets: processing, fresh, and specialty. All of this new developing germplasm needs to be multiplied and properly evaluated for its potential use in the U.S. potato industry in cooperation with State and industry scientists. Breeding strategies to exploit this germplasm need to be developed with an understanding of the genetic and chemical mechanisms underlying the traits of interest.

Progress 02/06/00 to 05/26/04

Outputs
(N/A)

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications

  • Sterrett, S.B., Yencho, G.C., Henninger, M.R., Haynes, K.G. 2004. Internal heat necrosis resistant potato clones have higher tuber concentrations of magnesium, sulfur, manganese, and calcium, and lower tuber concentrations of potassium than susceptible clones in the mid-Atlantic states [abstract]. American Journal of Potato Research 81:90.
  • Hutchinson, C.M., White, J.M., Gergela, D.M., Solano, P.A., Haynes, K.G., Wenrich, R., Lippi, C.S. 2003. Performance of chip processing potato varieties in northeastern Florida. Hort Technology 13:706-711.
  • Haynes, K.G., Weingartner, D.P. 2004. The use of area under the disease progress curve to assess resistance to late blight in potato germplasm. American Journal of Potato Research 81:137-141.
  • Hutchinson, C.M., White,J.M., Haynes, K.G., Gergela, D.M., Solano, P.A., Lippi, C.S. 2003. Red-skinned, fresh-market potato varieties for northeastern Florida production. Hort Technology 13:702-706.
  • Valluru, R., Christ, B.J., Haynes, K.G. 2004. Inheritance of resistance to Fusarium tuber rot in potatoes [abstract]. American Journal of Potato Research. 81:93 .


Progress 10/01/02 to 09/30/03

Outputs
1. What major problem or issue is being resolved and how are you resolving it? Potatoes are subject to attack by numerous diseases which cost growers millions of dollars in field and storage losses, in addition to costs associated with chemical control measures and concerns about environmental quality. The demands of the market place for raw potato products is also changing. The trend is for more processed potato products and declining fresh market product. However, within fresh markets there is a small, but growing, demand for specialty market items, such as small red-skin potatoes, yellow-flesh potatoes and organically grown potatoes. We are breeding potatoes to improve disease resistance for late blight, early blight, common scab, Verticillium wilt, corky ringspot, bacterial wilt and silver scurf; and, to incorporate this resistance into commercial quality germplasm. We cooperate with pathologists across the nation in this effort. We are also developing new, improved potato cultivars for the processing market, especially for chips and french fries. A special emphasis in this area is on developing new cultivars that process well under high temperature stress environments. We cooperate with numerous scientists in the South and mid- Atlantic states in this effort. Additional effort is underway to develop potatoes for the new and emerging 'roaster' market, which is a non- traditional market that lends itself to the small, family farming business. We cooperate with industry representatives and small growers in this effort. We are also breeding potatoes for emerging specialty markets, such as small red-skin potatoes, yellow-flesh potatoes, the combination of red-skin and yellow-flesh potatoes, and purple-skinned potatoes. In this area, we are improving the nutritional content of potatoes, especially for lutein, one of the important carotenoids in the human diet in cooperation with scientists at BHNRC. In order to adequately test advanced selections prior to naming and release, sufficient disease-free seed must be produced for the selections to be evaluated over a wide range of growing environments, in small-scale replicated plots by State scientists. Seed maintenance and increase under quarantined conditions is conducted on Chapman Farm in Presque Isle, Maine. 2. How serious is the problem? Why does it matter? Potato growers are being financially squeezed by escalating production costs associated with disease control, declining market prices for their farm product and the failure of some chemical control measures to adequately control the target pest. By improving disease control with natural plant resistance and expanding marketing opportunities through the introduction of potato cultivars developed for specialty markets we hope to increase the options that growers have to produce an economically sustainable crop. 3. How does it relate to the National Program(s) and National Program Component(s) to which it has been assigned? NP codes: National Program 301 - Plant, Microbial Insect Germplasm Conservation and Development- 70%; Research Component "Genetic Characterization, Manipulation and Genetic Improvement". National Program 303 - Plant Diseases. This research will allow scientists to develop new potato cultivars with pest resistance, improved internal qualities, and enhanced nutritional content for traditional fresh (boilers or bakers) or processing (chip and french fry) markets and emerging fresh (yellow-flesh and organic) and processing (roasters) markets. It will also allow scientists to develop breeding populations to identify the underlying genetic mechanisms governing the traits of interest, and elucidate the biochemical pathways from the presence of the gene to the expression of that gene. New cultivars that are released with improved disease resistance will benefit growers through lower production costs and also reduce environmental contamination since costly chemical control measures can be reduced. New cultivars developed for different marketing niches will allow growers to diversify their production and lead to economic sustain ability for small family farms. 4. What were the most significant accomplishments this past year? A. Single Most Significant Accomplishment during FY 2003: Because high specific gravity chipping cultivars with resistance to internal heat necrosis are not available, the number one chipping cultivar for production in the mid-Atlantic states is still 'Atlantic' even though growers have lost as much as 90% of their crop in some years to internal heat necrosis, a physiological disorder that causes brown patches of necrotic tissue in the tuber flesh. The USDA/ARS Potato Breeding Program in the Vegetable Laboratory at Beltsville, MD developed 'Harley Blackwell', a round, white-, netted-skinned potato with good tuber yields, resistance to internal heat necrosis, and good chip color, for chipping directly from the field in the mid-Atlantic and southern states in cooperation with scientists from Florida, North Carolina, Virginia, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, New York, and Maine. It was officially named and released in 2002 as a public cultivar. It has the potential to replace 'Atlantic' as the chipping cultivar of choice in North Carolina, where about 70% of the 12,000 acres of potatoes grown are for the chipping industry. B. Other Significant Accomplishment(s), if any: A Ph.D. student at Penn State, working with our program, identified three quantitative trait loci associated with horizontal resistance to late blight in our diploid potato population. One post-doctoral scientist working in our laboratory used the linkage disequilibrium method to find an association between a gene for resistance to Verticillium wilt and a marker gene using pedigree information. C. Significant Accomplishments /Activities that Support Special Target Populations: None. 5. Describe the major accomplishments over the life of the project, including their predicted or actual impact. This project has furnished potato germplasm to State scientists in Florida, Georgia, North Carolina, Virginia, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, New York, Ohio and Maine for evaluation. Germplasm developed by this program has been tested for resistance to late blight in ME, PA, NY, FL, MN, MI, ND, and OR; for common scab in ME, MN, and ID; for powdery scab in PA, CO, and ID; for early blight in ME and PA; for golden nematode in NY; for corky ringspot in F; and for bacterial ring rot in ND. Early evaluation for these diseases has been important in identifying superior parents for the hybridization program in Beltsville, MD. Two new cultivars has been named and released from this project: Amey and Harley Blackwell. Amey is a russet-skinned cultivar for fresh market and french fry production, early maturing, and has acceptable tuber conformation for production in areas where irrigation is not usually available. Harley Blackwell is a round, white-, netted-skinned cultivar, resistant to internal heat necrosis, for chipping directly from the field in the mid-Atlantic states. Germplasm developed from this program is on target for eventual naming and release as new cultivars in the next one to four years. Most promising selections at this point are: B0766-3 as a long-term cold storage chipping potato resistant to common scab; B0984-1 as a creamer, red-skin, potato for fresh market under southern growing conditions; B1240-1 as a long term cold storage chipping potato for the organic market; B1145-2 as a creamer, red-skin, white-flesh potato for the roaster market; B1816-5 as a purple-skinned, yellow-fleshed fresh market potato with enhanced nutritional content for specialty markets; B1870-3 and B1870-17, two round white fresh market potatoes with good yields and brightness. In addition, this project has developed unique germplasm that will allow us to cooperate with physiologists, biochemists, and other scientists to elucidate the biochemical pathway(s) governing susceptibility to internal heat necrosis and carotenoid biosynthesis. 6. What do you expect to accomplish, year by year, over the next 3 years? In FY 2004, B0766-3 will be named and released as "James McSweeney", a long-term cold storage chipper for the northern tier states. In FY 2005, B1240-1 will be named and released as a Colorado potato beetle resistant chipper for the organic market. In FY 2006, molecular markers linked to horizontal resistance to late blight will be used in marker-assisted selection to select potatoes resistant to late blight. 7. What science and/or technologies have been transferred and to whom? When is the science and/or technology likely to become available to the end- user (industry, farmer, other scientists)? What are the constraints, if known, to the adoption and durability of the technology products? Twenty advanced selections from the breeding program were harvested and displayed to interested growers and industry representatives. Eight advanced selections showing promise were established and/or increased in tissue culture on Foundation Seed Farms in four states. In order to evaluate a possible new potato cultivar on a commercial scale, foundation and certified seed must be available for growers to plant. We worked with one foundation seed program in NY and one in ME to produce foundation seed of two recently released ARS bred cultivars and three advanced selections; four certified seed growers in ME, two in NY, and one in PA to produce certified seed of three advanced selections; and, six commercial growers to evaluate three advanced selections under commercial conditions. We held a Demonstration Day in Presque Isle, Maine, at harvest to display promising new selections to growers and talked to growers at a breakfast meeting about progress in the breeding program. This will lead to the eventual naming, release and adoption of new ARS bred potato cultivars by growers. The major constraint to the establishment of a new cultivar is the ability to generate seed in sufficient quantities to satisfy early interest, and then to transport seed to site testing. We are working closely with seed growers and industry to develop a satisfactory system. 8. List your most important publications in the popular press and presentations to organizations and articles written about your work. (NOTE: This does not replace your peer-reviewed publications listed below). Presentation to seed growers and industry representatives on the goals of the potato breeding program and the potential of advanced selections on September 6, 2003 in Presque Isle, ME.

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications

  • Abdul-Baki, A.A., Teasdale, J.R., Goth, R.W. Haynes, K.G. Marketable yields of fresh-market tomatoes grown in plastic and hairy vetch mulches. HortScience. 2002. v.37. p. 878-881.
  • Christ, B.J., Haynes, K.G. Vinyard, B.T. Inheritance of early blight resistance from open-pollinated 4x-2x potato hybrids. American Journal of Potato Resesearch. 2002. v. 79 pp. 403-410.
  • Haynes, K.G., Christ, B.J. Weingartner, D.P., Douches, D.S., Thill, C.A., Secor, G., Fry, W.E. Lambert, D.H. Foliar resistance to late blight in potato clones evaluated in national trials in 1997. Amer. J. Potato Res. 2002. v. 79: pp. 451-457.
  • Sterrett, S.B., Henninger, M.R., Yencho, G.C. Lu, W., Vinyard, B.T. Haynes, K.G. Stability of internal heat necrosis and specific gravity in tetraploid x diploid potatoes. Crop Science. 2003. v. 43 pp. 790-796.


Progress 10/01/01 to 09/30/02

Outputs
1. What major problem or issue is being resolved and how are you resolving it? Potatoes are subject to attack by numerous diseases which cost growers millions of dollars in field and storage losses, in addition to costs associated with chemical control measures and concerns about environmental quality. The demands of the market place for raw potato products are also changing. The trend is for more processed potato products and declining fresh market product. However, within fresh markets there is a small, but growing, demand for specialty market items, such as small red-skin potatoes, yellow-flesh potatoes and organically grown potatoes. We are breeding potatoes to improve disease resistance for late blight, early blight, common scab, Verticillium wilt, corky ringspot, bacterial wilt and silver scurf; and, to incorporate this resistance into commercial quality germplasm. We cooperate with pathologists across the nation in this effort. We are also developing new, improved potato cultivars for the processing market, especially for chips and french fries. A special emphasis in this area is on developing new cultivars that process well under high temperature stress environments. We cooperate with numerous scientists in the South and mid- Atlantic states in this effort. Additional effort is underway to develop potatoes for the new and emerging 'roaster' market, which is a non- traditional market that lends itself to the small, family farming business. We cooperate with industry representatives and small growers in this effort. We are also breeding potatoes for emerging specialty markets, such as small red-skin potatoes, yellow-flesh potatoes, the combination of red-skin and yellow-flesh potatoes, and purple-skinned potatoes. In this area, we are improving the nutritional content of potatoes, especially for lutein, one of the important carotenoids in the human diet in cooperation with scientists at BHNRC. In order to adequately test advanced selections prior to naming and release, sufficient disease-free seed must be produced for the selections to be evaluated over a wide range of growing environments, in small-scale replicated plots by State scientists. Seed maintenance and increase under quarantined conditions is conducted on Chapman Farm in Presque Isle, Maine. 2. How serious is the problem? Why does it matter? Potato growers are being financially squeezed by escalating production costs associated with disease control, declining market prices for their farm product and the failure of some chemical control measures to adequately control the target pest. By improving disease control with natural plant resistance and expanding marketing opportunities through the introduction of potato cultivars developed for specialty markets we hope to increase the options that growers have to produce an economically sustainable crop. 3. How does it relate to the national Program(s) and National Program Component(s) to which it has been assigned? NP code: National Program 301: Plant, Microbial & Insect Germplasm Conservation and Development- 70%. National Program 303: Plant Diseases, Research Component "Genetic Characterization, Manipulation and Genetic Improvement". This research will allow scientists to develop new potato cultivars with pest resistance, improved internal qualities, and enhanced nutritional content for traditional fresh (boilers or bakers) or processing (chip and french fry) markets and emerging fresh (yellow-flesh and organic) and processing (roasters) markets. It will also allow scientists to develop breeding populations to identify the underlying genetic mechanisms governing the traits of interest, and elucidate the biochemical pathways from the presence of the gene to the expression of that gene. New cultivars that are released with improved disease resistance will benefit growers through lower production costs and also reduce environmental contamination since costly chemical control measures can be reduced. New cultivars developed for different marketing niches will allow growers to diversify their production and lead to economic sustain ability for small family farms. 4. What was your most significant accomplishment this past year? A. Single Most Significant Accomplishment during FY 2002: Verticillium wilt is an important vascular disease in potatoes, caused by the soil-borne fungi Verticillium dahliae and V. albo-atrum, which can reduce yields as much as 50%. A potato homologue to the Ve1 gene in tomatoes, which confers resistance to Verticillium wilt, mapped to the genomic position corresponding to the tomato Ve1 gene and the deduced amino acid sequence shared high identity with Ve1 (87-90%). Scientists of the Vegetable Laboratory at Beltville, MD in collaboration with scientists at Penn State U. identified one microsatellite marker that was tightly linked with resistance to Verticillium wilt. This has potential use as a molecular marker for the easy and rapid detection of resistance to Verticillium wilt in future breeding efforts. B. Other Significant Accomplishment(s), if any: In order to evaluate a possible new potato cultivar on a commercial scale, foundation and certified seed must be available for growers to plant. Scientists of the Vegetable Laboratory at Beltsville, MD worked with one foundation seed program in NY to produce foundation seed of six advanced selections, four certified seed growers in ME and two in NY to produce certified seed of six advanced selections and 12 commercial growers to evaluate three advanced selections under commercial conditions. We held a Demonstration Day in Presque Isle, Maine, at harvest to display promising new selections to growers and talked to growers at a breakfast meeting about progress in the breeding program. This will lead to the eventual naming, release and adoption of new ARS bred potato cultivars by growers. Colorado potato beetles are one of the most difficult insect pests to control in potatoes. Scientists of the Vegetable Laboratory at Beltsville, MD identified a selection from the breeding program (B1240-1) showing resistance to Colorado potato beetles. This year enough seed was produced for commercial trials and for the integrated sustainable agricultural systems approach study to control Colorado potato beetle next year. This selection is of interest to organic growers who must plant insect resistant cultivars if they are to produce a crop organically. C. Significant Activities that Support Special Target Populations: Small, red-skinned, high specific gravity cultivars are desired for the 'roaster' market. After preliminary processing plant trials for two years, we have one advanced selection (B1145-2) being evaluated again this summer by a grower for this niche market. The 'roaster' market is a small-niche market ideally suited for small farming operations. D. Progress Report: In cooperation with other Federal and State scientists, we are studying the inheritance of resistance to late blight and early blight using traditional and molecular techniques (Penn State U.); the effect of genotype x environment interactions on the expression of resistance to late blight in advanced selections from State and Federal breeding programs (U. Florida, Michigan State U., Cornell U., Penn State U., U. Maine, U. Minnesota, North Dakota State U., Oregon State U.); resistance to internal heat necrosis (North Carolina State U., Virginia Polytechnic and State U., Rutgers U.). In cooperation with scientists at BHNRC, we are identifying and quantifying the levels of carotenoids found in yellow- fleshed potatoes and breeding to enhance the levels of carotenoids available in new cultivars. We also have an ongoing study to determine how many disease observations have to be taken during a season and at what time to get an accurate assessment of the levels of resistance in selections during a polycyclic disease epidemic (U. Florida). 5. Describe your major accomplishments over the life of the project, including their predicted or actual impact? This project has furnished potato germplasm to State scientists in Florida, Georgia, North Carolina, Virginia, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, New York, Ohio and Maine for evaluation. Germplasm developed by this program has been tested for resistance to late blight and common scab in field plots in Presque Isle, ME. Early evaluation for these diseases has been important in identifying superior parents for the hybridization program in Beltsville, MD. One new cultivar has been named and released from this project: Amey. Amey is a russet-skinned cultivar for fresh market and french fry production, early maturing, and has acceptable tuber conformation for production in areas where irrigation is not usually available. Germplasm developed from this program is on target for eventual naming and release as new cultivars in the next one to four years. Most promising selections at this point are: B0564-8 as a chipping potato resistant to internal heat necrosis; B0766-3 as a long- term cold storage chipping potato resistant to common scab; B1240-1 as a long term cold storage chipping potato for the organic market; B1145-2 as a creamer, red-skin, white-flesh potato for the roaster market; B1523-4 as a red-skin fresh market potato; and, B1752-5 as a yellow-flesh fresh market potato with enhanced nutritional content. In addition, this project has developed unique germplasm that will allow us to cooperate with physiologists, biochemists, and other scientists to elucidate the biochemical pathway(s) governing susceptibility to internal heat necrosis and carotenoid biosynthesis. 6. What do you expect to accomplish, year by year, over the next 3 years? In FY2003, B0564-8 will be named and released as "Harley Blackwell", an out-of-field chipper for the mid-Atlantic states. In FY2004, B0766-3 will be named and released as a long-term cold storage chipper for the northern tier states. In FY2005, B1240-1 may be named and released as a Colorado potato beetle resistant chipper for the organic market. In the next three years, we intend to continue improving both tetraploid and diploid potato populations for horizontal resistance to late blight, early blight, Verticillium wilt, powdery scab, common scab, and internal heat necrosis, develop molecular markers linked to these traits, and utilize these markers in marker-assisted selection. 7. What technologies have been transferred and to whom? When is the technology likely to become available to the end user (industry, farmer other scientist)? What are the constraints, if known, to the adoption durability of the technology? Sixteen advanced selections from the breeding program were harvested and displayed to interested growers and industry representatives in September in Presque Isle, ME. Eight advanced selections showing promise were established and/or increased in tissue culture on Foundation Seed Farms in NY and ME. The major constraint to the establishment of a new cultivar is the ability to generate seed in sufficient quantities to satisfy early interest, and then to transport seed to site testing. We are working closely with seed growers and industry to develop a satisfactory system. 8. List your most important publications and presentations, and articles written about your work (NOTE: this does not replace your review publications which are listed below) Invited speaker at the Pennsylvania Vegetable Growers Association Annual Meeting in Hershey, PA. January 29, 2002. Title of talk: "USDA/ARS Potato Breeding Program-An Update." Invited speaker at the Potato Research Meeting for the National Potato Council in Beltsville, MD. February 26, 2002. Title of talk: "Breeding Strategies for Quality and Disease Resistance." Spoke to Eastern Potato Review Group in Beltsville, MD-March 1, 2002. Talked to seed growers and industry representatives on the goals of the potato breeding program and the potential of advanced selections on September 7, 2002, Presque Isle, ME.

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications

  • Lu, W., Haynes, K., Wiley, E. and Clevidence, B. Carotenoid content and color in diploid potatoes. Journal of the American Social Horticultural Science. 2001. v. 126. p. 722-726.
  • Haynes, K.G., Thill, C.A., Secor, G., Fry, W.E., Douches, D.S., Stevenson, W.R. and Weingartner, D.P. Foliar resistance to late blight in potato clones evaluated in national trials. 2000. American Journal of the Potato Research. 2001. Abstract. v. 78. p. 457-458.
  • Carrera, L.M., Morse, R., Abdul-Baki, A.A., Haynes, K.G. and Teasdale, J.R. Production of creamer potatoes in a no-tillage cover cropping system. American Journal of the Potato Research. 2001. Abstract. v. 78. p. 446-447.
  • Sterrett, S.B., Henninger, M.R., Yencho, G.C. and Haynes, K.G. S. phureja- S. stenotomum contributes high specific gravity and internal tuber quality under high temperature growing conditions to 4x-2x hybrids. American Journal of the Potato Research. 2001. Abstract. v. 78. p. 485.


Progress 10/01/00 to 09/30/01

Outputs
1. What major problem or issue is being resolved and how are you resolving it? Potatoes are subject to attack by numerous diseases which cost growers millions of dollars in field and storage losses, in addition to costs associated with chemical control measures and concerns about environmental quality. The demands of the market place for raw potato products is also changing. The trend is for more processed potato products and declining fresh market product. However, within fresh markets there is a small, but growing, demand for specialty market items, such as small red-skin potatoes, yellow-flesh potatoes and organically grown potatoes. We are breeding potatoes to improve disease resistance for late blight, early blight, common scab, Verticillium wilt, corky ringspot, bacterial wilt and silver scurf; and, to incorporate this resistance into commercial quality germplasm. We cooperate with pathologists across the nation in this effort. We are also developing new, improved potato cultivars for the processing market, especially for chips and french fries. A special emphasis in this area is on developing new cultivars that process well under high temperature stress environments. We cooperate with numerous scientists in the South and mid-Atlantic states in this effort. Additional effort is underway to develop potatoes for the new and emerging 'roaster' market, which is a non-traditional market that lends itself to the small, family farming business. We cooperate with industry representatives and small growers in this effort. We are also breeding potatoes for emerging specialty markets, such as small red-skin potatoes, yellow-flesh potatoes, the combination of red-skin and yellow-flesh potatoes, and purple-skinned potatoes. In this area, we are improving the nutritional content of potatoes, especially for lutein, one of the important carotenoids in the human diet, in cooperation with scientists at BHNRC. In order to adequately test advanced selections prior to naming and release sufficient disease-free seed must be produced for the selections to be evaluated over a wide range of growing environments, in small- scale replicated plots by State scientists. Seed maintenance and increase under quarantined conditions is conducted on Chapman Farm in Presque Isle, Maine. 2. How serious is the problem? Why does it matter? Potato growers are being financially squeezed by escalating production costs associated with disease control, declining market prices for their farm product and the failure of some chemical control measures to adequately control the target pest. By improving disease control with natural plant resistance and expanding marketing opportunities through the introduction of potato cultivars developed for specialty markets we hope to increase the options that growers have to produce an economically sustainable crop. 3. How does it relate to the National Program(s) and National Component(s)? NP codes: National Program 301 - Plant, Microbial & Insect Germplasm Conservation and Development- 70%; Research Component "Genetic Characterization, Manipulation and Genetic Improvement". National Program 303 - Plant Diseases This research will allow scientists to develop new potato cultivars with pest resistance, improved internal qualities, and enhanced nutritional content for traditional fresh (boilers or bakers) or processing (chip and french fry) markets and emerging fresh (yellow-flesh and organic) and processing (roasters) markets. It will also allow scientists to develop breeding populations to identify the underlying genetic mechanisms governing the traits of interest, and elucidate the biochemical pathways from the presence of the gene to the expression of that gene. New cultivars that are released with improved disease resistance will benefit growers through lower production costs and also reduce environmental contamination since costly chemical control measures can be reduced. New cultivars developed for different marketing niches will allow growers to diversify their production and lead to economic sustain ability for small family farms. 4. What were the most significant accomplishments this past year? A. Single Most Significant Accomplishment during FY 2001: Internal heat necrosis is a severe physiological disorder of potato tubers that occurs in the mid-Atlantic states. Potato production from these states is important in providing chipping potatoes to the industry during the summer months. 4x-2x (Solanum tuberosum x S. phureja-S. stenotomum) hybrids bred in the Vegetable Laboratory at Beltsville, MD were evaluated for internal heat necrosis by cooperating scientists at N.C.S.U., V.P.I.& S.U. and Rutgers University. Several 4x-2x hybrids with high specific gravity, acceptable chip color, and resistance to internal heat necrosis were identified that were more stable under high temperature growing environments than Solanum tuberosum. Selected 4x-2x hybrids show promise in meeting the needs of producers and the chipping industry in the mid-Atlantic states. B. Other Significant Accomplishment(s), if any: In order to evaluate a possible new potato cultivar on a commercial scale, certified seed must be available for the growers to plant. We worked with four seed growers in Maine and two in New York to produce certified seed of seven advanced selections and with 12 commercial growers to evaluate two advanced selections under commercial conditions. We held a Demonstration Day in Presque Isle, Maine, at harvest to display promising new selections to growers and talked to growers at a breakfast meeting about progress in the breeding program. This will lead to the eventual naming, release and adoption of new ARS bred potato cultivars by growers. Late blight is a serious disease of potatoes, with newer, more aggressive strains than in the past. We coordinated and conducted the 2001 National Late Blight Potato Germplasm Evaluation Trial to identify potential new varieties with resistance to late blight. This trial included 41 potato clones evaluated at seven sites in the U.S. for their reaction to late blight. Results are not yet in. Results from 2000 indicate that most clones were stable for resistance to late blight: significant genotype x environment interactions were found for only one clone. These trials furnish valuable information to breeders trying to develop late blight resistant cultivars and to growers trying to choose cultivars to minimize the impact of late blight on their production. C. Significant Accomplishments/Activities that Support Special Target Populations: Intensely yellow-flesh in potato tubers is closely correlated with carotenoid content. As a group the carotenoids have been implicated in preventing cardiovascular disease and cancer. An intensely yellow- fleshed selection we have bred is undergoing evaluation for specialty markets with a cooperating grower. Feed-back from one of the major grocery store chains is expected this fall on consumer acceptance of this selection. Small, red-skinned, high specific gravity cultivars are desired for the 'roaster' market, an extremely small marketing niche ideally suited for small farms. After preliminary processing plant trials last year, we have one advanced selection (B1145-2) being evaluated this summer by a grower for this niche market. We are also cooperating with scientists at BARC and V.P.I. & S.U. on evaluating various cover crops on the size distribution, yield, and quality of creamer potatoes under development. Of the three red-skinned creamers evaluated, B1145-2 was the best yielding clone. D. Progress Report: In cooperation with other Federal and State scientists, we are studying the inheritance of resistance to late blight using traditional and molecular techniques (Penn State U.); the effect of genotype x environment interactions on the expression of resistance to late blight in advanced selections from State and Federal breeding programs along with the major U.S. cultivars ( U. Florida, Michigan State U., Penn State U., Cornell U., University of Maine, U. Minnesota, North Dakota State U., Oregon State U.); resistance to early blight (Penn State U.); resistance to internal heat necrosis (North Carolina State U., Virginia Polytechnic and State U., Rutgers U.). In cooperation with scientists at BHNRC, we are identifying and quantifying the levels of carotenoids found in yellow-fleshed potatoes and breeding to enhance the levels of carotenoids available in new cultivars. 5. Describe the major accomplishments over the life of the project including their predicted or actual impact. This project has furnished potato germplasm to State scientists in Florida, Georgia, North Carolina, Virginia, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, New York, Ohio and Maine for evaluation. Germplasm developed by this program has been tested for resistance to late blight and common scab in field plots in Presque Isle, ME. Early evaluation for these diseases has been important in identifying superior parents for the hybridization program in Beltsville, MD. One new cultivar has been named and released from this project: Amey. Amey is a russet-skinned cultivar for fresh market and french fry production, early maturing, and has acceptable tuber conformation for production in areas where irrigation is not usually available. Germplasm developed from this program is on target for eventual naming and release as new cultivars in the next two to five years. Most promising selections at this point are: B0564-9 as a fresh- market potato resistant to internal heat necrosis; B0564-8 as a chipping potato resistant to internal heat necrosis; B0766-3 as a long-term cold storage chipping potato resistant to common scab; B1240-1 as a long term cold storage chipping potato for the organic market; B1145-2 as a creamer, red-skin, white-flesh potato for the roaster market; B1523-4 as a red- skin fresh market potato; and, B1752-5 as a yellow-flesh fresh market potato with enhanced nutritional content. In addition, this project has developed unique germplasm that will allow us to cooperate with physiologists, biochemists, and other scientists to elucidate the biochemical pathway(s) governing susceptibility to internal heat necrosis and translocation of carotenoids from leaves to tubers. 6. What do you expect to accomplish, year by year, over the next 3 years? For the life of this project, we expect to continue working closely with State scientists and growers to evaluate the most advanced selections in the program each year; this includes making hybrid to increase specific gravity, and improve resistance to late blight, early blight and common scab, in the tetraploid and diploid populations, combine cold temperature chipping ability with high specific gravity, develop specialty market cultivars for fresh market, and develop populations segregating for resistance to corky ringspot, common scab, early blight, and late blight for mapping studies. In 2002, we plan to name and release B0564-8 as a out-of-field chipper for the mid-Atlantic states, depending on grower evaluation trials in (third year of such trials) 2001. Also, we intend to identify additional certified seed growers to cooperate with us in establishing a dependable seed supply of new selections prior to naming and release, beginning in 2002. We will begin some preliminary studies to determine the feasibility of breeding new cultivars for lower fertility regimes to reduce ground water contamination in cooperation with scientists at Florida. The second stage of recurrent selection in a diploid potato population with resistance to late blight will be started and carried forward for three years. In 2003, we may name and release B0766-3 as a long-term cold storage chipper for the northern tier states, depending on grower evaluation trials from 2000 - 2002. The second stage of recurrent selection in a diploid potato population with resistance to early blight will be started and carried forward for three years. In 2004, we may name and release B1145-2 as a red-skinned roaster for specialty markets, depending on grower evaluation trials from 2001 - 2003. The fifth stage of recurrent selection in a diploid potato population with high specific gravity will be started and carried forward for three years. 7. What science and/or technologies have been transferred and to whom? When is the science and/or technology likely to become available to the end user (industry, farmer, other scientists)? What are the constraints if known, to the adoption & durability of the technology product? Twenty advanced selections from the breeding program were harvested and displayed to interested growers and industry representatives in September in Presque Isle, ME. Eight advanced selections showing promise were established and/or increased in tissue culture on Foundation Seed Farms in NY and ME. The major constraint to the establishment of a new cultivar is the ability to generate seed in sufficient quantities to satisfy early interest, and then to transport seed to site testing. We are working closely with seed growers and industry to develop a satisfactory system. 8. List your most important publications in the popular press (no abstracts) and presentations to non-scientific organizations and articles written about your work (NOTE: this does not replace your peer-reviewed publications which are listed below) Talked to seed growers and industry representatives on the goals of the potato breeding program and the potential of advanced selections in September in Presque Isle, ME. Striking Potato Gold. Agricultural Research. May 2001. V. 49, No. 5.

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications

  • Costanzo, S., Christ, B.J., Haynes, K.G. Quantitative late blight resistance in an F-1 diploid Solanum phureja x S. stenotomum population. Amer. J. Potato Res. 2000. Abstract. v. 77 p. 396.
  • Lu, W., Haynes, K., Wiley, E. Clevidence, B. Colorimetric and carotenoid analysis in diploid potatoes. Amer. J. Potato Res. 2000. Abstract. v. 77 p. 409.
  • Haynes, K.G. Variance components for yield and specific gravity in a diploid potato population after two cycles of recurrent selection. Amer. J. Potato Res. 2001. v. 78. p. 69-75.
  • Christ, B.J., Haynes, K.G. Inheritance of resistance to early blight disease in a diploid potato population. Plant Breeding. 2001. v. 120. p. 169-172.
  • Haynes, K.G., Porter, G.A., Christ, B.J., Goth, R.W., DeLong, K.O., Halseth, D.E., Sieczka, J.B., Henninger, M.R., Sterrett, S.B., Yencho, G.C., Webb, R.E. Amey: a multi-purpose, russet-skinned potato cultivar for the eastern United States. Amer. J. Potato Res. 2001. v. 78 p. xx-xx (due to be published in July issue)
  • Ramanjulu, V., Costanzo, S. Christ, B.J., Haynes, K.G. Tuber late blight resistance in a diploid hybrid Solnum phureja-S. stenotomum F1 population under field and lab conditions. Phytopathology. 2000. Abstract v. 90. p. S63.
  • Valluru, R., Christ, B.J., Haynes, K.G. Tuber late blight resistance in a diploid hybrid Solanum phureja x S. stenotomum F1 population. Amer. J. Potato Res. 2000. Abstract. v. 90: 422-423.
  • Zhang, R., Christ, B.J., Haynes, K.G. Early blight resistance in an F1 diploid hybrid potato population of Solanum phureja x S. stenotomum. Amer. J. Potato Res. 2000. Abstract. v. 77 p. 424.
  • Haynes, K.G. Two cycles of recurrent selection for specific gravity in diploid potatoes: effect on inheritance of yield and specific gravity. Amer. J. Potato Res. 2000. Abstract. v. 77 p. 402.
  • Haynes, K.G., Douches, D.S., Thill, C.A., Secor, G., Fry, W.E., Christ, B.J. Goth, R.W. Foliar resistance to late blight in potato clones evaluated in national trials in 1999. Abstract.Amer. J. Potato Res. 2000. v. 77 p. 402.


Progress 10/01/99 to 09/30/00

Outputs
1. What major problem or issue is being resolved and how are you resolving it? Potatoes are subject to attack by numerous diseases which cost growers millions of dollars in field and storage losses, in addition to costs associated with chemical control measures and concerns about environmental quality. The demands of the market place for raw potato products is also changing. The trend is for more processed potato products and declining fresh market product. However, within fresh markets there is a small, but growing, demand for specialty market items, such as small red-skin potatoes, yellow-flesh potatoes and organically grown potatoes. We are breeding potatoes to improve disease resistance for late blight, early blight, common scab, Verticillium wilt, corky ringspot, bacterial wilt and silver scurf; and, to incorporate this resistance into commercial quality germplasm. We cooperate with pathologists across the nation in this effort. We are developing new, improved potato cultivars for the processing market, especially for chips and french fries. A special emphasis in this area is on developing new cultivars that process well under high temperature stress environments. We cooperate with numerous scientists in the South and mid-Atlantic states in this effort. Additional effort is underway to develop potatoes for the new and emerging 'roaster' market, which is a non-traditional market that lends itself to the small, family farming business. We cooperate with industry representatives and small growers in this effort. We are breeding potatoes for emerging specialty markets, such as small red-skin potatoes, yellow-flesh potatoes, the combination of red-skin and yellow-flesh potatoes, and purple-skinned potatoes. In this area, we are improving the nutritional content of potatoes, especially for lutein, one of the important carotenoids in the human diet in cooperation with scientists at BHNRC. In order to adequately test advanced selections prior to naming and release sufficient disease-free seed must be produced for the selections to be evaluated over a wide range of growing environments, in small-scale replicated plots by State scientists. Seed maintenance and increase under quarantined conditions is conducted on Chapman Farm in Presque Isle, Maine. This CRIS Project replaces Project No. 1275-21000-106-00D and 1275-21000-109-00D. 2. How serious is the problem? Why does it matter? Potato growers are being financially squeezed by escalating production costs associated with disease control, declining market prices for their farm product and the failure of some chemical control measures to adequately control the target pest. By improving disease control with natural plant resistance and expanding marketing opportunities through the introduction of potato cultivars developed for specialty markets we hope to increase the options that growers have to produce an economically sustainable crop. 3. How does it relate to the National Program(s) and National Component(s)? National Program 301 - Plant, Microbial & Insect Germplasm Conservation and Development- 70% National Program 303 - Plant Diseases This research will allow scientists to develop new potato cultivars with pest resistance, improved internal qualities, and enhanced nutritional content for traditional fresh (boilers or bakers) or processing (chip and french fry) markets and emerging fresh (yellow-flesh) and processing (roasters) markets. It will also allow scientists to develop breeding populations to identify the underlying genetic mechanisms governing the traits of interest, and elucidate the biochemical pathways from the presence of the gene to the expression of that gene. 4. What were the most significant accomplishments this past year? A. Single Most Significant Accomplishment during FY2000 year: In order to evaluate a possible new potato cultivar on a commercial scale, certified seed must be available for the growers to plant. ARS scientists at Beltsville, MD, worked with two seed growers in Maine and one in New York to produce certified seed of six advanced selections. We also worked with eight commercial growers to evaluate two advanced selections under commercial conditions. This will lead to the eventual naming, release and adoption of new ARS bred potato cultivars by growers. B. Other Significant Accomplishment(s), if any: Because people consume large quantities of potatoes in a year, improving the nutritional status of potatoes could significantly impact human health. In cooperation with scientists in BHNRC, we identified and quantified major carotenoids in tetraploid x diploid potatoes. We found that lutein was a major constituent in the yellow-flesh potatoes we have been developing. Lutein appears to protect against age-related macular degeneration, the leading cause of blindness in the elderly. It is also one of three major carotenoids thought to protect against cancer and cardiovascular disease. The diploid potatoes we have been developing have a 3 - 13 fold increase in lutein concentration over commercially available yellow-flesh potatoes. The first 4x-2x hybrids have double the carotenoid content of 'Yukon Gold', the current number one yellow-flesh potato cultivar. This research may lead to the eventual development of high lutein cultivars in the U.S. and for possible export to developing countries with malnutrition problems. C. Significant Accomplishments/Activities that Support Special Target Populations: This project does not support special target populations. D. Progress Report: In cooperation with other Federal and State scientists, we are studying the inheritance of resistance to late blight using traditional and molecular techniques (Penn State U.); the effect of genotype x environment interactions on the expression of resistance to late blight in advanced selections from State and Federal breeding programs along with the major U.S. cultivars (U. California-Davis, U. Florida, Michigan State U., Penn State U., Cornell U., University of Maine, U. Minnesota, U. Wisconsin-Madison, North Dakota State U.); resistance to early blight (Penn State U.); resistance to internal heat necrosis (North Carolina State U., Virginia Polytechnic and State U., Rutgers U.); identifying genes involved in these resistances, and improving breeding populations for traits of economic importance. In cooperation with scientists at BHNRC, we are identifying and quantifying the levels of carotenoids found in yellow-fleshed potatoes. Late blight is a serious disease of potatoes. New strains of the fungus are more aggressive and grow under a wider range of environmental conditions than the older strains. Late blight resistant cultivars need to be developed to ensure potato production. We coordinated and conducted the 2000 National Late Blight Potato Germplasm Evaluation Trial. This trial included 49 potato clones evaluated at nine sites in the US for their reaction to late blight. Results are not yet in. These trials furnish valuable information to breeders trying to develop late blight resistant cultivars and to growers trying to choose cultivars to minimize the impact of late blight on their production. 5. Describe the major accomplishments over the life of the project including their predicted or actual impact. This project has furnished potato germplasm to State scientists in Florida, Georgia, North Carolina, Virginia, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, New York, Ohio and Maine for evaluation. Germplasm developed by this program has been tested for resistance to late blight and common scab in field plots in Presque Isle, ME. Early evaluation for these diseases has been important in identifying superior parents for the hybridization program in Beltsville, MD. Germplasm increased in this program is on target for eventual naming and release as new cultivars in the next two to five years. Most promising selections at this point are: B0564-9 as a dual-purpose potato; B0564-8 as a chipping potato resistant to internal heat necrosis; B0766-3 as a chipping potato resistant to common scab; B1240-1 as a long term cold storage chipping potato; B0811-4 as a creamer, red-skin, yellow-flesh potato; and, B1145-2 as a creamer, red-skin, white-flesh potato. 6. What do you expect to accomplish, year by year, over the next 3 years? Year 2001: ARS scientists at Beltsville, MD, will continue working closely with State scientists and growers to evaluate the most advanced selections in the program. We plan to establish tissue cultured plantlets of promising advanced selections in the NY and ME Foundation Seed Programs. We intend to identify additional certified seed growers to cooperate with us in establishing a dependable seed supply of new selections prior to naming and release. Year 2002: During the next three years hybridizations will be made in the greenhouse to increase specific gravity, and improve resistance to late blight, early blight and common scab, in the tetraploid and diploid populations, combine cold temperature chipping ability with high specific gravity, develop specialty market cultivars for fresh market, and develop populations segregating for resistance to corky ringspot, common scab, early blight, and late blight for mapping studies. A study on early generation selection in different environments will be continued with a scientist at North Carolina State University. Year 2003: Yellow-flesh clones will be analyzed for carotenoid content in cooperation with scientists at BHNRC. We will try to enhance the carotenoid content in commercial quality tetraploid germplasm using the diploid high carotene population. High specific gravity 4x-2x hybrids will be evaluated for internal heat necrosis at North Carolina, Virginia, and New Jersey. Studies will be undertaken to quantify the calcium accumulation ability and polyphenol oxidase levels in these hybrids. A theoretical study on the effect of rating scale on heritability estimation will be undertaken and compared to a gold standard in cooperation with a statistician at BARC. We will begin some preliminary studies to determine the feasibility of breeding new cultivars for lower fertility regimes to reduce ground water contamination in cooperation with scientists at Florida. 7. What science and/or technologies have been transferred and to whom? When is the science and/or technology likely to become available to the end user (industry, farmer, other scientists)? What are the constraints if known, to the adoption & durability of the technology product? We held a Demonstration Day in Presque Isle, Maine, at harvest to display promising new selections to growers and talked to growers at a breakfast meeting about progress in the breeding program. Twenty advanced selections from the breeding program were harvested and displayed to interested growers and industry representatives on 9 September in Presque Isle, ME. 8. List your most important publications in the popular press (no abstracts) and presentations to non-scientific organizations and articles written about your work (NOTE: this does not replace your peer-reviewed publications which are listed below) Talked to seed growers and industry representatives on the goals of the potato breeding program and the potential of advanced selections on 9 September in Presque Isle, ME.

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications

  • Henninger, M.R., Sterrett, R.B., Haynes, K.G. Broad-sense heritability and stability of internal heat necrosis and specific gravity in tetraploid potatoes. Crop Science. 2000. v. 40. p. 977-984.
  • Haynes, K.G., Christ, B.J. Heritability of resistance to foliar late blight in a diploid Solanum phureja x S. stenotomum hybrid potato population. Plant Breeding. 1999. v. 118. p. 431-434.
  • Liu, Z., Zhang, R., Haynes, K.G., Christ, B.J. Sequence analysis of resistance gene analogs from potato. Phytopathology. 1999. v. 89. p. S46.
  • Ramanjulu, V., Liu, Z, Christ, B.J., Haynes, K.G. Foliar and tuber resistance of late blight in forty-two potato clones. Phytopathology. 1999. v. 89. p. S64