Source: AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE submitted to
SENSORY AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTY RELATIONSHIPS IN FOOD THAT DEFINE AND PREDICT END-USE QUALITY
Sponsoring Institution
Agricultural Research Service/USDA
Project Status
TERMINATED
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
0402748
Grant No.
(N/A)
Project No.
6612-44000-018-00D
Proposal No.
(N/A)
Multistate No.
(N/A)
Program Code
(N/A)
Project Start Date
Jun 20, 1999
Project End Date
Jun 19, 2004
Grant Year
(N/A)
Project Director
LYON B G
Recipient Organization
AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE
(N/A)
ATHENS,GA 30613
Performing Department
(N/A)
Non Technical Summary
(N/A)
Animal Health Component
70%
Research Effort Categories
Basic
30%
Applied
70%
Developmental
0%
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
5021530200010%
5021540200010%
5023260200050%
5023320200020%
5023530200010%
Goals / Objectives
Identify, define, and characterize the distinct and essential sensory flavor and texture attributes of agricultural commodities, including meat (poultry, beef, pork), rice, wheat or other grains and their products; relate these sensory attributes to physical and chemical properties through multivariate statistical procedures; and develop indexes, methods, or strategies to predict, evaluate, modify, and control end-use quality based on data-relationships.
Project Methods
Define the specific problem and implement studies using the following framework: (a) Establish descriptive sensory profile attributes of selected commodities or products; (b) develop methods, protocols, or models to explain the interrelationships of chemical composition, volatile and physical properties to sensory flavor, texture, juiciness as affected by preand post-harvest handling, process, and storage practices; (c) test models with new examples. Preselected problem areas include (1) Tenderness, juiciness and color of muscle foods, including poultry, beef, and pork; (2) Sensory juiciness, water content, and fiber or cell structure in influencing perception of toughness in meats; (3) Predicting flavor and/or texture attributes of cereal and non-cereal grain products based on spectral properties; (4) Profiling the sensory characteristics of dark poultry meat to target new end-use products.

Progress 06/20/99 to 06/19/04

Outputs
1. What major problem or issue is being resolved and how are you resolving it (summarize project aims and objectives)? How serious is the problem? What does it matter? Food quality characteristics are driven by inherent properties of the raw material (i.e. genetics) or by imposed conditions (processing and handling). This CRIS is directed toward optimizing quality characteristics through production or processing, first, by defining end use quality criteria by sensory analysis, and then, by interfacing with the chemical and physical properties of foods or food components to determine the relationships. Correlations of sensory descriptive profile analysis with instrumental evaluations, and further development of models of these relationships, will allow the selection of appropriate interpretations of instrumental measurements. Further, the relationships will permit more accurate evaluation of the efficacy of treatments to achieve the optimum quality improvement. The research addresses problem areas identified in the NRP 306 action plan, including: Component 1: Quality Characterization, Preservation, and Enhancement. Problem 1a: Definition and Basis for Quality; Problem 1b: Methods to evaluate and predict quality (by correlating physicochemical and/or biochemical data with sensory or performance-based evaluation); Problem 1c: Factors and processes that affect quality (by relating the influence of pre-harvest and post-harvest factors that cause variation in color, flavor, texture in foods); Component 2: New Processes, New Uses, and Value-Added Foods and Biobased Products. Problem 2c: New and improved processes and feedstocks (by determining quality effects of value-added processes that combine and optimize multiple steps) . Specific problems addressed: Sensory - Instrumental Texture of Muscle Foods: Texture is the most important quality attribute for consumer acceptance of cooked meat. Instruments measure some physical or chemical characteristics of products. Interpretation of physical/mechanical properties of materials must be validated by the human (sensory) evaluation of texture. Better instrumental methods are needed that are based on sound sensory information to explain what texture perception is. Simple shear tests that cut across fibers are not adequate. This work is important to the muscle foods industry, especially poultry and red meats. The majority of poultry is now processed and then further prepared at the plant for distribution in a pre-cooked or ready-to-cook stage. However, the processing schemes must incorporate the time, space and chilling energy to allow intact muscle to complete biochemical reactions that ensure tenderness. Optionally, processors must use new methods and treatments that attempt to resolve texture problems of toughness. Poultry and meat processors need better methods to predict tenderness. Underutilization of Dark Meat: There is an abundance of underutilized dark meat. New product forms are needed that meet consumer acceptance and that can add to the economic base of the poultry industry. 2. List the milestones (indicators of progress) from your Project Plan. 1) Determine the effects of processing on sensory and instrumental parameters of poultry and beef muscles, and determine the relationships among sensory and instrumental characteristics that can be used to predict texture, juiciness, color quality to achieve optimum consumer acceptance; 2) Determine effects of lighting conditions and other factors that influence visual perception of doneness in ground beef patties and relate color to end-point temperature; 3) Determine relationships between sensory and instrumental texture parameters of selected grains/grain products, such as bread or cookies, in order to test the efficacy of ingredients to reduce fat and/or sugar; 4) Profile the sensory characteristics of abundant, but underutilized, dark poultry meat (thigh, drum)in order to target and develop new end-use products. 3. Milestones: A. List the milestones that were scheduled to be addressed in FY 2004. How many milestones did you fully or substantially meet in FY 2004 and indicate which ones were not fully or substantially met, briefly explain why not, and your plans to do so. FY 2004 Milestones: 1) Sensory studies on stimulation and marination treatments to enhance tenderness of poultry (broilers/spent hens) will be conducted. 2)The CRIS project will undergo strategic planning for new research projects, commencing in FY 2005. Progress: FY 2004 milestones were successfully accomplished. The new project has been reviewed and is on schedule for implementation in FY2005. B. List the milestones that you expect to address over the next 3 years (FY 2005, 2006, & 2007). What do you expect to accomplish, year by year, over the next 3 years under each milestone? FY05: - Determine the sensory and physicochemical properties of broiler breast meat (Pectoralis major and Pectoralis minor) that result from variations in voltage, cycling, and application points of pulsed electric current as a processing technique to accelerate post-mortem rigor development. - Statistically analyze data to determine primary indicators of quality. - Initiate studies to combine treatments of electrical stimulation and immersion chilling to determine their effects on sensory and physicochemical properties of broiler breast (P. major and P. minor). Variations will include the combination of electrical stimulation and chilling methods, including conventional ice-water method, European air- chilling versions, and combinations of both. - Initiate studies on effects of immersion versus air chilling on sensory properties of broiler meat. FY06: - Analyze and report results of sensory and physicochemical properties of broiler with focus on selection of primary indicators/predictors of quality that can be exploited for further control or modification. - Complete databases, analyze, and report results of sensory and physicochemical properties of broiler muscles considering electrical stimulation variables along with chilling method variables. - Conduct studies on sensory and physicochemical properties of mature fowl using processing variables related to electrical stimulation and chilling methods. - Plan phases of study on broilers incorporating marination variables into the tests with selected electrical stimulation and chilling variables. FY07: - Report results of sensory and physicochemical properties of broiler meat as affected by chilling methods combined with electrical stimulation. - Build database on sensory and physicochemical properties of mature fowl meat. - Determine optimum processing parameters based on primary quality indicators. - Build database on broilers (white meat), incorporating marination variables into the tests with electrical stimulation and chilling variables. Plan phases of study focusing on responses of broiler dark meat to electrical stimulation, chilling and marination. 4. What were the most significant accomplishments this past year? A. Single most significant accomplishment during FY2004: Marinade solutions containing salt, phosphates, acids and flavorings are added to meats to enhance flavor, change texture and reduce the presence of spoilage bacteria. Processors need information from sensory testing to successfully optimize the combination of ingredients. Research in this lab was conducted on chicken breast muscle marinated in combinations of solution ingredients (salt, phosphates, acid). Results from a trained descriptive sensory analysis panel indicated that both meat flavor and texture profiles were altered due to marination. It may be possible to change and control flavor and texture attributes by the marinade ingredients and processing treatments. These results are of interest to poultry processors because of potential to increase processing efficiency, reduce costs, and optimize quality. B. Other Significant Accomplishments: None. C. Significant accomplishments/activities that support special target populations: Scientists at Russell Research Center's Quality Assessment RU (B. G. Lyon) and Poultry Processing and Meat Quality RU (C. E. Lyon, retired) continued collaboration with faculty members at Florida A&M University under a project to increase the value of agricultural commodities produced by small minority farmers in South Georgia and North Florida. Properties of muscadine grapes and their by-products could provide antioxidant properties and could be suitable as an ingredient in meat products from goats and spent layers. The antioxidant and functional properties of the muscadine grapes, in combination with the low fat, high protein goat and fowl meat, may present an opportunity to add value to these commodities. D. Progress Report opportunity to submit additional programmatic information to your Area office and NPS (optional for all in-house (D) projects and the projects listed in Appendix A; mandatory for all other subordinate projects). None. 5. Describe the major accomplishments over the life of the project, including their predicted or actual impact. This research project has resulted in a variety of accomplishments, with the common factor being the input of sensory evaluation to enhance interpretation and understanding of varied processes and instrumental techniques. (1)Heavy breeder hens are abundant but are tough and lack market outlets, other than canning or retorting. Improvements in tenderization of heavy hens were achieved through electrical stimulation and early harvesting of breast muscle. Sensory evaluation indicated that flavor, texture and aftertaste could be enhanced by combinations of treatments. Better processes to improve texture quality of breeder hens will lead to alternate product types as market outlets for this protein source. (2)Sensory benchmarks developed to show consumer tenderness related to instrumental shear values continues to aid Quality Control personnel in the poultry industry to monitor texture variations in their plants. (3)There is a limited return on investment in processing breeder hens and spent laying hens for meat although these commodities represent a significant segment of the poultry industry. Sensory and physical characteristics of cooked breast meat from commercially processed breeder hens were profiled in a cooperative study by QARU scientist, Brenda Lyon, PPMQ scientist, C. E. Lyon, and a large commercial hen producer, to provide baseline data of functional/textural properties. The resulting profile was used to increase utilization of the meat in the form of new products. New product forms that are suitable for consumer and institutional markets have increased the value of meat from breeder hens and spent laying hens. 6. What science and/or technologies have been transferred and to whom? When is the science and/or technology likely to become available to the end- user (industry, farmer, other scientists)? What are the constraints, if known, to the adoption and durability of the technology products? Information concerning texture profiles for breeder hens is being used by a major processor as a basis for new product formulations. Results on sensory quality and relationships with physicochemical properties have been published in scientific journals for peer-scientists and are discussed at industry conferences, short courses and seminars. Adoption of the technology is informal and has resulted in new or better product formulations or processes.

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications

  • Liu, Y., Lyon, B.G., Windham, W.R., Lyon, C.E., Savage, E.M. 2004. Principal component analysis of physical, color, and sensory characteristics of chicken breasts deboned at 2, 4, 6, and 24 hours post- mortem. Poultry Science. 83:101-108.
  • Liu, Y., Lyon, B.G., Windham, W.R., Lyon, C.E., Savage, E.M. 2004. Prediction of physical, color, and sensory characteristics of chicken breasts by visible/near-infrared spectroscopy. Poultry Science. 83:1467- 1474.
  • Lyon, B.G., Smith, D.P., Savage, E.M. Baseline quality attributes of marinated broiler breast fillets. [abstract] International Poultry Scientific Symposium Meeting Abstracts. January 26-27, 2004. #1764.
  • Sanchez-Brambilia, G.Y., Alvarez-Manilla, G., Soto-Cordova, F., Lyon, B.G., Pacheco-Aguilar, R. 2004. Identification and characterization of the off- flavor in mantle muscle of jumbo squid (dosidicus gigas) from the gulf of california. Journal of Aquatic Food Product Technology 13(1):55-67, 2004.
  • Lyon, B.G., Smith, D.P., Lyon, C.E., Savage, E.M. 2004. The effects of diet and feed withdrawal on the sensory descriptive and instrumental profiles of broiler breast fillets. Poultry Science. 83(2):275-281.


Progress 10/01/02 to 09/30/03

Outputs
1. What major problem or issue is being resolved and how are you resolving it? Food quality characteristics are driven by inherent properties of the raw material (i.e. genetics) or by imposed conditions (processing and handling). This CRIS is directed toward optimizing quality characteristics through production or processing, first, by defining enduse quality criteria by sensory analysis, and then, by interfacing with the chemical and physical properties of foods or food components to determine the relationships. Correlations of sensory descriptive profile analysis with instrumental evaluations, and further development of models of these relationships, will allow the selection of appropriate interpretations of instrumental measurements. Further, the relationships will permit more accurate evaluation of the efficacy of treatments to achieve the optimum quality improvement. Current problems under investigation include: 1) determine the effects of processing on sensory and instrumental parameters of poultry and beef muscles, and determine the relationships among sensory and instrumental characteristics that can be used to predict texture, juiciness, color quality to achieve optimum consumer acceptance; 2) determine effects of lighting conditions and other factors that influence visual perception of doneness in ground beef patties and relate color to end-point temperature; 3) determine relationships between sensory and instrumental texture parameters of selected grains/grain products, such as bread or cookies, in order to test the efficacy of ingredients to reduce fat and/or sugar; 4) profile the sensory characteristics of abundant, but underutilized, dark poultry meat (thigh, drum)in order to target and develop new end-use products 2. How serious is the problem? Why does it matter? SENSORY -- INSTRUMENTAL TEXTURE OF MUSCLE FOODS Texture is the most important quality attribute for consumer acceptance of cooked meat. Instruments measure some physical or chemical characteristics of products. Interpretation of physical/mechanical properties of materials must be validated by the human (sensory) evaluation of texture. Better instrumental methods are needed that are based on sound sensory information to explain what texture perception is. Simple shear tests that cut across fibers are not adequate. This work is important to the muscle foods industry, especially poultry and red meats. The majority of poultry is now processed and then further prepared at the plant for distribution in a pre-cooked or ready-to-cook stage. However, the processing schemes must incorporate the time, space and chilling energy to allow intact muscle to complete biochemical reactions that ensure tenderness. Optionally, processors must use new methods and treatments that attempt to resolve tough texture problems. Poultry and meat processors need better methods to predict tenderness. UNDERUTILIZATION OF DARK MEAT There is an abundance of underutilized dark meat. New product forms are needed that meet consumer acceptance and that can add to the economic base of the poultry industry. PREMATURE BROWNING OF BURGERS Cooking ground beef patties to internal temperatures of 160F destroys the pathogen, E. Coli 0157:H7, which can cause severe illness and even death. At this temperature, color pigments usually have not fully heat- denatured to turn brown. Appearance of pink presents a visual cue that additional heating is needed. However, in some situations, ground beef patties may appear brown at temperatures less than the safe temperature of 160F. Studies to provide supporting scientific information, such as effects of lighting conditions on visual cues of doneness, are needed to find causes of early browning. This will allow FSIS, which has the responsibility to provide advice on safe handling techniques and cooking of meat products to consumers, to provide sound advice. Not only must the work serve to protect the consumers, it must be appropriate to avoid undermining consumer confidence in American food industries. 3. How does it relate to the National Program(s) and National Program Component(s) to which it has been assigned? This research supports National Program 306 - Quality and Utilization of Agricultural Products -by determining the sensory properties of food or food components from animal or plant origin that relate to ultimate end- use quality. The U.S. agricultural food industries need to provide highquality, marketable products to maintain economic viability and compatibility in domestic and global markets. In order to accomplish this objective, relationships between measurable physical/chemical properties of food or food components and sensory characteristics perceived by the end-user must be determined. This project works collaboratively with other CRIS projects in Quality Assessment Research Unit and Poultry Processing and Meat Quality Research Unit. 4. What were the most significant accomplishments this past year? A. Single most significant accomplishment during FY2003. Poultry companies invest funds and time to balance production costs and practices, including feed ingredients and time off of feed prior to processing, in order to optimize quality of ready-to-eat meat products. B. G. Lyon (QARU), along with C. E. Lyon and D. P. Smith (PPMQ) from the Russell Research Center, Athens, GA, studied the effects of 3 carbohydrate sources (corn, milo, wheat), along with the effects of feed withdrawal times of 0 and 8 hours, on the sensory flavor/texture and instrumental texture profiles of broiler breast meat. They found that flavor of meat from corn-fed birds was more brothy and sweet; that meat from wheat-fed birds was more cohesive and chewy, and that meat from birds processed after 8 hr off feed was more juicy and lower in toothpack than meat from birds processed without a feed withdrawal period. These results will assist poultry processors in the selection of dietary carbohydrate sources and processing practices to optimize flavor and texture of cooked broiler breast meat. B. Other Significant Accomplishments. Although poultry processors need fast, non-destructive techniques to understand how processing techniques affect eating quality of their products, most of the current techniques to obtain either instrumental or sensory data are destructive, time consuming and unsuitable for use directly on-line/at-line in processing plants. In this study, researchers at Russell Research Center, (B. G. Lyon, QARU, C. E. Lyon and W. R. Windham, PPMQ) investigated different ranges of tenderness by varying the deboning times (2, 4, 6, and 24 hr) and statistically analyzed 24 different sensory and instrumental attributes with NIR spectral data. Results indicated that both the instrumental (pH, color change, cooking yield and WB shear force) and the sensory attributes were affected by post-mortem deboning times, with different combinations of attributes having strong and positive correlations. This research provides the evidence of possibility to differentiate and classify muscles by post- mortem debone time that will lead to on-line/at-line systems that will enable processors to predict eating quality. Two high intensity sweeteners, Acesulfame-K (ace-K) and sucralose, are used in baked products to reduce sugar but may have bitter or intensely sweet aftertastes when used singly. B. G. Lyon, QARU, RRC, Athens, in cooperation with University of Georgia, Food and Nutrition Department, conducted a study on 2 reduced-in-fat cookie types (oatmeal and chocolate chip) prepared with sugar, ace-K, sucralose, and ace-K/sucralose blend. Partial substitution for sugar in the reduced-in-fat cookie systems with ace-K, sucralose, or a blend did not introduce aftertaste attributes not found in the control. The results, which are of interest to bakers, suggest that selection of an appropriate sweetener system for reduced-in fat cookie formulations can be made based on non-flavor criteria. C. Significant accomplishments/activities that support special target populations. Scientists at Russell Research Center's Quality Assessment RU (B. G. Lyon) and Poultry Processing and Meat Quality RU (C. E. Lyon) are collaborating with faculty members at Florida AM University under a three-year project to increase the value of agricultural commodities produced by small minority farmers in South Georgia and North Florida. Properties of muscadine grapes and their by-products have been evaluated for their antioxidant properties and their suitability as an ingredient in meat products from goats and spent layers. The antioxidant and functional properties of the muscadine grapes in combination with the low fat, high protein goat and fowl meat may present an opportunity to add value to these commodities. D. Progress Report. Acids are often used in marinades of poultry and red meats. Working sensory lexicons were developed by a trained descriptive analysis panel to track off-flavor development and are being used to assess appropriate combinations and treatments to enhance acceptable quality. 5. Describe the major accomplishments over the life of the project, including their predicted or actual impact. This research project has resulted in a variety of accomplishments, with the common factor being the input of sensory evaluation to enhance interpretation and understanding of varied processes and instrumental techniques. Heavy breeder hens are abundant but are tough and lack market outlets, other than canning or retorting. Improvements in tenderization of heavy hens were achieved through electrical stimulation and early harvesting of breast muscle. Sensory evaluation indicated that flavor, texture and aftertaste could be enhanced by combinations of treatments. Better processes to improve texture quality of breeder hens will lead to alternate product types as market outlets for this protein source. Sensory benchmarks developed to show consumer tenderness related to instrumental shear values continues to aid Quality Control personnel in the poultry industry to monitor texture variations in their plants. There is a limited return on investment in processing breeder hens and spent laying hens for meat although these commodities represent a significant segment of the poultry industry. Sensory and physical characteristics of cooked breast meat from commercially processed breeder hens were profiled in a cooperative study by QARU scientist, Brenda Lyon, PPMQ scientist, C. E. Lyon, and a large commercial hen producer, to provide baseline data of functional/textural properties. The resulting profile was used to increase utilization of the meat in the form of new products. New product forms that are suitable for consumer and institutional markets have increased the value of meat from breeder hens and spent laying hens. 6. What do you expect to accomplish, year by year, over the next 3 years? FY 2004: Sensory studies on stimulation and marination treatments to enhance tenderness of poultry (broilers/spent hens) will be conducted. The CRIS project will undergo strategic planning for new research projects, commencing in FY 2005. 7. What science and/or technologies have been transferred and to whom? When is the science and/or technology likely to become available to the end- user (industry, farmer, other scientists)? What are the constraints, if known, to the adoption and durability of the technology products? Information concerning texture profiles for breeder hens is being used by a major processor as a basis for new product formulations. Results on sensory quality and relationships with physicochemical properties have been published in scientific journals for peer-scientists and are discussed at industry conferences, short courses and seminars. Adoption of the technology is informal and will result in new or better product formulations or processes. 8. List your most important publications in the popular press and presentations to organizations and articles written about your work. (NOTE: This does not replace your peer-reviewed publications listed below). Lyon, B.G. Invited participant at the Georgia Poultry Federation semi- annual board meetings. Young Harris, GA., April 2003 and Ponte Vedra, FL, July 2003. Lyon, B.G. Invited speaker at Institute of Food Technologists, Muscle Foods Division Symposium: Best Practices for Sensory Evaluation of Muscle Foods: Poultry. Chicago, Ill. July, 2003.

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications

  • Lyon, B.G., Lyon, C.E., Savage, E.M. Sensory profiles and physical characteristics of cooked breeder hen breast meat deboned at 2, 4, 8, and 24 hours post-mortem. Poultry Science. 2002. v. 81 (suppl. 1): Abstract #356. p. 83.
  • Cardello, E.E., Swanson, R.B., Lyon, B.G., Savage, E.M. Descriptive sensory analysis of two reduced-in-fat cookies prepared with high intensity sweeteners. American Dietetic Association, Food and Nutrition Conference and Exhibition Program. 2002. Abstract. p. 90.
  • Cardello, E.E., Swanson, R.B., Lyon, B.G., Savage, E.M. Flavor attributes and aftertastes/feels: Effects of HIS and HIS blends in reduced-in-fat cookies. Institute of Food Technologists. 2003. Abstract. Paper No. 104D- 15.
  • Lyon, B.G., Lyon, C.E., Smith, D.P., Savage, E.M. The effects of diet and feed withdrawal times on the sensory descriptive profile and shear values of broiler breast meat. Poultry Science. 2003. v. 82 (suppl 1): Abstract #209, page 49.
  • LYON, B.G. SENSORY EVALUATION OF POULTRY MUSCLE. INSTITUTE OF FOOD TECHNOLOGISTS. 2003. PAPER NO. 48-2.
  • Smith, D.P., Lyon, C.E., Lyon, B.G. The effect of age, dietary carbohydrate source, and feed withdrawal on broiler breast fillet color. Poultry Science. 2002. v. 81. p. 1584-1588.
  • Lyon, B.G., Lyon, C.E. Color of uncooked and cooked broiler leg quarters associated with chilling temperature and holding time. Poultry Science. 2002. v. 81. p. 1916-1920.
  • Perry, J.M., Swanson, R.B., Lyon, B.G., Savage, E.M. Instrumental and sensory assessment of oatmeal and chocolate chip cookies modified with sugar and fat replacers. Cereal Chemistry. 2003. v. 80(1). p. 45-51.
  • Kane, A.M., Lyon, B.G., Swanson, R.B., Savage, E.M. Comparison of two sensory color evaluation methods with two instrumental techniques. Journal of Food Science. 2003. v. 68 (5). p. 1831-1837.
  • Liu, Y., Lyon, B.G., Windham, W.R., Realini, C.E., Pringle, T.D. Prediction of color, tenderness, and sensory characteristics of beef steaks by visible and near infrared reflectance spectroscopy. A feasibility study. Meat Science. 2003. v. 65(3). p. 1107-1115.


Progress 10/01/01 to 09/30/02

Outputs
1. What major problem or issue is being resolved and how are you resolving it? Food quality characteristics are driven by inherent properties of the raw material (i.e. genetics) or by imposed conditions (processing and handling). This CRIS is directed toward optimizing quality characteristics through production or processing, first, by defining end use quality criteria by sensory analysis, and then, by interfacing with the chemical and physical properties of foods or food components to determine the relationships. Correlations of sensory descriptive profile analysis with instrumental evaluations, and further development of models of these relationships, will allow the selection of appropriate interpretations of instrumental measurements. Further, the relationships will permit more accurate evaluation of the efficacy of treatments to achieve the optimum quality improvement. Current problems under investigation include: 1) determine the effects of processing on sensory and instrumental parameters of poultry and beef muscles, and determine the relationships among sensory and instrumental characteristics that can be used to predict texture, juiciness, color quality to achieve optimum consumer acceptance; 2) determine effects of lighting conditions and other factors that influence visual perception of doneness in ground beef patties and relate color to end-point temperature; 3) determine relationships between sensory and instrumental texture parameters of selected grains/grain products, such as bread or cookies, in order to test the efficacy of ingredients to reduce fat and/or sugar; 4) profile the sensory characteristics of abundant, but underutilized, dark poultry meat (thigh, drum)in order to target and develop new end-use products. 2. How serious is the problem? Why does it matter? SENSORY -- INSTRUMENTAL TEXTURE OF MUSCLE FOODS: Texture is the most important quality attribute for consumer acceptance of cooked meat. Instruments measure some physical or chemical characteristics of products. Interpretation of physical/mechanical properties of materials must be validated by the human (sensory) evaluation of texture. Better instrumental methods are needed that are based on sound sensory information to explain what texture perception is. Simple shear tests that cut across fibers are not adequate. This work is important to the muscle foods industry, especially poultry and red meats. The majority of poultry is now processed and then further prepared at the plant for distribution in a pre-cooked or ready-to-cook stage. However, the processing schemes must incorporate the time, space and chilling energy to allow intact muscle to complete biochemical reactions that ensure tenderness. Optionally, processors must use new methods and treatments that attempt to resolve tough texture problems. Poultry and meat processors need better methods to predict tenderness. UNDERUTILIZATION OF DARK MEAT: There is an abundance of underutilized dark meat. New product forms are needed that meet consumer acceptance and that can add to the economic base of the poultry industry. PREMATURE BROWNING OF BURGERS: Cooking ground beef patties to internal temperatures of 160F destroys the pathogen, E. Coli 0157:H7, which can cause severe illness and even death. At this temperature, color pigments usually have not fully heat-denatured to turn brown. Appearance of pink presents a visual cue that additional heating is needed. However, in some situations, ground beef patties may appear brown at temperatures less than the safe temperature of 160F. Studies to provide supporting scientific information, such as effects of lighting conditions on visual cues of doneness, are needed to find causes of early browning. This will allow FSIS, which has the responsibility to provide advice on safe handling techniques and cooking of meat products to consumers, to provide sound advice. Not only must the work serve to protect the consumers, it must be appropriate to avoid undermining consumer confidence in American food industries. 3. How does it relate to the national Program(s) and National Program Component(s) to which it has been assigned? This research supports National Program 306 - Quality and Utilization of Agricultural Products - by determining the sensory properties of food or food components from animal or plant origin that relate to ultimate end- use quality. The U.S. agricultural food industries need to provide high quality, marketable products to maintain economic viability and compatibility in domestic and global markets. In order to accomplish this objective, relationships between measurable physical/chemical properties of food or food components and sensory characteristics perceived by the end-user must be determined. This project works collaboratively with other CRIS projects in Quality Assessment Research Unit and Poultry Processing and Meat Quality Research Unit. 4. What was your most significant accomplishment this past year? A. Single most significant accomplishment during FY2002: New products using underutilized forms of poultry, including dark meat and meat from breeder or spent hens, could provide a new economic basis for the poultry industry. In a cooperative study with the largest producer of commercially processed breeder hen breast fillets in the Southeast, flavor and texture were profiled by a trained descriptive analysis sensory panel as a function of deboning time. Results indicated that primary differences were found for sensory and instrumental texture that distinguished 2 and 4 hr deboning times from 8 and 24 hr deboning times for springiness, cohesiveness, hardness, bolus size and chewiness. The results will serve as a basis for understanding product properties so that new product formulations can be developed and new product markets can be sought. B. Other Significant Accomplishments: Instrumental color evaluation methods of food in product development or quality control are useful, but only if validated by human visual assessments. Cooperative research with the University of Georgia, Food and Nutrition Department, led to the development of a color evaluation method suitable for quality control situations. Physical and digital color references were developed and used to compare two sensory and two instrumental color evaluations of six formulas of cookies. The results are of interest in situations in which color of products, such as cookies, crackers, chips, must be controlled and in which instrumental specifications must be validated by sensory assessment. Color may be linked to physical and functional properties of protein that determine eating quality of final meat product. A cooperative research study with Poultry Processing and Meat Quality RU, was conducted on broilers fed diets of wheat, corn, and milo. The results demonstrated that diet and feed withdrawal may significantly affect raw broiler breast fillet color, thus, pointing out the need for further investigation on physical and functional properties of proteins as affected by diets. The results are of interest to producers who seek the best formulation for growth and ultimate eating quality of the birds. C. Significant accomplishments/activities that support special target populations: None. D. Progress Report: Off-flavors develop from irradiated poultry and red meats. Working sensory lexicons were developed by a trained descriptive analysis panel to track off-flavor development and are being used to assess appropriate doses and treatments to mitigate unacceptable quality. 5. Describe your major accomplishments over the life of the project, including their predicted or actual impact? This research project has resulted in a variety of accomplishments, with the common factor being the input of sensory evaluation to enhance interpretation and understanding of varied processes and instrumental techniques. Heavy breeder hens are abundant but are tough and lack market outlets, other than canning or retorting. Improvements in tenderization of heavy hens were achieved through electrical stimulation and early harvesting of breast muscle. Sensory evaluation indicated that flavor, texture and aftertaste could be enhanced by combinations of treatments. Better processes to improve texture quality of breeder hens will lead to alternate product types as market outlets for this protein source. Sensory benchmarks developed to show consumer tenderness related to instrumental shear values continues to aid Quality Control personnel in the poultry industry to monitor texture variations in their plants. 6. What do you expect to accomplish, year by year, over the next 3 years? During FY2003, new strategies to interface instrumental and sensory assessments to predict quality will be tested. The CRIS project will undergo strategic planning for new directions beginning in 2004. 7. What technologies have been transferred and to whom? When is the technology likely to become available to the end user (industry, farmer other scientist)? What are the constraints, if known, to the adoption durability of the technology? Information concerning texture profiles for breeder hens is being used by a major processor as a basis for new product formulations. Results on sensory quality and relationships with physicochemical properties have been published in scientific journals for peer-scientists and are discussed at industry conferences, short courses and seminars. Adoption of the technology is informal and will result in new or better product formulations or processes. 8. List your most important publications and presentations, and articles written about your work (NOTE: this does not replace your review publications which are listed below) Lyon, B. G. Invited to present talk and demonstration of sensory and instrumental evaluation of poultry texture at Florida A&M University, Tallahassee, FL. February 2002. Lyon, B. G. Invited participant at the Georgia Poultry Federation semi- annual board meetings. April 2002 and July 2002. Articles written about work: Durham, S. It takes a tough scientist to make a tender (and juicy) chicken. In: Agricultural Research magazine, Feb. 2002. v 50(2), p. 14-15.

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications

  • Kane, A., Lyon, B.G., Swanson, R.B., Savage, E.M. Comparison of two sensory evaluation color methods with two instrumental methods. Meeting of Institute of Food Technologists. 2002. Paper No. 00D-19.
  • Lyon, B.G., Lyon, C.E., Savage, E.M. Sensory profiles and physical characteristics of cooked breeder hen breast meat deboned at 2, 4, 8, and 24 hours post-mortem. Meeting of the Poultry Science Association. Poultry Science 2002. v. 81. Abstract No. 356.
  • Smith, D., Lyon, C.E., Lyon, B.G., Windham, W.R., Lawrence, K.C., Park, B. Effect of age, diet, and feed withdrawal on color of raw broiler breast fillets. International Poultry Scientific Forum. Poultry Science. 2002. v. 81. Abstract No. 206.
  • Lyon, B.G., Windham, W.R., Lyon, C.E., Barton, F.E., II. Sensory characteristics and near-infrared spectroscopy of broiler breast meat from various chill-storage regimes. Journal of Food Quality. 2001. v. 24. p. 435-452.
  • Sanchez, G.Y., Lyon, B.G., Huang, Y.W., Santiago, F.R. Franco, Lyon, C.E., Gates, K.W. Sensory and texture analysis of papain tenderization method implemented in the canning of whelk meat (Astraea undosa). Journal of Food Science. 2001. v. 67(3). p. 1233-1239.
  • Sanchez, G.Y., Lyon, B.G., Huang, Y.W., Lyon, C.E., Gates, K.W. Sensory characteristics and instrumental texture attributes of abalones, Haliotis fulgens and cracherodii. Journal of Food Science. 2002. v. 67(4). p. 559- 1563.
  • Lyon, C.E., Dickens, J.A., Lyon, B.G. Effects of electrical stimulation and postchill deboning time on texture and cook loss of broiler breasts processed under commercial conditions. Journal of Applied Poultry Research. 2002. v. 11. p. 217-222.
  • Lyon, B.G., Wilson, J.L., Jones, D.R., Savage, E.M. Effects of dietary Menhaden oil on characteristics of eggs from broiler breeder hens. International Poultry Scientific Forum. Poultry Science. 2002. v. 81. Abstract No. 166.


Progress 10/01/00 to 09/30/01

Outputs
1. What major problem or issue is being resolved and how are you resolving it? Food quality characteristics are driven by inherent properties of the raw material (i.e. genetics) or by imposed conditions (processing and handling). This CRIS is directed toward optimizing quality characteristics through production or processing first, by defining end-use quality criteria by sensory analysis, and then, by interfacing with the chemical and physical properties of foods or food components to determine the relationships. Correlations of sensory descriptive profile analysis with instrumental evaluations, and further development of models of these relationships, will allow the selection of appropriate interpretations of instrumental measurements. Further, the relationships will permit more accurate evaluation of the efficacy of treatments to achieve the optimum quality improvement. Current problems under investigation include: 1) relationships of sensory and instrumental parameters to predict texture, juiciness, color quality of muscle foods; 2) determine effects of lighting conditions and other factors that influence visual perception of doneness in ground beef patties; 3) determine relationships between sensory and instrumental texture parameters of selected grains/grain products, such as bread; 4) profile the sensory characteristics of abundant, but underutilized, dark poultry meat (thigh, drum) to target new end-use products. 2. How serious is the problem? Why does it matter? SENSORY-INSTRUMENTAL TEXTURE OF MUSCLE FOODS: Texture is the most important quality attribute for consumer acceptance of cooked meat. Instruments measure some physical or chemical characteristics of products. Interpretation of physical/mechanical properties of materials must be validated by the human (sensory) evaluation of texture. Better instrumental methods are needed that are based on sound sensory information to explain what texture perception is. Simple shear tests that cut across fibers are not adequate. This work is important to the muscle foods industry, especially poultry and red meats. The majority of poultry is now processed and then further prepared at the plant for distribution in a pre-cooked or ready-to-cook stage. However, the processing schemes must incorporate the time, space and chilling energy to allow intact muscle to complete biochemical reactions that ensure tenderness. Optionally, processors must use new methods and treatments that attempt to resolve tough texture problems. Poultry and meat processors need better methods to predict tenderness. UNDERUTILIZATION OF DARK MEAT: There is an abundance of underutilized dark meat from poultry. New product forms are needed that meet consumer acceptance and that can add to the economic base of the poultry industry. MATURE BROWNING OF BURGERS: Cooking ground beef patties to internal temperatures of 160F destroys the pathogen, E. Coli 0157:H7, which can cause severe illness and even death. At this temperature, color pigments usually have not fully heat-denatured to turn brown. Appearance of pink presents a visual cue that additional heating is needed. However, in some situations, ground beef patties may appear brown at temperatures less than the safe temperature of 160F. Studies to provide supporting scientific information, such as effects of lighting conditions on visual cues of doneness, are needed to find causes of early browning. This will allow FSIS, which has the responsibility to provide advice on safe handling techniques and cooking of meat products to consumers, to provide sound advice. Not only must the work serve to protect the consumers, it must be appropriate to avoid undermining consumer confidence in American food industries. 3. How does it relate to the National Program(s) and National Component(s)? This research supports National Program 306 - Quality and Utilization of Agricultural Products -by determining the sensory properties of food or food components from animal or plant origin that relate to ultimate end-use quality. The U.S. agricultural food industries need to provide high-quality, marketable products to maintain economic viability and compatibility in domestic and global markets. In order to accomplish this objective, relationships between measurable physical/chemical properties of food or food components and sensory characteristics perceived by the end-user must be determined. This project works collaboratively with other CRIS projects in Quality Assessment Research Unit and Poultry Processing and Meat Quality Research Unit. 4. What were the most significant accomplishments this past year? A. Single most significant accomplishment during FY2001: Electrical stimulation, deboning time and marination are treatments that have been shown to hasten processing times of poultry breast muscle when applied individually. In a study that combined all three treatments and that employed sensory descriptive analysis, it was shown that a combination of stimulation, breast muscle removal at 2 hours, followed by marination treatments could accomplish good quality and shortened processing times. Results of analysis by a trained descriptive analysis panel that profiled the flavor, texture and aftertaste qualities indicated that sensory textural differences were primarily related to the stimulation and muscle removal times, while marination effects influenced the flavor, texture and aftertaste profile attributes. Through the combination of sensory and instrumental analysis in this study, the findings point out the benefits of using a shortened processing procedure that negates the required chilling times of 6 to 8 hours before breast deboning, which results in a large savings to processors. B. Other Significant Accomplishments: 'Lighter than normal' (LTN) and 'darker than normal' (DTN) raw broiler breast meat has consumer implications and may be indicative of the functional properties of the meat as well. We examined the role of deboning time on the incidence of LTN and DTN and its subsequent effects on color and texture characteristics of the cooked broiler breast meat. Early deboning appeared to result in more variations in color, as well as in cook yield and shear values. The impact of these findings is that color sorting of early deboned raw broiler breast meat is a possible tool to aid processors in directing raw product to appropriate end-products based on specific functional properties of raw ingredients required for optimum performance. Calorie reduction of snack products from cereal grains, such as soft cookies, must take into account the modification of functional properties that influence texture and taste acceptance. A cooperative research project with the University of Georgia examined the sensory and instrumental attributes of fresh and stored cookies made with prune puree and acesulfame-K. The research led to the development of a sensory lexicon for evaluation of reduced fat and reduced sugar in oatmeal and chocolate chip cookies and to the determination of relationships between a new texture method and sensory texture evaluation. The tested lexicon and new texture method can be used by product developers to assess the effects of fat and sugar reduction on the texture and flavor of modified soft cookies. C. Significant accomplishments/activities that support special target populations: None D. Progress Report: Texture is probably the most important factor in consumer acceptance of cooked meat. Texture is multifaceted and requires more than instrumental cutting of fibers (shear tests) to explain the breakdown by chewing. Under a specific cooperative agreement with University of Georgia (6612-44000-018-01S), studies were initiated to determine the time-intensity profiles by trained sensory panelists of texture evaluation of beef and poultry muscle. By understanding the perceptions that are involved in the human sensory experience that equate to acceptance of cooked muscle texture, better instrumental predictors of tenderness can be found. Panelists' responses were varied in the length of time to chew and the amount of work expended during the chewing process. These and other factors can lead to different expectations and evaluations of the degree of tenderness of cooked meat. 5. Describe the major accomplishments over the life of the project including their predicted or actual impact. This research project has resulted in a variety of accomplishments, with the common factor being the input of sensory evaluation to enhance interpretation and understanding of varied processes and instrumental techniques. Heavy breeder hens are abundant but are tough and lack market outlets, other than canning or retorting. Improvements in tenderization of heavy hens were achieved through electrical stimulation and early harvesting of breast muscle. Sensory evaluation indicated that flavor, texture and aftertaste could be enhanced by combinations of treatments. Better processes to improve texture quality of breeder hens will lead to alternate product types as market outlets for this protein source. Sensory benchmarks developed to show consumer tenderness related to instrumental shear values continues to aid QC personnel in the poultry industry to monitor texture variations in their plants. 6. What do you expect to accomplish, year by year, over the next 3 years? During FY2002, strategies to interface sensory and instrumental methods for predicting quality of muscle foods will require additional data, with plans to include more work on heavy hens and a wider range of expected tenderness for red muscle. Several software packages will be explored for enhancing the multivariate approach. During FY2003, new strategies to interface instrumental and sensory assessments to predict quality will be tested. The CRIS project will undergo strategic planning for new directions beginning in 2004. 7. What science and/or technologies have been transferred and to whom? When is the science and/or technology likely to become available to the end user (industry, farmer, other scientists)? What are the constraints if known, to the adoption & durability of the technology product? No formal technology transfers this year. 8. List your most important publications in the popular press (no abstracts) and presentations to non-scientific organizations and articles written about your work (NOTE: this does not replace your peer-reviewed publications which are listed below) Lyon, B.G. Invited to present talk and demonstration of sensory and instrumental evaluation of poultry texture at Case Farms, Goldsboro, NC. November. 2000. Lyon, B.G. Invited participant at the Georgia Poultry Federation Spring meeting. April 2001.

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications

  • Lyon, C.E., Lyon, B.G. Sensory differences in broiler breast meat due to electric stimulation, deboning time and marination. Journal of Applied Poultry Research. 2000. v. 9. p. 234-241.
  • Bailey, J.S., Lyon, B.G., Lyon, C.E., Windham, W.R. The microbiological profile of chilled and frozen chicken. Journal of Food Protection. 2000. v. 63(9) p. 1228-1230.
  • Lyon, B.G., Berry, B.W., Soderberg, D., Clinch, Nelson. Visual color and doneness indicators and the incidence of premature brown color in beef patties cooked to four end-point temperatures. Journal of Food Protection. 2000. v. 63(10). p.1389-1398.
  • Lyon, B.G., Lyon, C.E. Poultry Meat Processing. Sams, A.R., editor. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. Chapter 7. 2000. p. 97-120. Meat processing: Sensory and instrumental evaluations.
  • Lyon, B.G., Davis, C.E., Windham, W.R., Lyon, C.E. Acid phosphatase activity and color changes in consumer-style griddle cooked ground beef patties. Journal of Food Protection. 2001. v.64(8). p.199-1205.
  • Berry, B.W., Lyon, B.G., Soderberg, D., Clinch, N. Relationships among chemical, cooking and color properties of beef patties cooked to four internal temperatures. Journal of Muscle Foods. 2001. v.12(3). p. 219-236.
  • Lyon, B.G., Moran, E.T., Lyon, C.E., Savage, E.M. Effects of post-mortem deboning time and L-value classification of raw fillets on color and texture characteristics of cooked broiler breast meat. Poultry Science 2001. v. 80 (Suppl.1): Abstract p. 300.
  • Zenere, A., Huang, Y.W., McWatters, K.H., Lyon, B.G. Development of a new chip product using defatted peanut flour. Institute of Food Technologists (IFT). 2001. Abstract 44F-20.


Progress 10/01/99 to 09/30/00

Outputs
1. What major problem or issue is being resolved and how are you resolving it? Food quality characteristics are driven by inherent properties of the raw material (i.e. genetics) or by imposed conditions (processing and handling). Work of this CRIS is directed toward optimizing quality characteristics through production or processing first by defining end-use quality criteria by sensory analysis and then by interfacing with the chemical and physical properties of foods or food components to determine the relationships. Correlations of sensory descriptive profile analysis with instrumental evaluations, and further development of models of these relationships, will allow the selection of appropriate interpretations of instrumental measurements. Further, the relationships will permit more accurate evaluation of the efficacy of treatments to achieve the optimum quality improvement. Current problems under investigation include: 1) relationships of sensory and instrumental parameters to predict texture, juiciness, color quality of muscle foods; 2) determine effects of lighting conditions and other factors that influence visual perception of doneness in ground beef patties; 3) determine relationships between sensory and instrumental texture parameters of selected grains/grain products, such as bread; 4) profile the sensory characteristics of abundant, but underutilized, dark poultry meat (thigh, drum) to target new end-use products. 2. How serious is the problem? Why does it matter? Sensory-instrumental texture of muscle foods: Texture is the most important quality attribute that translates to consumer acceptance of cooked meat. Instruments measure some physical or chemical characteristics of products. Interpretation of physical/mechanical properties of materials must be validated by the human (sensory) evaluation of texture. Better instrumental methods are needed that are based on sound sensory information to explain what texture perception is. Simple shear tests that cut across fibers are not adequate. This work is important to the muscle foods industry, especially poultry and red meats. The majority of poultry is now processed and then further prepared at the plant for distribution in a pre-cooked or ready-to-cook stage. However, the processing schemes must incorporate the time, space and chilling energy to allow intact muscle to complete biochemical reactions that ensure tenderness. Optionally, processors must use new methods and treatments that attempt to resolve tough texture problems. Poultry and meat processors need better methods to predict tenderness. Underutilization of dark meat: There is an abundance of underutilized dark meat. New product forms are needed that meet consumer acceptance and that can add to the economic base of the poultry industry. Premature browning of burgers: Cooking ground beef patties to internal temperatures of 160F destroys the pathogen, E. Coli 0157:H7, which can cause severe illness and even death. At this temperature, color pigments usually have not fully heat-denatured to turn brown. Appearance of pink presents a visual cue that additional heating is needed. However, in some situations, ground beef patties may appear brown at temperatures less than the safe temperature of 160F. Studies to provide supporting scientific information, such as effects of lighting conditions on visual cues of doneness, are needed to find causes of early browning. This will allow FSIS, which has the responsibility to provide advice on safe handling techniques and cooking of meat products to consumers, to provide sound advice. Not only must the work serve to protect the consumers, it must be appropriate to avoid undermining consumer confidence in American food industries. 3. How does it relate to the National Program(s) and National Component(s)? This research relates physical/instrumental quality properties and characteristics to the final evaluator - the human sensory tester. Results support National Program 306 - New Uses, Quality and Marketability of Animal and Plant Products - by determining the sensory properties of food or food components from animal or plant origin that relate to ultimate end-use quality. The U.S. agricultural food industries need to provide high-quality, marketable products to maintain economic viability and compatibility in domestic and global markets. 4. What were the most significant accomplishments this past year? A. Single Most Significant Accomplishment during FY 2000 year: Heavy breeder hens are abundant but suffer from lack of market outlets due to toughness. Electrical stimulation of early harvested breast muscle, which has been shown to improve tenderness of broiler breast meat, was applied to heavy hens. Improvements in tenderization were achieved. Better processes to improve texture quality of breeder hens will lead to alternate product types as market outlets for this protein source. B. Other Significant Accomplishment(s), if any: None C. Significant Accomplishments/Activities that Support Special Target Populations: None D. Progress Report: In order to study the effects of processing on color problems in broilers, color (L, a, b) of boneless breast meat, deboned early (4-6 hr) and late (24 hr), was measured at each stage on frozen, thawed, and cooked samples. Differences in samples classified by L-values (lightness) were more evident in early deboned samples than in late deboned samples. Early deboned, higher L-values (lighter) had higher shear values and redder cooked liquid than early deboned, lower L-value samples. The causes of these differences and relationships to eating quality are being analyzed. 5. Describe the major accomplishments over the life of the project including their predicted or actual impact. The project is new and is making progress. 6. What do you expect to accomplish, year by year, over the next 3 years? During FY2001, work on understanding tenderness will expand to other muscle foods (beef)and will include new scientific knowledge on how the human tester (consumer) arrives at a sensory response to tenderness by using new temporal sensory methods. More specific definitions of tenderness-toughness and the influence of juiciness will be related to muscle type and processing parameters. During FY2002, develop strategies for instrumental methods to interface with sensory assessments to measure or predict eating quality. During FY2003, test new strategies for instrumental and sensory assessments to predict quality. 7. What science and/or technologies have been transferred and to whom? When is the science and/or technology likely to become available to the end user (industry, farmer, other scientists)? What are the constraints if known, to the adoption & durability of the technology product? Photos that illustrated the problems associated with using visual color cues as indicators of properly cooked ground beef patties were transferred to FSIS to use in educational materials to educate consumers and to launch the USDA-FSIS "Thermy" summer cooking campaign with the message to use a thermometer to assure safe cooking (minimum 160F) of ground beef patties. A minimum temperature of 160F assures destruction of the pathogen E. coli 0157:H7. The web-site presentation (Lyon et al., http:qaru.ars.usda.gov ), with additional ground beef patty photos viewed under different lighting conditions, has been linked to the FSIS website educational materials and has received many 'hits.' This format presents a new avenue to transfer technology to the end-user. The sensory scale for ranges of tenderness in poultry that equates to 4 different instrumental tests will continue to be used by industry as an in-house QC tool to accurately profile breast meat texture. 8. List your most important publications in the popular press (no abstracts) and presentations to non-scientific organizations and articles written about your work (NOTE: this does not replace your peer-reviewed publications which are listed below)

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications

  • Senter, S.D., Young, L.L., Lyon, B.G., Lyon, C.E. Evaluation of animal age and muscle type on beef log juice color and residual GOT activity when cooked to target end-point temperature of 79.4 C. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. January 1999. v.79. p.1507-1512.
  • Parks, S.S., Lyon, B.G., Wicker, L. Development of prototypes and descriptive terms of fruit sauce complements for poultry products. Journal of Food Quality. February 2000. v.23(2). p.123-136.
  • Lyon, B.G., Champagne, E.T., Vinyard, B.T., Windham, W.R. Sensory and instrumental relationships of texture of cooked rice from selected varieties and post-harvest handling practices. Cereal Chemistry. January 2000. v.77(1). p.64-69.