Source: AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE submitted to
IMPROVING THE NUTRIENT AND PHYTONUTRIENT STATUS OF OATS AND BARLEY
Sponsoring Institution
Agricultural Research Service/USDA
Project Status
TERMINATED
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
0402445
Grant No.
(N/A)
Project No.
3655-21000-031-00D
Proposal No.
(N/A)
Multistate No.
(N/A)
Program Code
(N/A)
Project Start Date
Mar 29, 1999
Project End Date
Mar 28, 2004
Grant Year
(N/A)
Project Director
PETERSON D M
Recipient Organization
AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE
501 WALNUT STREET
MADISON,WI 53726
Performing Department
(N/A)
Non Technical Summary
(N/A)
Animal Health Component
35%
Research Effort Categories
Basic
65%
Applied
35%
Developmental
0%
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
2031550102010%
2031560102040%
7011550102010%
7011560102040%
Goals / Objectives
Discover, identify, and isolate biologically active phytochemicals from oat and barley grain. Examine qualitative and quantitative variation among germplasm and growing environments. Determine effects of processing and storage on their contents and activities. Determine rate-limiting mechanisms of synthesis. Develop improved analytical methods and bioassays for bioavailability and efficacy. Investigate the feasibility of improving barley and oat phytochemicals through plant breeding and biotechnology.
Project Methods
1) Barley and oats from National Small Grains Collections are analyzed for protein and oil by near infrared transmittance. 2) Oat and barley samples from elite lines and lines derived from crosses between highand low-betaglucan parents are analyzed for beta-glucan concentration by flow injection analysis. 3) Phenolic compounds in oat and barley extracts will be identified, separated and quantified by HPLC. 4) In vitro antioxidant activity of specific fractions and compounds will be measured. 5) The effects of variables such as physical fractionation, genotype, environment, and processing on concentrations of the most important phenolics and antioxidant activities will be investigated. 6) Bioavailability and efficacy of purified phytochemicals will be assessed by feeding trials in model animals. 7) Putative rate-limiting enzymes for synthesis of phytochemicals determined to be physiologically important will be purified and characterized. 8) More efficient methods of measurement will be devised where possible.

Progress 03/29/99 to 03/28/04

Outputs
1. What major problem or issue is being resolved and how are you resolving it (summarize project aims and objectives)? How serious is the problem? What does it matter? The problem to be solved is to enhance oat and barley for improved quality traits that will increase the value of these grains in the marketplace and provide more health promoting products for the consumer. It is being resolved by: 1) measuring the antioxidant activities and concentrations of antioxidant compounds in samples of these grains, their fractions, and products, and by determining how the concentrations of these antioxidants might be increased by genetics, crop management, and by processing; 2) cloning and characterizing the final enzyme (or isozymes) in the avenanthramide biosynthetic pathway and evaluating genetic, biotic and abiotic factors regulating the content, biosynthesis and metabolic profile of avenanthramides (antioxidants found uniquely in oat); 3) investigating the metabolic fate of avenanthramides (and related antioxidants) using suspension cultures and whole plants; 4) evaluating various cultivars and wild species of oat and barley for the presence of novel phytochemicals or markedly high expression levels of known phytochemicals; 5) screening the National Small Grains Collections (oat and barley) for contents of protein, oil, and beta-glucan, and making the data available for plant breeders through the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN) database. How serious is the problem? Why does it matter? Consumers are becoming more conscious of the nutritional value of food products and are seeking foods that are rich in antioxidants and fiber. It is important to provide new choices for them. The grain milling industries are looking for new data on the nutritional benefits of their products to enhance their markets. Oat production has decreased considerably from former levels, being displaced by crops that bring a greater return to the farmer. Barley is mostly used for malting and animal feed. The development of new or improved food products from these grains might add value and make their production more profitable. This would give farmers a greater diversity of options for their cropping systems. 2. List the milestones (indicators of progress) from your Project Plan. Objective 1: Based on current capacity for sample analysis with existing resources (~6000 samples/year), data on protein, beta-glucan, and oil for the National Small Grains Collections should essentially be completed by the termination of this project. There will be a gap in oil data for barley, because we were not analyzing for that constituent in barley early in the project. A determination will be made as to whether it is important to go back and reanalyze these entries. The outcome will be a relatively complete characterization of the Oat and Barley Collections for protein, oil and beta-glucan content, and the data will be available for use by interested oat and barley breeders and other researchers. Objective 2: The outcomes will be oat genotypes with high beta-glucan concentrations that have agronomic characteristics of yield, disease resistance, etc. that are approaching those of the best currently grown cultivars. For barley, high beta-glucan concentrations will be incorporated into hulless and winter types, and these will be developed towards release as cultivars. Objective 3: Phase 1 [identify and quantify the phenolic compounds that potentially contribute to antioxidant activity of oat and barley extracts] will be completed the first year, phase 2 [investigate variables, such as physical fractionation, genotype, environment, etc. that affect the concentrations of the most important phenolics] by the third year, and phase 3 [measure concentrations of antioxidant phenolics in processed oats and barley to determine how grain processing affects their concentrations and antioxidant activities] by the end of the fifth year. The outcomes will be knowledge about the range of phenolic antioxidants concentrations within germplasm pools of barley and oats. We will know which compounds have the greatest antioxidant activity in vitro. We will have information about fractionation or other processing to concentrate the antioxidant compounds. Objective 4: An outcome might be development of an optimum malting protocol for oat that could lead to a useful malted oat product. Further characteristics of high-oil oats might be discovered that may lead to a demand for them. Likewise, barleys with higher oil content than normal will be characterized. This work will proceed simultaneously along with the major emphasis (Objective 3) for the duration of the project. 3. Milestones: A. List the milestones that were scheduled to be addressed in FY2004. How many milestones did you fully or substantially meet in FY2004, and indicate which ones were not fully or substantially met, briefly explain why not, and your plans to do so. The milestones that were scheduled to be met in FY2004 include Objective 1: During FY2004, 1772 barley samples from the NSGC were analyzed for protein and beta-glucan, which brings the total to 15, 835 or 63% of the entire barley collection. Of these, 10,692 have also been analyzed for oil. Progress has slowed due to other priorities for resources, but we are continuing with the barley analyses as samples are received. Oat samples have not been analyzed for several years, reflecting a higher priority for barley data. Since the project began, 5, 382 oat samples have been analyzed, 53% of the entire collection. Objective 2: Oat samples received from the ARS collaborator in Aberdeen, ID totaled 1718 this year. These were analyzed for protein, beta-glucan and oil and data were returned to the collaborator. Many of these samples are breeding lines that are being evaluated for developing superior oat cultivars, some for specialized uses such as high-protein, high-oil hulless oat for aquaculture and high-beta-glucan oat for human food. Objective 3: A significant study of the relationships among agronomic and quality traits (including antioxidants) was completed and is in the process of being published. Another study to observe the effects of wide environments on avenanthramide concentrations in adapted and unadapted oat genotypes was completed, and data are being analyzed. Objective 4: There was no activity on this objective in FY2004. Previously, experiments showed that malted oats accumulated an elevated percentage of free fatty acids, a result which was judged to be detrimental to the development of food ingredients containing malted oats, due to rancidity issues. For that reason, and lack of industry interest, this objective was not pursued further. B. List the milestones that you expect to address over the next 3 years (FY2005, 2006 and 2007). What do you expect to accomplish, year by year, over the next 3 years under each milestone? The new research project plan developed was certified by the Office of Scientific Quality Review on 5/31/04 as having completed NP 302 Ad Hoc - Fall 2003 Plant Biological and Molecular Processes Review. Future milestones for each objective from the new project plan will be listed in the Report of Progress (AD-421) for the replacement project, 3655-21000- 040-00D, entitled "Metabolism and Analysis of Cereal Phytochemicals." 4. What were the most significant accomplishments this past year? A. Single most significant accomplishment during FY 2004: We analyzed approximately 1800 barleys from the National Small Grains Collections for protein, oil, and beta-glucan concentrations, and the data were entered into the GRIN database. Numerous oat and barley samples from collaborating researchers were analyzed for protein, oil, avenanthramides, and/or tocols. B. Other significant accomplishment(s), if any: none. C. Significant activities that support special target populations: none. 5. Describe the major accomplishments over the life of the project, including their predicted or actual impact. Physical fractions of oat were assayed to determine which ones contained the best antioxidant activity, in preparation for future animal physiological studies. USDA-ARS scientists at Madison, WI measured the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity by an in vitro beta- carotene bleaching assay in extracts of a number of pearlings, bran, and flour fractions. Highest activities and phenolic concentrations were found in the pearlings fractions, and the in vitro activity test was correlated with Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity and Low Density Lipoprotein Oxidation tests done by collaborators at the USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University. The data indicated the fractions with highest activities that could be prepared for subsequent nutritional studies to investigate the effects of dietary oat phytochemicals. The three major avenanthramides that are found in oat were synthesized and tested using two in vitro antioxidant assays. We found that all three had antioxidant activity, but the one called 2c was the most potent. As a result, 2c [N-(3',4'-dihydroxy)-(E)-cinnamoyl- 5-hydroxyanthranilic acid] was selected for animal testing. Genotype and environment effects on oat phytochemicals and their relationship to agronomic traits and physical kernel traits were determined. Plant breeders need to know how various traits are related or vary independently, in order to most efficiently produce new, superior cultivars. Thirty-three genotypes were grown in nine environments, and the data analyzed by multivariate statistical analysis. The results showed that some traits were influenced mostly by year, and others by location. Some were stable across environments, where others performed better in some environments than in others. Rats fed avenanthramide 2c showed some resistance to stress-induced oxidation in certain tissues, but not in others. We have characterized a good portion of the National Small Grains Collections (oat and barley) for protein, beta-glucan, and oil. These data are used by plant breeders breeding for specific levels of these components. 6. What science and/or technologies have been transferred and to whom? When is the science and/or technology likely to become available to the end- user (industry, farmer, other scientists)? What are the constraints, if known, to the adoption and durability of the technology products? Data on beta-glucan, protein, and oil concentrations of barley genotypes were entered into the GRIN database where they can be accessed by plant breeders to assist them in selecting lines for making crosses to improve quality traits in new cultivars.

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications

  • Ji, L., Lay, D., Chung, E., Fu, Y., Peterson, D.M. 2003. Effects of avenanthramides on oxidant generation and antioxidant enzyme activity in exercised rats. Nutrition Research. 23:1579-1590.


Progress 10/01/02 to 09/30/03

Outputs
1. What major problem or issue is being resolved and how are you resolving it? The problem to be solved is to enhance oat and barley for improved quality traits that will increase the value of these grains in the marketplace and provide more health promoting products for the consumer. It is being resolved by: 1) measuring the antioxidant activities and concentrations of antioxidant compounds in samples of these grains, their fractions, and products, and by determining how the concentrations of these antioxidants might be increased by genetics, crop management, and by processing; 2) cloning and characterizing the final enzyme (or isozymes) in the avenanthramide biosynthetic pathway and evaluating genetic, biotic and abiotic factors regulating the content, biosynthesis and metabolic profile of avenanthramides (antioxidants found uniquely in oat); 3) investigating the metabolic fate of avenanthramides (and related antioxidants) using suspension cultures and whole plants; 4) evaluating various cultivars and wild species of oat and barley for the presence of novel phytochemicals or markedly high expression levels of known phytochemicals; 5) screening the National Small Grains Collections (oat and barley) for contents of protein, oil, and beta-glucan, and making the data available for plant breeders through the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN) database. 2. How serious is the problem? Why does it matter? Consumers are becoming more conscious of the nutritional value of food products and are seeking foods that are rich in antioxidants and fiber. It is important to provide new choices for them. The grain milling industries are looking for new data on the nutritional benefits of their products to enhance their markets. Oat production has decreased considerably from former levels, being displaced by crops that bring a greater return to the farmer. Barley is mostly used for malting and animal feed. The development of new or improved food products from these grains might add value and make their production more profitable. This would give farmers a greater diversity of options for their cropping systems. 3. How does it relate to the National Program(s) and National Program Component(s) to which it has been assigned? National Program 302, Plant Biological and Molecular Processes (60%). Research will provide information on metabolic processes that may lead to increased diversity of products from oat and barley and to improved product quality. Research will lead to the development of new crop products. Methods of measuring quality of barley, oat, and their products will be developed or improved. National Program 306, Quality and Utilization of Agricultural Products (40%). This research will result in new uses of barley and oat and their milling and brewing by-products. Innovative processes will be created for the extraction and purification of new high-value products from these grains and their by-products. These grains and their by-products will be examined as possible sources of phytonutrients. The research will create technology leading to an expanded, diverse range of value-added food products from the grains and their undervalued by-products. We are collaborating with Li Li Ji, University of Wisconsin to identify effects of oat phytochemicals on stress metabolism in rats, and with Moshen Meydani, Tufts University to evaluate oat phytochemicals for indices of atherosclerosis and vascular inflammation in cell cultures. We are collaborating with several plant breeders and geneticists to evaluate their breeding lines for content of important phytochemicals. 4. What were the most significant accomplishments this past year? A. Single most significant accomplishment during FY 2003: We wanted to establish the genotype and environment effects and their interaction on contents of several phytochemicals in oat and their interrelationships with agronomic traits. Thirty-three oat genotypes were grown in nine environments in Idaho, and agronomic and quality traits were evaluated by the USDA-ARS Small Grain and Potato Germplasm Research Unit, Aberdeen ID and the USDA-ARS Cereal Crops Research Unit, Madison WI and analyzed statistically by multivariate analysis. Results showed that some traits were closely related, some were more affected by growing location, and others more influenced by year. Results will assist breeders in developing new cultivars with superior agronomic and quality traits. B. Other significant accomplishment(s), if any: none. C. Significant activities that support special target populations: none. D. Progress Report: The enzyme, hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:hydroxyanthranilate N-hydroxycinnamoyl transferase(HHT), which catalyzes the final step in avenanthramide synthesis, was shown to be induced by elicitors in an oat tissue culture system. Complementary DNA (cDNA) libraries from elicited and non- elicited tissues have been prepared. We analyzed approximately 1800 barleys from the National Small Grains Collections for protein, oil, and beta-glucan concentrations, and the data were entered into the GRIN database. Numerous oat and barley samples from collaborating researchers were analyzed for protein, oil, avenanthramides, and/or tocols. 5. Describe the major accomplishments over the life of the project, including their predicted or actual impact. Physical fractions of oat were assayed to determine which ones contained the best antioxidant activity, in preparation for future animal physiological studies. USDA-ARS scientists at Madison, WI measured the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity by an in vitro beta- carotene bleaching assay in extracts of a number of pearlings, bran, and flour fractions. Highest activities and phenolic concentrations were found in the pearlings fractions, and the in vitro activity test was correlated with Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity and Low Density Lipoprotein Oxidation tests done by collaborators at the USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University. The data indicated the fractions with highest activities that could be prepared for subsequent nutritional studies to investigate the effects of dietary oat phytochemicals. The three major avenanthramides that are found in oat were synthesized and tested using two in vitro antioxidant assays. We found that all three had antioxidant activity, but the one called Bc was the most potent. As a result, Bc [N-(3',4'-dihydroxy)-(E)-cinnamoyl-5- hydroxyanthranilic acid] was selected for animal testing. We have characterized a good portion of the National Small Grains Collections (oat and barley) for protein, beta-glucan, and oil. These data are used by plant breeders breeding for specific levels of these components. We found significant environmental and genetic effects of avenanthramide concentrations in oat. 6. What do you expect to accomplish, year by year, over the next 3 years? In FY04, we will clone the gene for HHT and purify the native enzyme. Oat phytochemicals will be evaluated in tissue culture and model animal systems. In FY05, we will do subtractive cloning and isolation of other enzymes in the phenylpropanoid pathway. Evaluation of cultivars and wild species for novel phytochemicals will be initiated. In FY06, study of enzymes in the phenylpropanoid pathway will be continued, and follow up on the identification of novel phytochemicals will proceed. Screening the National Oat and Barley Collections for protein, oil, and beta-glucan will continue during the next fiscal years until completed. 7. What science and/or technologies have been transferred and to whom? When is the science and/or technology likely to become available to the end- user (industry, farmer, other scientists)? What are the constraints, if known, to the adoption and durability of the technology products? Data on beta-glucan, protein, and oil concentrations of barley genotypes were entered into the GRIN database where they can be accessed by plant breeders to assist them in selecting lines for making crosses to improve quality traits in new cultivars.

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications

  • Peterson, D.M., Hahn, M.J., Emmons, C.L. Oat avenanthramides exhibit antioxidant activities in vitro. Food Chemistry. 2002. v. 79. p. 473-478.


Progress 10/01/01 to 09/30/02

Outputs
1. What major problem or issue is being resolved and how are you resolving it? The problem to be solved is to enhance oats and barley for improved quality traits that will increase the value of these grains in the marketplace and provide more health promoting products for the consumer. It is being resolved in three ways. 1) We are measuring the antioxidant activities and concentrations of antioxidant compounds in samples of these grains, their fractions, and products, and we will determine how the concentrations of these antioxidants might be increased by genetics, crop management, and by processing. 2) We are collaborating with other scientists to map the location of genes on oat chromosomes that are associated with quality traits. 3) We are screening the National Small Grains Collections (oats and barley) for contents of protein, oil, and beta-glucan, and the data are made available for plant breeders through the GRIN database. 2. How serious is the problem? Why does it matter? Consumers are becoming more conscious of the nutritional value of food products and are seeking foods that are rich in antioxidants and fiber. It is important to provide new choices for them. The grain milling industries are looking for new data on the nutritional benefits of their products to enhance their markets. Oat production has decreased considerably from former levels, being displaced by crops that bring a greater return to the farmer. Barley is mostly used for malting and animal feed. The development of new or improved food products from these grains might add value and make their production more profitable. This would give farmers a greater diversity of options for their cropping systems. 3. How does it relate to the national Program(s) and National Program Component(s) to which it has been assigned? National Program 306, New Uses, Quality, and Marketability of Plant Products (60%). This research will result in new uses of barley and oats and their milling and brewing by-products. Innovative processes will be created for the extraction and purification of new high-value products from these grains and their by-products. These grains and their by- products will be examined as possible sources of phytonutrients. The research will create technology leading to an expanded, diverse range of value-added food products from the grains and their undervalued by- products. National Program 302, Improving Plant Biological and Molecular Processes (40%). Research will provide information on metabolic processes that may lead to increased diversity of products from oats and barley and to improved product quality. Research will lead to the development of new crop products. Methods of measuring quality of barley, oats, and their products will be developed or improved. 4. What was your most significant accomplishment this past year? A. Single Most Significant Accomplishment during FY2002: We wanted to determine the antioxidant activities of the three major avenanthramides that are found in oats. Each of these was synthesized and tested using two in vitro antioxidant assays. We found that all three had antioxidant activity, but the one called Bc was the most potent. As a result, Bc was selected for animal testing. B. Other Significant Accomplishment(s), if any: none. C. Significant Accomplishments/Activities that Support Special Target Populations: none. D. Progress Report: We analyzed 2665 barleys from the National Small Grains Collections for protein, oil, and beta-glucan concentrations, and the data were entered into the GRIN database. We have analyzed 80 oat genotypes from three environments in Idaho for several quality characteristics: protein, oil, beta-glucan, avenanthramides and tocols. These data, and corresponding agronomic data, will be statistically analyzed using multivariate techniques to determine relationships. Recombinant inbred lines from a cross between Ogle and TAMO-301 were analyzed for protein, oil, and tocols to locate QTL on the oat chromosome map. Scientists at the Small Grain and Potato Germplasm Research Unit, Aberdeen ID are collaborating on each of these projects. An enzyme assay procedure for the HHT enzyme, which forms avenanthramides, has been adapted. 5. Describe your major accomplishments over the life of the project, including their predicted or actual impact? Physical fractions of oats were assayed to determine which ones contained the best antioxidant activity, in preparation for future animal physiological studies. ARS scientists at Madison, WI measured the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity by an in vitro beta-carotene bleaching assay in extracts of a number of pearlings, bran, and flour fractions. Highest activities and phenolic concentrations were found in the pearlings fractions, and the in vitro activity test was correlated with Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity and Low Density Lipoprotein Oxidation tests done by collaborators at the USDA Human Nutrition Center on Aging at Tufts University. The data indicated the fractions with highest activities that should be prepared for subsequent rat feeding studies to investigate the effects of dietary antioxidants on stress metabolism. We have characterized a good portion of the National Small Grains Collections (oats and barley) for protein, beta-glucan, and oil. These data are used by plant breeders breeding for specific levels of these components. We found significant environmental and genetic effects on avenanthramide concentrations in oats. 6. What do you expect to accomplish, year by year, over the next 3 years? In FY03, we will complete experiments about the relationships, if any, between avenanthramide concentrations in oat leaves or grain and crown rust resistance or infection. In FY04, the regulation of avenanthramide synthesis will be studied. In FY05, tissue cultures will be evaluated as a system to study the synthesis of specific nutritional components of oats. Screening the National Oat and Barley Collections for protein, oil, and beta-glucan will continue during the next fiscal years until completed. 7. What technologies have been transferred and to whom? When is the technology likely to become available to the end user (industry, farmer other scientist)? What are the constraints, if known, to the adoption durability of the technology? Data on beta-glucan, protein, and oil concentrations of barley genotypes were entered into the GRIN database where they can be accessed by plant breeders to assist them in selecting lines for making crosses to improve quality traits in new cultivars. 8. List your most important publications and presentations, and articles written about your work (NOTE: this does not replace your review publications which are listed below) Peterson, D.M. Oat lipids: composition, separation and applications. Lipid Technology. May 2002. v. 14(3). p. 56-59. Peterson, D.M., Dimberg, L.H., Bryngelsson, S., Ishihara, A., Herrin, L. L. Avenanthramides in grain and leaves of oat cultivars exposed to crown rust. The American Oat Workers Conference. 2002. Abstract p. 7.

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications

  • Peterson, D.M., Budde, A.D., Henson, C.A., Jones, B.L. Detecting corn syrup in barley malt extracts. American Association of Cereal Chemists. 2001. Abstract p. 78.
  • Jung, W., Skadsen, R.W., Peterson, D.M. Characterization of a novel barley beta-amylase gene expressed only during early grain development. Seed Science Research. 2001. v. 11. p. 325-333.
  • Ji, L.L., Lay, D., Chung, E., Fu, Y., Parkin, K., Peterson, D. Effects of avenanthramides on oxidant and antioxidant status in rats. Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology Journal. 2002. v. 16. Abstract p. A981.


Progress 10/01/00 to 09/30/01

Outputs
1. What major problem or issue is being resolved and how are you resolving it? The problem to be solved is to enhance oats and barley for improved quality traits that will increase the value of these grains in the marketplace and provide more health promoting products for the consumer. It is being resolved in three ways. 1) We are measuring the antioxidant activities and concentrations of antioxidant compounds in samples of these grains, their fractions, and products, and we will determine how the concentrations of these antioxidants might be increased by genetics, crop management, and by processing. 2) We are collaborating with other scientists to map the location of genes on oat chromosomes that are associated with quality traits. 3) We are screening the National Small Grains Collections (oats and barley) for contents of protein, oil, and beta-glucan, and the data are made available for plant breeders through the GRIN database. 2. How serious is the problem? Why does it matter? Consumers are becoming more conscious of the nutritional value of food products and are seeking foods that are rich in antioxidants and fiber. It is important to provide new choices for them. The grain milling industries are looking for new data on the nutritional benefits of their products to enhance their markets. Oat production has decreased considerably from former levels, being displaced by crops that bring a greater return to the farmer. Barley is mostly used for malting and animal feed. The development of new or improved food products from these grains might add value and make their production more profitable. This would give farmers a greater diversity of options for their cropping systems. 3. How does it relate to the National Program(s) and National Component(s)? National Program 306, New Uses, Quality, and Marketability of Plant Products (60%). This research will result in new uses of barley and oats and their milling and brewing by-products. Innovative processes will be created for the extraction and purification of new high-value products from these grains and their by-products. These grains and their by-products will be examined as possible sources of phytonutrients. The research will create technology leading to an expanded, diverse range of value-added food products from the grains and their undervalued by-products. National Program 302, Improving Plant Biological and Molecular Processes (40%). Research will provide information on metabolic processes that may lead to increased diversity of products from oats and barley and to improved product quality. Research will lead to the development of new crop products. Methods of measuring quality of barley, oats, and their products will be developed or improved. 4. What were the most significant accomplishments this past year? A. Single Most Significant Accomplishment during FY2001: We wanted to establish the influence of genetics and growing environment on some of the antioxidant compounds in oats. Three cultivars were grown at seven locations in Wisconsin in replicated nursery plots, and the harvested grain was ground, extracted and analyzed for phenolic antioxidant compounds. We found significant cultivar and location differences, especially for the avenanthramides which are unique to oats. The results indicate that plant breeding could improve the concentrations of antioxidants in oats, but environment also plays a significant role. B. Other Significant Accomplishment(s), if any. We wanted to determine methods to detect the presence of corn syrup, a relatively cheap sweetener, in barley malt extract. Two- and 6-rowed barleys were malted, and the malt extracts were compared to corn syrups by stable carbon isotope ratio analysis (SCIRA), protein concentrations, and carbohydrate profiles. SCIRA provided the most definitive differences between the malt extracts and corn syrups, but the other two methods also worked. These methods will make it difficult to adulterate the malt extract product and get away with it. C. Significant Accomplishments/Activities that Support Special Target Populations. Nothing to report. D. Progress Report Screening National Oat and Barley Collections. We continue to screen entries from the National Small Grains Collections, in cooperation with ARS in Aberdeen, ID, for protein, oil, and beta-glucan concentrations, and the data are entered into the GRIN database. 5. Describe the major accomplishments over the life of the project including their predicted or actual impact. Physical fractions of oats were assayed to determine which ones contained the best antioxidant activity, in preparation for future animal physiological studies. ARS scientists at Madison, WI measured the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity by an in vitro beta-carotene bleaching assay in extracts of a number of pearlings, bran, and flour fractions. Highest activities and phenolic concentrations were found in the pearlings fractions, and the in vitro activity test was correlated with Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity and Low Density Lipoprotein Oxidation tests done by collaborators at the USDA Human Nutrition Center on Aging at Tufts University. The data indicated the fractions with highest activities that should be prepared for subsequent rat feeding studies to investigate the effects of dietary antioxidants on stress metabolism. We have characterized a good portion of the National Small Grains Collections (oats and barley) for protein, beta-glucan, and oil. These data are used by plant breeders breeding for specific levels of these components. 6. What do you expect to accomplish, year by year, over the next 3 years? In FY02, we expect to complete the analysis for phenolic concentration and antioxidant activities of several barleys and barley products. A determination will be made of the specific compounds that contribute to antioxidant activity, and work will be initiated to select genotypes that maximize the most favorable combination of antioxidant compounds. In FY03, experiments will be initiated with collaborators to determine the bioavailability of selected antioxidant components of oats and barley. Effects of oat antioxidants on cancer cell growth will be assessed. In FY04, work will be initiated on control mechanisms of avenanthramide synthesis and accumulation in oats. Screening the National Oat and Barley Collections for protein, oil, and beta-glucan will continue during the next fiscal years until completed. 7. What science and/or technologies have been transferred and to whom? When is the science and/or technology likely to become available to the end user (industry, farmer, other scientists)? What are the constraints if known, to the adoption & durability of the technology product? Data on beta-glucan, protein, and oil concentrations of barley and oat genotypes were entered into the GRIN database where they can be accessed by plant breeders to assist them in selecting lines for making crosses to improve quality traits in new cultivars. 8. List your most important publications in the popular press (no abstracts) and presentations to non-scientific organizations and articles written about your work (NOTE: this does not replace your peer-reviewed publications which are listed below)

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications

  • Qureshi, A.A., Mo, H.B., Packer, L., Peterson, D.M. Isolation and identification of novel tocotrienols from rice bran with hypocholesterolemic, antioxidant, and antitumor properties. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2000. v. 48. p. 3130-3140.
  • Peterson, D.M., Emmons, C.L., Hibbs, A.H. Phenolic antioxidants and antioxidant activity in pearling fractions of oat groats. Journal of Cereal Science. 2001. v. 33. p. 97-103.
  • Qureshi, A.A., Peterson, D.M., Hasler-Rapacz, J.O., Rapacz, J. Novel tocotrienols of rice bran suppress cholesterogenesis in hereditary hypercholesterolemic swine. Journal of Nutrition. 2001. v. 131. p. 223-230.
  • Peterson, D.M., Budde, A.D., Henson, C.A., Jones, B.L. Detecting corn syrup in barley malt extracts. Cereal Chemistry. 2001. v. 78. p. 349-353.
  • Peterson, D.M. Oat antioxidants. Journal of Cereal Science. 2001. v. 33. p. 115-129.
  • Peterson, D.M., Hannah, C.L., Hitz, W.D., Kinney, A.J., Meredith, W.R. Jr., Smith, M.A.L., White, P.J. Genetic potential. Murphy, C.F., Peterson, D.M., editors. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, WI. Designing Crops for Added Value. 2000. p. 147-149.
  • Peterson, D.M. Protein. Murphy, C.F., Peterson, D.M., editors. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, WI. Designing Crops for Added Value. 2000. p. 151-166.
  • Peterson, D.M., Murphy, J.P. Oat. Kiple, K.F., Ornelas, K.C., editors. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. The Cambridge World History of Food. v. 1. p. 121-132.
  • Qureshi, A.A., Peterson, D.M. The combined effects of novel tocotrienols and lovastatin on lipid metabolism in chickens. Antherosclerosis. 2001. v. 156. p. 39-47.


Progress 10/01/99 to 09/30/00

Outputs
1. What major problem or issue is being resolved and how are you resolving it? The problem to be solved is to enhance oats and barley for improved quality traits that will increase the value of these grains in the marketplace and provide more health promoting products for the consumer. It is being resolved in three ways. 1) We are measuring the antioxidant activities and concentrations of antioxidant compounds in samples of these grains, their fractions, and products, and we will determine how the concentrations of these antioxidants might be increased by genetics and by processing. 2) We are collaborating with other scientists to map the location of genes on oat chromosomes that are associated with quality traits. 3) We are screening the National Small Grains Collections (oats and barley) for contents of protein, oil, and beta-glucan, and the data are made available for plant breeders through the GRIN database. 2. How serious is the problem? Why does it matter? Consumers are becoming more conscious of the nutritional value of food products, and they are seeking foods that are rich in antioxidants and fiber. It is important to provide new choices for them. The grain milling industries are looking for new data on the nutritional benefits of their products to enhance their markets. Oat production has decreased considerably from former levels, being displaced by crops that bring a greater return to the farmer. Barley is mostly used for malting and animal feed. The development of new or improved food products from these grains might add value and make their production more profitable. This would give farmers a greater diversity of options for their cropping systems. 3. How does it relate to the National Program(s) and National Component(s)? National program 306, New Uses, Quality, and Marketability of Plant Products (60%). This research will result in new uses of barley and oats and their milling and brewing by-products. Innovative processes will be created for the extraction and purification of new high-value products from these grains and their by-products. These grains and their by-products will be examined as possible sources of phytonutrients. The research will create technology leading to an expanded, diverse range of value-added food products from the grains and their undervalued by-products. National program 302, Improving Plant Biological and Molecular Processes (40%). Research will provide information on metabolic processes that may lead to increased diversity of products from oats and barley and to improved product quality. Research will lead to the development of new crop products. Methods of measuring quality of barley, oats, and their products will be developed or improved. 4. What were the most significant accomplishments this past year? A. Single Most Significant Accomplishment During FY 2000 Year: We wanted to find out if antioxidants could be concentrated from oats by pearling (removing the outer layers of the kernel by abrasion). Fractions, that were obtained by pearling oat groats for various times by collaborators at the Quaker Oats Co., were analyzed for antioxidant activity and the contents of several antioxidant compounds. Antioxidant activity and contents of simple phenolic compounds were highest in the fractions obtained with the least pearling times; concentrations of the avenanthramides, potent antioxidants unique to oats, were unrelated to pearling time, but higher in the pearling fractions than in whole oat groats. These results demonstrate the feasibility of dry milling to produce a product or ingredient that is enriched in health-promoting antioxidants. B. Other Significant Accomplishments(s) if any: Nothing to Report. 5. Describe the major accomplishments over the life of the project including their predicted or actual impact. Physical fractions of oats were assayed to determine which ones contained the best antioxidant activity, in preparation for future animal physiological studies. ARS scientists at Madison, WI measured the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity by an in vitro beta-carotene bleaching assay in extracts of a number of pearlings, bran, and flour fractions. Highest activities and phenolic concentrations were found in the pearlings fractions, and the in vitro activity test was correlated with Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity and Low Density Lipoprotein Oxidation tests done by collaborators at the USDA Human Nutrition Center on Aging at Tufts University. The data indicated the fractions with highest activities that should be prepared for subsequent rat feeding studies to investigate the effects of dietary antioxidants on stress metabolism. We have characterized a good portion of the National Small Grains Collections (oats and barley) for protein, beta-glucan, and oil. These data are used by plant breeders breeding for specific levels of these components. 6. What do you expect to accomplish, year by year, over the next 3 years? In FY 01, we expect to learn the chromosomal location of oat genes that are associated with the concentrations of oil, tocols, and phenolic compounds. The phenolic concentrations and antioxidant activities of several barleys and barley products will be measured. In FY 02, a determination will be made of the specific compounds that contribute to antioxidant activity, and work will be initiated to select genotypes that maximize the most favorable combination of antioxidant compounds. In FY 03, experiments will be initiated with collaborators to determine the bioavailability of selected antioxidant components of oats and barley. Screening the National Oat and Barley Collections for protein, oil, and beta-glucan will continue during the next fiscal years until completed. 7. What science and/or technologies have been transferred and to whom? When is the science and/or technology likely to become available to the end user (industry, farmer, other scientists)? What are the constraints if known, to the adoption & durability of the technology product? Data on beta-glucan, protein, and oil concentrations of barley and oat genotypes were entered into the GRIN database, which can be accessed by plant breeders to assist them in selecting lines for making crosses to improve quality traits in new cultivars. Information on the antioxidant capacity of oat pearlings fractions was provided to an oat milling company. These data assisted their scientists in deciding whether to pursue this milling technology. 8. List your most important publications in the popular press (no abstracts) and presentations to non-scientific organizations and articles written about your work (NOTE: this does not replace your peer-reviewed publications which are listed below)

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications

  • Emmons, C.L. and Peterson, D.M. Antioxidant activity and phenolic contents of oat groats and hulls. Cereal chemistry. 1999. v. 76. p. 902-906.
  • Emmons, C.L., Peterson, D.M. and Paul, G.L. Antioxidant capacity of oat (Avena sativa L.) extracts. 2. In vitro antioxidant activity ... . Journal of agricultural and food chemistry. 1999. v. 47. p. 4894-4898.