Source: AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE submitted to
DEVELOP BIOLOGICAL CONTROL TECHNIQUES AND MASS REARING TECHNOLOGY FOR BENEFICIAL AND PEST INSECTS
Sponsoring Institution
Agricultural Research Service/USDA
Project Status
TERMINATED
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
0401686
Grant No.
(N/A)
Project No.
6401-22000-017-00D
Proposal No.
(N/A)
Multistate No.
(N/A)
Program Code
(N/A)
Project Start Date
Feb 1, 1998
Project End Date
Nov 24, 2003
Grant Year
(N/A)
Project Director
STREETT D A
Recipient Organization
AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE
(N/A)
STONEVILLE,MS 38776
Performing Department
(N/A)
Non Technical Summary
(N/A)
Animal Health Component
60%
Research Effort Categories
Basic
30%
Applied
60%
Developmental
10%
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
1321499202010%
2151510105010%
2151510113010%
2151510202010%
2151710105010%
2151710113030%
2151710202010%
2152300202010%
Goals / Objectives
Development of effective biological control technology for selected pests, including importation and culture of appropriate natural enemies and microbial control agents of insects and development and testing of technology for mass rearing, processing, packaging, distribution, and release of natural enemies of insects and weed pests. Effectve augmentative (classical) biological control strategies for key pests are developed. Production of insects for use in field evaluations in cooperation with other labs.
Project Methods
Research and development activities are directed, primarily, at the development of automated mass rearing technologies for important biological control agents, including the development of artificial diets. Agents for study are selected on the basis of the needs of cooperators; the potential for success in the development of mass rearing technology; and the availability of basic rearing procedures, artificial diets, etc. Quality and process control criteria are developed. Techniques for packaging, distribution, and release of biological control agents are developed and tested. Biological control strategies are developed and tested through the mass rearing and field evaluation of the impact of released agents. Field evaluations are conducted with cooperators.

Progress 11/24/98 to 11/24/03

Outputs
1. What major problem or issue is being resolved and how are you resolving it (summarize project aims and objectives)? How serious is the problem? What does it matter? Progress concluded with the 2003 Annual Report process (see 2003 Annual Report). This project was expired 12/4/03 no work was done in 2004-2005.

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications

  • Pechan, T., Cohen, A. C., Williams, W. P., Luthe, D. S. Unique maize insect-defense system disrupts caterpillar midgut. Nature. 2002. v. 99 (20). p. 13319-13323.
  • Zhu, Y.C., Zeng, F., Cohen, A. C., Oppert, B. S. Molecular cloning of trypsin-like comparison of proteinase activities in the salivary glands and gut of the tarnished plant bug lygus lineolaris (hemiptera). Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. 2002. v. 32. p. 455-464.


Progress 02/01/98 to 01/31/03

Outputs
1. What major problem or issue is being resolved and how are you resolving it? Alternatives to conventional pesticides for pest management are needed for compliance to the Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA), because most pests are becoming increasingly resistant to conventional pesticides, and because of mounting environmental concerns. Augmentative biological control is one of the most promising alternatives. Success of this approach depends on an ability to rear sufficient numbers of high quality agents at a low cost. The primary pest targets are the tarnished plant bug and western tarnished plant bug, glassy winged sharpshooters, and several species of moth larvae, all being important pests in several cropping systems. This project involves developing techniques for mass rearing promising natural enemies of these important pests, for release, primarily in early season host plants of the pests, in an effort to prevent population build up during the crop season. This approach will be integrated with other management approaches, to develop biologically based area wide management programs for these pests. 2. How serious is the problem? Why does it matter? Insect and weed pests cause billions of dollars in losses each year to U. S. Agriculture. The traditional means of controlling such pests, conventional pesticides, have, historically, provided effective and economical control for most of our pests. However, a number of issues, such as FQPA, resistance, and environmental concerns raise questions regarding the appropriateness of an almost total reliance on conventional pesticides for pest management and protection of our agricultural base. Thus, there is need to develop alternative pest management strategies that can offer effective control, at a reasonable cost, without the potential negative effects of conventional pesticides. Augmentative biological control is one of those alternatives. Augmentative biological control has been studied for many years by ARS, university, and private sector scientists. It has been demonstrated many times to offer an effective and sustainable alternative to conventional pesticides. An industry devoted to the rearing of effective biological control agents is developing, in both the U.S. and abroad. Yet, this approach is limited because of the lack of inadequate information on how to produce and deliver the biological control agents in an economically and ecologically sound manner. The mission of this project is to develop the information base required to make successful this aspect of biologically based pest management. 3. How does it relate to the National Program(s) and National Program Component(s) to which it has been assigned? This project contributes to the National Program on Crop Protection and Quarantine (304) and specifically to the research components "Biology of Pests and Natural Enemies", "Pest Control Strategies", and "Integrated Pest Management Systems and Areawide Suppression Program." 4. What were the most significant accomplishments this past year? Understanding Feeding Systems of Insects. The research was done to develop a basic understanding of the structural and functional aspects of insects' feeding processes, including ingestion, digestion, and absorption of nutrients and how insects deal with anti-nutrients so that this information could be applied to development and improvement of artificial diet based or other food-based biologically based management of insects. Dr. Cohen continued to work on the development of an artificial diet and a diet-based rearing system for the glassy winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca coagulata. The gross and fine anatomy, including utrastructure of the feeding system of glassy winged sharpshooter was studied. Typical of the Homoptera, H. coagulata produces a salivary sheath that extends from the exterior of the plant surface into the stem tissues, which permit the ingestion of large amounts of xylem sap which passes through the food canal, mouth, and esophagus and empties into the anterior portion of the midgut. The concentrated sap is processed by the midgut where the final nutrient products are absorbed by microvilli that are on the surface of a highly convoluted series of tubules. B. The research was done to find nutrients and nutrient enhancers that would improve the artificial diets for mass production of beneficial insects (predators and parasites) and their hosts (pest insects) so that biologically based control programs could be developed, based on these diets. Our findings showed that there were higher concentrations of ninhydrin positive substances in the sap samples from infested plants than from uninfested plants. This finding is in accord with the demonstration of an extremely active aminopeptidase in the midgut of this insect. As a result of these studies, further research efforts were made to provide an artificial diet that contained short peptides including tryptic soy and casein digests along with sugars, a dilute salt and vitamin mixture and small amounts of organic acids that characterize the plant xylem sap that is the natural food of this species. Also, a flow through feeding system based on membrane feeding was used successfully to present the diet. This work was terminated after the retirement of the project leader, Dr. Allen C. Cohen. C. Significant Accomplishments/Activities that Support Special Target Populations. None 5. Describe the major accomplishments over the life of the project, including their predicted or actual impact. Since this project's inception in 1998 numerous significant accomplishments have been achieved. A thorough explanation of the solid- to-liquid feeding model, which is the mechanism by which most predatory arthropods consume their prey and which has revolutionized the concept of insect feeding, was developed, showing how it works and how essential it is to our understanding of the ecology and management of predators. Based on this increased understanding of how insects feed, several artificial diets for predators and major pests (plant bugs) have been developed. Several of these diets have been patented and have been used to rear over 50 generations and millions of green lacewings, tarnished plant bugs, and western tarnished plant bugs. These diets have also been used to rear several other species of predators and plant eating insects, including lady beetles, big-eyed bugs, predaceous stink bugs, and pirate bugs. It has been used as a supplement to natural prey for fire ants and with minor modifications may be useful as a replacement diet for fire ants and other ant species. The meat based diet and its derivatives serve as the basis for a whole succession of diets for entomophagous arthropods in other laboratories and commercial rearing facilities, worldwide. Based on these discoveries, we have made continuous progress in improving the nutritional quality of insect diets while decreasing the materials costs and labor of their production. The Unit enjoys worldwide reputation as a pioneer and leader in insect diet and rearing technology. 6. What do you expect to accomplish, year by year, over the next 3 years? During FY-2004 efforts will focus on the operation of up scaled rearing systems for target biological control agents with continued efforts to improve artificial diets, their preparation, and to develop improved methods of maintaining cultures that are free of microbial contamination. Work will also continue on maintaining good hygiene in the insectary. Advisement for antibiotic and antifungal components of artificial diets developed for additional biological control agents. At this point we will be able to synthesize what we have learned about insect food technology into an overview that will serve as a basic foundation for and theory of insect technology. In FY 2005 improvements of existing diets or development of new diets towards the end of making diets more effective and cheaper will be continued. Work will also continue on maintaining good hygiene in the insectary. 7. What science and/or technologies have been transferred and to whom? When is the science and/or technology likely to become available to the end- user (industry, farmer, other scientists)? What are the constraints, if known, to the adoption and durability of the technology products? Additional details of technologies transferred can be found in the final report for (Trust)-6401-22000-017-01T. Work on a feeding/packaging system led to the development of an invention for simultaneously stretching the packaging material to form raised protrusions and depressions that contained the diet. The protrusions were found to serve as sites of stimulation of feeding, allowing the predatory insects to be fed with fresh, well-protected diet. The stretching of the packaging also served to make it more accessible to the small mouthparts of the immature insects. This invention resulted in a patent application (Docket No.: 0235.99 Serial No. : 09/944,343, Filing Date: 08/30/2001). The claims of this patent application have been allowed, and the ensuing patent will be issued in 2003.

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications

  • Pechan, T., Cohen, A. C., Williams, W. P., Luthe, D. S. Unique maize insect-defense system disrupts caterpillar midgut. Nature. 2002. v. 99 (20). p. 13319-13323.
  • Zhu, Y.C., Zeng, F., Cohen, A. C., Oppert, B. S. Molecular cloning of trypsin-like comparison of proteinase activities in the salivary glands and gut of the tarnished plant bug lygus lineolaris (hemiptera). Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. 2002. v. 32. p. 455-464.


Progress 10/01/01 to 09/30/02

Outputs
1. What major problem or issue is being resolved and how are you resolving it? Alternatives to conventional pesticides for pest management are needed for compliance to the Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA), because most pests are becoming increasingly resistant to conventional pesticides, and because of mounting environmental concerns. Augmentative biological control is one of the most promising alternatives. Success of this approach depends on an ability to rear sufficient numbers of high quality agents at a low cost. The primary pest targets are the tarnished plant bug and western tarnished plant bug, glassy winged sharpshooters, and several species of moth larvae, all being important pests in several cropping systems. This project involves developing techniques for mass rearing promising natural enemies of these important pests, for release, primarily in early season host plants of the pests, in an effort to prevent population build up during the crop season. This approach will be integrated with other management approaches, to develop biologically based area wide management programs for these pests. 2. How serious is the problem? Why does it matter? Insect and weed pests cause billions of dollars in losses each year to U. S. Agriculture. The traditional means of controlling such pests-- conventional pesticides--have, historically, provided effective and economical control for most of our pests. However, a number of issues, such as FQPA, resistance, and environmental concerns raise questions regarding the appropriateness of an almost total reliance on conventional pesticides for pest management and protection of our agricultural base. Thus, there is a need to develop alternative pest management strategies that can offer effective control, at a reasonable cost, without the potential negative effects of conventional pesticides. Augmentative biological control is one of those alternatives. Augmentative biological control has been studied for many years by ARS, university, and private sector scientists. It has been demonstrated many times to offer an effective and sustainable alternative to conventional pesticides. An industry devoted to the rearing of effective biological control agents is developing, in both the U.S. and abroad. Yet, this approach is limited because of the lack of inadequate information on how to produce and deliver the biological control agents in an economically and ecologically sound manner. The mission of this project is to develop the information base required to make successful this aspect of biologically based pest management. 3. How does it relate to the national Program(s) and National Program Component(s) to which it has been assigned? This project contributes to the National Program on Crop Protection and Quarantine (304) and specifically to the objective of "Investigation of the biology of pest and beneficial organisms;" "Development of new and improved pest control technologies;" and "Integration of component technologies into IPM systems and development of area wide suppression programs." 4. What was your most significant accomplishment this past year? A. The research was done to find nutrients and nutrient enhancers that would improve the artificial diets for mass production of beneficial insects(predators and parasites) and their hosts (pest insects) so that biologically based control programs could be developed, based on these diets. The work, all done at BCMRRU, included testing by bioassay and biochemical means on various nutrients, including antioxidants, isoflavones, nutrient protection additives, and vitamins. It was discovered that soy isoflavones and optimized quantities of antioxidants such as ascorbic acid increased the quality of artificial diets, and other substances such as the preservatives BHT and BHA reduced dietary quality for test insects. This work will be used as a guideline for improvements of the diets currently being used to increase the efficiency of production and to extend the diets to use with previously untested insects that are substantial pests (such as stink bugs), thus reducing the costs of mass producing these pests for use in biologically based pest control programs. B. Other Significant Accomplishment(s), if any: Understanding Feeding Systems of Insects The research was done to develop a basic understanding of the structural and functional aspects of insects' feeding processes, including ingestion, digestion, and absorption of nutrients and how insects deal with anti- nutrients so that this information could be applied to development and improvement of artificial diet-based, or other food-based, biologically- based management of insects. This work,done at Mississippi State, MS, revealed the structure of the feeding apparatus (mouthparts, salivary glands, and guts) of predators and pest species, as well as enhancing our understanding of the digestive enzymes and other aspects of digestive organization, including the peritrophic matrix of several species. Several digestive enzymes were characterized so that we now better understand which target nutrients are utilized, and how the digestive system structure called the peritrophic matrix is attacked by plant- originated toxins. This work will be used as a basis for developing rearing systems and other biologically based anti-insect strategies by taking advantage of our expanded understanding of the insect feeding process. C. Significant Accomplishments/Activities that Support Special Target Populations. None 5. Describe your major accomplishments over the life of the project, including their predicted or actual impact? Since this project's inception in 1998 numerous significant accomplishments have been achieved. A thorough explanation of the solid- to-liquid feeding model, which is the mechanism by which most predatory arthropods consume their prey and which has revolutionized the concept of insect feeding, was developed, showing how it works and how essential it is to our understanding of the ecology and management of predators. Based on this increased understanding of how insects feed, several artificial diets for predators and major pests (plant bugs) have been developed. Several of these diets have been patented and have been used to rear over 50 generations and millions of green lacewings, tarnished plant bugs, and western tarnished plant bugs. These diets have also been used to rear several other species of predators and plant eating insects, including lady beetles, big-eyed bugs, predaceous stink bugs, and pirate bugs. It has been used as a supplement to natural prey for fire ants, and with minor modifications may be useful as a replacement diet for fire ants and other ant species. The meat-based diet and its derivatives serve as the basis for a whole succession of diets for entomophagous arthropods in other laboratories and commercial rearing facilities worldwide. Based on these discoveries, we have made continuous progress in improving the nutritional quality of insect diets while decreasing the materials costs and labor of their production. The Unit enjoys worldwide reputation as a pioneer and leader in insect diet and rearing technology. 6. What do you expect to accomplish, year by year, over the next 3 years? In FY 2003 a body of research on diet components that are of general nutritional and diet preservation use in the artificial diets of predators, parasites, and pests will be completed. Work will be continued to identify abiotic factors (light intensity and spectrum, humidity, photo period, temperature) for large scale production of progeny by potential biological control agents. Work on maintaining good hygiene in the insectary will continue and protocols for the use of antibiotic and antifungal components of artificial diets will be developed for additional biological control agents. Basic rearing system up-scale efforts will continue. The roles of oxidative degradation in the deterioration of the diets and the characterization and definition of the roles of antioxidants will be established for diet substances that are proven or potential diet enhancers. During FY 2004 efforts will focus on the operation of up-scaled rearing systems for target biological control agents with continued efforts to improve artificial diets, their preparation, and to develop improved methods of maintaining cultures that are free of microbial contamination. Work will also continue on maintaining good hygiene in the insectary. Advisement will be continued on the antibiotic and antifungal components of artificial diets developed for additional biological control agents. At this point we will be able to synthesize what we have learned about insect food technology into an overview that will serve as a basic foundation for and theory of insect technology. In FY 2005 improvements of existing diets or development of new diets towards the end of making diets more effective and cheaper will be continued. Work will also continue on maintaining good hygiene in the insectary. 7. What technologies have been transferred and to whom? When is the technology likely to become available to the end user (industry, farmer other scientist)? What are the constraints, if known, to the adoption durability of the technology? Dr. Cohen continues to work with the licensees of two patents for an artificial diet for entomophagous insects to help them improve their use of the diet technology. Work continues with the patent advisor on a rebuttal of a rejection of claims for two patent applications (one on the composition of a new artificial diet for arthropods and the other on a packaging system that was the subject of a CRADA with a private business). Dr. Cohen has also served for the past year on the Mid South Area's Patent Committee. CRADA Agreement No. 58-3K95-8-0651, "Development of an automated in-vivo mass rearing system for Cotesia marginiventris, using Spodoptera exigua," has ended with an industry partner. 8. List your most important publications and presentations, and articles written about your work (NOTE: this does not replace your review publications which are listed below) News Release on Team Research: "Camphor Curbs Asian Lady Beetles." 2001. News from the USDA Agricultural Research Service Information Staff (written by J. Garcia). Agricultural Research Service. USDA. Science Update: "A Push-Pull Answer to Asian Lady Beetles." Agricultural Research Magazine. USDA, ARS. August 2001.

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications

  • Alverson, J., Cohen, A.C. Effect of antifungal agents on biological fitness of Lygus hesperus (Heteroptera: Miridae). Journal of Economic Entomology. 2002. v. 95. p. 256-260.
  • Alverson, J., Cohen, A.C. Effect of Antifungal Agents on Biological fitness of Lygus hesperus Knight (Heteroptera: Miridae). Proceedings of the 62nd Annual Meeting of the Association of Southeastern Biologists. 2001. v. 48. p. 100.
  • Vogt, J.T., Cohen, A.C. Studies on Attractiveness and Effectiveness of an Artificial Entomophage diet fed to Hybrid Imported Fire Ants. Proceedings of the Imported Fire Ant Conference. 2002. p. 36.
  • Vogt, J.T. Light intensity affects distribution of attacking Pseudacteon curvatus (Diptera: Phoridae) in a laboratory rearing system. Proceedings of the Imported Fire Ant Conference. 2002. p. 16-20.


Progress 10/01/00 to 09/30/01

Outputs
1. What major problem or issue is being resolved and how are you resolving it? Alternatives to conventional pesticides for pest management are needed for compliance to the Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA), because most pests are becoming increasingly resistant to conventional pesticides, and because of mounting environmental concerns. Augmentative biological control is one of the most promising alternatives. Success of this approach depends on an ability to rear sufficient numbers of high quality agents at a low cost. The primary pest targets are the tarnished plant bug and western tarnished plant bug, glassy winged sharpshooters, and several species of moth larvae, all being important pests in several cropping systems. The Unit also has responsibility for the imported fire ant, considered both a pest in some agricultural settings and a nuisance. This project involves developing techniques for mass rearing promising natural enemies of these important pests, for release, primarily in early season host plants of the pests, in an effort to prevent population build up during the crop season. This approach will be integrated with other management approaches, to develop biologically based area wide management programs for these pests. 2. How serious is the problem? Why does it matter? Insect and weed pests cause billions of dollars in losses each year to U.S. Agriculture. The traditional means of controlling such pests, conventional pesticides, have, historically, provided effective and economical control for most of our pests. However, a number of issues, such as FQPA, resistance, and environmental concerns raise questions regarding the appropriateness of an almost total reliance on conventional pesticides for pest management and protection of our agricultural base. Thus, there is need to develop alternative pest management strategies that can offer effective control, at a reasonable cost, without the potential negative effects of conventional pesticides. Augmentative biological control is one of those alternatives. Augmentative biological control has been studied for many years by ARS, university, and private sector scientists. It has been demonstrated many times to offer an effective and sustainable alternative to conventional pesticides. An industry devoted to the rearing of effective biological control agents is developing, in both the U.S. and abroad. Yet, this approach is limited because of the lack of inadequate information on how to produce and deliver the biological control agents in an economically and ecologically sound manner. The mission of this project is to develop the information base required to make successful this aspect of biologically based pest management. 3. How does it relate to the National Program(s) and National Component(s)? This project contributes to the National Program on Crop Protection and Quarantine (304) and specifically to the objective of "investigation of the biology of pest and beneficial organisms," "Development of new and improved pest control technologies," and "integration of component technologies into IPM systems and development of area wide suppression programs." 4. What were the most significant accomplishments this past year? A.Single Most Significant Accomplishment During FY 2000 year: Continued improvements in the diet and other aspects of the rearing systems for tarnished plant bugs and their predators and parasites as well as the parasites of moth larvae. The diet research has produced a new patent, which is currently the subject of license negotiations. B.Other Significant Accomplishment(s), if any: Increases in our understanding of the reproductive capacity and strategy of the fairy wasp (Anaphes iole), an egg parasite of tarnished plant bugs. Improvements in the feeding system for lacewings and other predators. This work has been written up as a patent application, and the CRADA partner (Beneficial Insectary) is negotiating for a license for this technology. Based on this work and the partnership between the Unit and the CRADA partner, the later was awarded a $250,000 Small Business Innovative Research Grant. Work was completed on optimizing anti- fungal agents that can be used in the tarnished plant bug diet. A research laboratory and program have been set up for the production and study of decapitating flies that are parasites of the imported red and imported black fire ants. Dramatic increases have been made in our production of coffee berry borers and their parasites. C.Significant Accomplishments/Activities that Support Special Target Populations. None 5. Describe the major accomplishments over the life of the project including their predicted or actual impact. Since this project's inception in 1998 numerous significant accomplishments have been achieved. A thorough explanation of the solid-to-liquid feeding model, which is the mechanism by which most predatory arthropods consume their prey and which has revolutionized the concept of insect feeding, was developed, showing how it works and how essential it is to our understanding of the ecology and management of predators. Based on this increased understanding of how insects feed, several artificial diets for predators and major pests (plant bugs) have been developed. Several of these diets have been patented and have been used to rear over 50 generations and millions of green lacewings, tarnished plant bugs, and western tarnished plant bugs. These diets have also been used to rear several other species of predators and plant eating insects, including lady beetles, big-eyed bugs, predaceous stink bugs, and pirate bugs. It has been used as a supplement to natural prey for fire ants and with minor modifications may be useful as a replacement diet for fire ants and other ant species. The meat based diet and its derivatives serve as the basis for a whole succession of diets for entomophagous arthropods in other laboratories and commercial rearing facilities, worldwide. Based on these discoveries, we have made continuous progress in improving the nutritional quality of insect diets while decreasing the materials costs and labor of their production. The Unit enjoys worldwide reputation as a pioneer and leader in insect diet and rearing technology. 6. What do you expect to accomplish, year by year, over the next 3 years? During FY-2001 studies of digestive enzyme characterization and induction will be continued. This work will pay special attention to responses of the enzymes of key target species (such as Lygus spp. Geocoris punctipes, Orius spp., coccinelids, etc.) to digestive inhibitors and to biochemical factors in the food that may induce or repress the enzymes that are most prominent in digestion. This information will be applied to diet modifications and bioassays for improvement of existing diets or development of new diets, all towards the ends of making diets more effective, cheaper, and less prone to microbial contamination and spoilage. In this vein biochemical, physiological, and structure studies will be conducted in conjunction with key microbes to develop methods of improving the shelf life and reducing microbial contamination of diets and mass reared insects. All of this work will be centered around development of standards and practices of improved quality control. Antifungal bioassays and challenge studies will be completed. Antibiotic bioassays with the western tarnished plant bug to determine optimal antibiotic agent(s) effective against bacterial contaminants with minimal detrimental impact on insect health will be performed. Bioassays to determine the effect of dietary pH on microbial contaminants will be completed. There will be continued vigilance and education of technical staff regarding good hygiene and sterile technique for a state of the art mass rearing research facility. Work will also be conducted to identify abiotic factors (light intensity and spectrum, humidity, photo period, temperature) that may maximize the production of progeny by potential biological control agents, including Anaphes iole, under mass rearing conditions. A basic laboratory scale in vitro (artificial diet based) rearing system for Anaphes iole will be developed. In FY-2002 the key biochemical components that serve as nutrients and those that act as anti-nutrients from the major diet components such as soy, lima bean, wheat germ, and chicken eggs will be identified and characterized. We will use isolated, purified components for formulation of new diets for the target species, and we will test various kinds of food preparation technology to up scale and optimize diet production using these components. Work on maintaining good hygiene in the insectary will continue and protocols for the use of antibiotic and antifungal components of artificial diets will be developed for additional biological control agents. Basic rearing system up scale efforts will continue. During FY-2003 efforts will focus on the operation of up scaled rearing systems for target biological control agents with continued efforts to improve artificial diets, their preparation, and to develop improved methods of maintaining cultures that are free of microbial contamination. Work will also continue on maintaining good hygiene in the insectary. Advisement for antibiotic and antifungal components of artificial diets developed for additional biological control agents. At this point we will be able to synthesize what we have learned about insect food technology into an overview that will serve as a basic foundation for and theory of insect technology. 7. What science and/or technologies have been transferred and to whom? When is the science and/or technology likely to become available to the end user (industry, farmer, other scientists)? What are the constraints if known, to the adoption & durability of the technology product? Patents 5,834,177 and 5,945,271 were licensed by Oregon Freeze Dry, BioLogixs, Beneficial Insectary, and Buena Biosystems. These companies are either already using the diet technology to produce and sell predators (e.g., Buena Biosystems and Beneficial Insectary have used the licensed diet to produce all of their stock of Chrysoperla species from 1999-2001), and they are restructuring their operations to use diet technology for rearing predators, or they are building new facilities (Oregon Freeze Dry and BioLogixs) and are developing a strategy for using prophylactic pest management on an area-wide basis, all based on planned mass production of predators. A CRADA was established with Beneficial Insectary for development of a diet presentation system, and in relationship to this CRADA, and invention of a diet delivery system based on a new concept of filled protrusions was devised. The invention is currently being prepared by a patent advisor, and the CRADA partner is exercising its right to exclusive licensing of this invention with respect to Chrysoperla species. A new patent was issued (US Patent No. 6,235,528, May 22, 2001) for the new arthropod diet for Lygus bugs and other phytophages and application has been submitted to the U.S. Patent Office for a continuation in part for other claims regarding the formulation and contents of this diet (Docket No: 0121.99 Serial No: 09/511,193, February 23, 2000). This diet has been used to produce at least 10,000,000 Lygus bugs at the BCMRRU, and it is currently being used to test a sterile insect technology for plant bugs. It is also being tested for production of stink bugs, with preliminary indications that it is superior to "natural" foods such as green beans and peanuts for stink bug production. 8. List your most important publications in the popular press (no abstracts) and presentations to non-scientific organizations and articles written about your work (NOTE: this does not replace your peer-reviewed publications which are listed below) Hardin, B., Garcia, Jesus. HIgh performance insect diets. Agricultural Research. USDA, Agricultural Research Service. February 2001. v. 49. p. 16-17. Discover Magazine. May 2001.

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications

  • Cohen, A.C. New oligidic production diet for Lygus hesperus Knight and L. lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois). Journal of Entomological Science. 2000. v. 35 p. 301-310.
  • Cohen, A.C. A review of feeding studies of Lygus species with emphasis on artificial diets. Southwestern Entomologist. 2000. Supplement 23. p. 111-119.
  • Zeng, F., Cohen A.C. Induction of elastase in the salivary gland complex of Lygus hesperus. Annals of the Entomological Society of America. 2000. v. 94 p. 146-151.
  • Nordlund, D.A., Cohen, A.C., Smith, R.A. Mass-rearing, release techniques, and augmentation. McEwen, P.K., editor. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. Lacewings in Biological Control. 2001. p. 303-319.
  • Cohen, A.C. Artificial diet for arthropods. Issued May 22, 2001. U.S. Patent No. 6,235,528.
  • Zeng, F., Cohen, A.C. Partial characterization of alpha-Amylase in the salivary glands of Lygus hesperus and L. lineolaris. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. 2000. v. 126B p. 9-16.
  • Zeng, F., Shu, S., Ramaswamy, S.B., Srinivasan, A. Vitellogenin in pupal hemolymph of Diatraea grandiosella (Lepidoptera:Pyralidae). Annals of Entomological Society of America. 2000. v. 93 p. 291-294.
  • Zeng, F., Cohen, A.C. Demonstration of amylase from zoophytophagous anthocorid Orius insidiosus. Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology. 2000. v. 44 p. 136-139.
  • Zeng, F., Cohen, A.C. Comparison of alpha-amylase and protease activities of a zoophytophagous and two phytozoophagous Heteroptera. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. 2000. v. 126A p. 101-106.


Progress 10/01/99 to 09/30/00

Outputs
1. What major problem or issue is being resolved and how are you resolving it? Alternative pest management strategies, which enable the reduction of our reliance on conventional pesticides, are needed because of the Food Quality Protection Act(FQPA),increasing resistance to conventional pesticides, and environmental concerns. Among the viable alternatives is augmentative biological control via periodic release of biological control agents. The success of this approach is dependent on our ability to rear sufficient numbers of high quality agents at a sufficiently low cost. Also, equipment for effective release of these agents and strategies for incorporation into integrated pest management systems are necessary. This project involves team research of entomologists and engineers to develop automated mass rearing systems and release technology for selected biological control agents. Among the primary pest targets are the tarnished plant bug and western tarnished plant bug. Plant bugs are important pests of many crops, including cotton, and may become more important in cotton as the boll weevil is eradicated and transgenic cotton is adopted for control of lepidopterous pests. Also, pesticide resistance has been demonstrated in plant bugs. Plant bugs have a variety of natural enemies, but they are unable to maintain low pest populations in annual row crop systems. Development techniques for mass rearing promising natural enemies of these important pests, for release, primarily in early season host plants of the pests, to prevent population build up during the crop season will help reduce our reliance on conventional pesticides. This approach will be integrated with area wide habitat destruction programs, and other management approaches, to develop biologically based area wide management programs for plant bugs. 2. How serious is the problem? Why does it matter? Insect and weed pests cause billions of dollars in losses each year to U.S. agriculture. The traditional means of controlling such pests, conventional pesticides, have provided effective and economical control for most of our pests. However, a number of issues, such as FQPA, pesticide resistance, and environmental concerns raise questions about the wisdom of an almost total reliance on conventional pesticides for pest management. Thus, there is need to develop alternative pest management strategies that can offer effective control, at a reasonable cost, without the potential negative effects of conventional pesticides. Augmentative biological control is one potential alternative. Augmentative biological control has been studied for many years by ARS, university, and private sector scientists. It offers an effective and sustainable alternative to conventional pesticides. An industry devoted to the rearing of effective biological control agents is developing, in both the U.S. and abroad. Yet, this approach to pest management is used on only a minute portion of our crop lands. One of the primary reasons for the limited impact of augmentative biological control is the limited capacity and the high production costs of current rearing systems. Historically, resources have been focused on identifying potential biological control agents and small scale studies to demonstrate effectiveness. Little has been invested in development of mass rearing systems capable of producing the numbers of insects necessary to have a significant impact in major crop systems and to reduce rearing costs. This project is focused on solving these problems. 3. How does it relate to the National Program(s) and National Component(s)? This project contributes to the National Program on Crop Protection and Quarantine (304) and specifically to the objective of "investigation of the biology of pest and beneficial organisms," "development of new and improved pest control technologies," and "integration of component technologies into IPM systems and development of area wide suppression programs." 4. What were the most significant accomplishments this past year? A. Single Most Significant Accomplishment During FY 2000 year: An artificial diet is required for the development of rearing systems capable of producing enough insects at a low enough cost to be practical. In FY-2000 an artificial diet for the western tarnished plant bug, tarnished plant bug, green stink bug, and red-shouldered stink bug was developed and improved. An application for a broad new patent for this diet, for entomophages and for plant feeders that are also predaceous (such as plant bugs and other mirids)was filed on February 25, 1999 and updated on February 23, 2000. The diet will significantly improve our ability to rear a variety of insects and facilitate the development of new control strategies for plant bugs. B. Other Significant Accomplishment(s), if any: The improved artificial diet allowed, for the first time, the establishment of a tarnished plant bug culture fed exclusively on artificial diet. The insects in this culture, also for the first time, oviposit in parafilm packets of gelcarin, which significantly improves the efficiency of the rearing system. This culture supports studies on the use of the sterile insect technique for management of this pest. Studies of the developmental biology of Anaphes iole, a parasitic wasp attacks plant bug eggs were conducted to support development of an artificial diet based rearing system for this insect. Anaphes iole larvae proceeded through two instar and take 16-17 days to develop. The occurrence of more than one parasite in a host egg is relatively common in high density cultures. As many as 15 Anaphes iole eggs were found in one host egg. Males are smaller and are generally killed by females, usually resulting in the emergence of only one adult per host egg. A microbiology laboratory was equipped and protocols have been established to detect, culture, and identify microbial contaminants in artificial diet and other mass rearing components. Experiments to evaluate the effect of different types and concentrations of antifungal agents in the artificial diet on plant bugs have been initiated. A technique for cleaning the ovipositors of field collected plant bugs was developed, which reduces Aspergillus niger contamination of the gelcarin oviposition packets used for egg-laying. A mechanical device for preparing gelcarin and diet packets for use in plant bug rearing was developed. This device can produce eight 4in. x 6in. packets per minute. Also, a device for separating the yolk and white of large numbers of chicken eggs was developed. C. Significant Accomplishments/Activities that Support Special Target Populations. 5. Describe the major accomplishments over the life of the project including their predicted or actual impact. Since this project's inception in 1998 numerous significant accomplishments have been achieved. A thorough explanation of the solid-to-liquid feeding model, which is the mechanism by which most predatory arthropods consume their prey and which has revolutionized the concept of insect feeding, was developed, showing how it works and how essential it is to our understanding of the ecology and management of predators. Based on this increased understanding of how insects feed, several artificial diets for predators and major pests (plant bugs) have been developed. One of these diets has been patented and has been used to rear over 50 generations and millions of green lacewings. This diet has also been used to rear several other species of predators, including lady beetles, big-eyed bugs, predaceous stink bugs, and pirate bugs. It has been used as a supplement to natural prey for fire ants and with minor modifications may be useful as a replacement diet for fire ants and other ant species. The meat based diet and its derivatives serve as the basis for a whole succession of diets for entomophagous arthropods in other laboratories and commercial rearing facilities, worldwide. The presence and nature of the digestive enzymes used by insects for their very specialized feeding mechanisms, was clarified. This information was used to modify artificial diets for predators and pests, providing a foundation for artificial diet based mass rearing of natural enemies. For example, the newly developed plant bug diet costs less than 1/10th as much as the earlier Debolt diet, which has been the standard. Over 20 generations and hundreds of thousands of plant bugs have been reared with this new diet. This high level of production serves as a basis for rearing of plant bug parasitoids. A new meat free diet for plant feeding insects (such as Lygus and other mirids) that supplement their diets with insect prey has been developed. The cost of producing the new diet is less than half that of the existing diet and less than 1/10-1/20 the cost of commercially used plant bug diet. It also supports faster development, greater longevity, greater adult survival, and far greater egg production in the western tarnished plant bug. An understanding of the feeding behavior of Trichogramma spp. larvae, which are minute parasitoids of insect eggs, was developed. These larvae selectively feed on "solid" particulate material in the host egg, a relatively revolutionary discovery, in that it was previously believed that these minute insects were liquid feeders and efforts to develop artificial diets for them focused on producing a solution. Such diets proved to be unsatisfactory, often producing insects with large distended abdomens. A more appropriate approach to diet development for these important parasitoids involves the use of suspensions, which can be much more nutritionally concentrated than solutions. These findings are being applied to current efforts with Anaphes iole, another minute egg parasite. Anaphes iole, a solitary wasp parasitoid of plant bug eggs is potentially an important augmentative biological control agent for plant bugs. Current rearing practices are based on the use of plant bug eggs, resulting in limited rearing capacity and relatively high costs. Development of an artificial diet based rearing system for these parasitoids could significantly improve our ability to use biological control techniques against plant bugs. In the laboratory, Anaphes adults deposit numerous eggs in a single host egg, which is important to the development of a technique for collecting large numbers of parasitoid eggs. Females could be induced to probe with their ovipositor, in artificial substrates treated with chemical stimuli from plant bug females. However, oviposition into artificial substrates has not yet been achieved. Anaphes iole larvae are sexually dimorphic. Female larvae have longer mandibles and easily kill male larvae that may be present in the same host egg. At first glance, this aggressive behavior indicates that high density artificial diet based rearing may not be possible with this species. However, since the attack behavior appears to be dependent on a larva obtaining a point of leverage and/or pinning the attacked larvae against the host egg chorion, high density cultures may be possible in large rearing cells. On the other hand, since in nature male larvae appear to have a lower rate of survival than female larvae, an artificial diet based rearing system may yield a higher percentage of male adults than a system using host eggs. Techniques for preparing packets of the diet and Gelcarin oviposition for plant bugs have been significantly improved, allowing scale up of the western tarnished plant bug rearing system. The western tarnished plant bug culture supports rearing of plant bug parasites. Costs of the current plant bug rearing systems have been analyzed to identify diet preparation/packaging as the most costly step, in terms of labor. Efforts to simplify the rearing system for the predator Geocoris punctipes revealed that a source of free water enhanced the fecundity of this predator, when fed the Cohen artificial diet. Studies comparing freeze-killed western tarnish plant bug adults and lepidopterous eggs as supplemental sources of food for Geocoris punctipes indicated that plant bugs were sub-optimal prey for this predator, but lepidopterous eggs were optimal with or without artificial diet. A new technique for preparing stretched membrane packets of semisolid artificial diet, which could be easily automated was developed. A patent application for this technology is being prepared. An efficient mechanized system for distributing green lacewing eggs into vertical larval rearing units was developed. This technique will more efficiently distribute eggs into the larval rearing units, and requires considerably less labor. 6. What do you expect to accomplish, year by year, over the next 3 years? During FY-2001 studies of digestive enzyme characterization and induction will be continued. This work will pay special attention to responses of the enzymes of key target species (such as Lygus spp. Geocoris punctipes, Orius spp., coccinelids, etc.) to digestive inhibitors and to biochemical factors in the food that may induce or repress the enzymes that are most prominent in digestion. This information will be applied to diet modifications and bioassays for improvement of existing diets or development of new diets. In this vein biochemical, physiological, and structure studies will be conducted in conjunction with key microbes to develop methods of improving the shelf life and reducing microbial contamination of diets. This work will be centered around development of standards and practices of improved quality control. Antifungal bioassays and challenge studies will be completed. Antibiotic bioassays with the western tarnished plant bug to determine optimal antibiotic agent(s) effective against bacterial contaminants with minimal detrimental impact on the insect will be performed. Bioassays to determine the effect of dietary pH on microbial contaminants will be completed. Work will also be conducted to identify abiotic factors (light intensity and spectrum, humidity, photo period, temperature) that may maximize the production of progeny under mass rearing conditions. A basic laboratory scale artificial diet based rearing system for Anaphes iole will be developed. In FY-2002 the key biochemical components that serve as nutrients and those that act as anti- nutrients from the major diet components such as soy, lima bean, wheat germ, and chicken eggs will be identified and characterized. We will use isolated, purified components for formulation of new diets for the target species, and we will test food preparation technology to up scale and optimize diet production. Work on protocols for the use of antibiotic and antifungal components of artificial diets will continue. Basic rearing system up scale efforts will continue. During FY-2003 efforts will focus on the operation of up scaled rearing systems for target biological control agents with continued efforts to improve artificial diets, their preparation, and to develop improved methods of maintaining cultures that are free of microbial contamination. Recommendations will be prepared for antibiotic and antifungal component use in artificial diets developed for additional biological control agents. 7. What science and/or technologies have been transferred and to whom? When is the science and/or technology likely to become available to the end user (industry, farmer, other scientists)? What are the constraints if known, to the adoption & durability of the technology product? Patents 5,834,177 and 5,945,271 were licensed by Oregon Freeze Dry, BioLogixs, Beneficial Insectary, and Buena Biosystems. These companies are either already using the diet technology to produce (e.g., Buena Biosystems has used the licensed diet to produce its stock of Chrysoperla species for 1999 and 2000), or they are restructuring their operations (Beneficial Insectary) to use diet technology for rearing predators, or they are building new facilities (Oregon Freeze Dry and BioLogixs) and are developing a strategy for using prophylactic pest management on an area-wide basis, all based on planned mass production of predators. A Cooperative Research and Development Argreement(CRADA) was established with Beneficial Insectary for development of a diet presentation system, and in relationship to this CRADA, and invention of a diet delivery system based on a new concept of filling diet "dimples" was devised. The invention is currently being prepared by a patent advisor, and the CRADA partner is prepared to exercise its right to exclusive licensing of this invention with respect to Chrysoperla species. Patent application has been submitted to the U.S. Patent Office for the new diet "Artificial Diet for Arthropods" (Docket No: 0121.99 Serial No: 09/511,193, February 23, 2000). This diet has been used to produce at least 2,000,000 Lygus bugs at the Biological Control Mass Rearing Research Unit(BCMRRU), and it is currently being used to test a sterile insect technology for plant bugs. It is also being tested for production of stink bugs, with preliminary indications that it is superior to "natural" foods such as green beans and peanuts for stink bug production. 8. List your most important publications in the popular press (no abstracts) and presentations to non-scientific organizations and articles written about your work (NOTE: this does not replace your peer-reviewed publications which are listed below) Anonymous. New diet could help trim crop pest populations. ESA Newsletter Jan 2000.v.23(7). p.18. Anonymous. Deadly diet for bad bugs. Cotton Grower Plus. May/June. 2000. p.18. Nordlund,D.A.,King,E.G. Development of the ARS National Biological Control Laboratory. Stoneville, Mississippi. 1999. Annual Meeting of the Association of Natural Biocontrol Producers. Orlando, FL. Oct 30-Nov 2,1999.

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications

  • Wu.,Z.X., Cohen, A. C., Nordlund, D. A. The feeding behavior of Trichogramma brassicae: new evidence for selective ingestion of solid food. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata. Jul 2000. v. 96(1). p.1-8.
  • Cohen,A.C. 1999. Artificial media for rearing entomophages comprising sticky, cooked whole egg. U.S. Patent 5,945,271 issued Aug. 31, 1999.
  • Cohen,A.C., Nordlund, D. A., Smith, R. A. Mass rearing of entomophagous insects and predaceous mites:are the bottlenecks biological, engineering, economic, or cultural? Biocontrol News and Information. 1999.v.20(3), p.85N-90N.
  • Cohen,A.C. Robert Frost's Arthropods. American Entomologist. Summer 1999. v.45(2). p.70-72.
  • Agusti,N., Cohen, A. C. Lygus hesperus and L. lineolaris (Hemiptera: Miridae), phytophages, zoophages, or omnivores: evidence of feeding adaptations suggested by the salivary and midgut digestive enzymes. Journal of Entomological Science. 2000. v.35. p.176-186.
  • Zeng,F., Cohen, A. C. Comparsion of alpha-amylase and protease activities of a zoophytophagous and two phytozoophagous Heteroptera. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. 2000. v. 126. p. 101-106.
  • Zeng,F., Cohen, A. C. Partial characterization of alpha-amylase in the salivary glands of Lygus hesperus and L. lineolaris. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. 2000. v. 126 p.9-16.
  • Zeng, F., Cohen, A. C. emostration of amylase from the zoophytophagous anthocorid Orius insidiosus. Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology. 2000. v. 44. p. 136-139.
  • Cohen,A.C. Feeding fitness and quality of domesticated and feral predators: effects of long-term rearing on artificial diet. Biological Control. 2000. v. 17 p. 50-54.
  • Cohen,A.C. How carnivorous bugs feed. In: Heteroptera of economic importance. Schaefer,C.W. and Panizzi,A.R. eds. CRC Press. Boca Raton. 2000. p. 563-570.
  • Cohen,A.C. New oligidic production diet for Lygus hesperus Knight and L. lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois). Journal of Entomological Science. 2000. v. 35. p. 301-310.
  • Riddick, E. W., Barbosa, P. Cry3A-intoxicated Leptinotarsa decemlineata are palatable prey for Lebia grandis (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae, Carabidae). Journal of Entomological Science. 2000 v.35. p.342-346.


Progress 01/01/99 to 09/30/99

Outputs
1. What major problem or issue is being resolved and how are you resolving it? Alternative pest management strategies, which enable us to reduce our reliance on conventional pesticides, are needed for a variety of reasons, including: Food Quality Protection Act, increasing resistance to conventional pesticides, and environmental concerns. Among the more viable alternative strategies is augmentative biological control via periodic release of biological control agents. The success of this approach is dependent on, among other things, an ability to rear sufficient numbers of high quality agents at a sufficiently low cost. Also, equipment for effective releases of these agents and strategies for their integration into integrated pest management (IPM) systems are necessary. This project involves research by a team of entomologists and engineers to develop automated mass rearing systems and release technology for selected biological control agents. Primary pest targets include the tarnished plant but, western tarnished plant bug and tropical soda apple. This project also includes some important research related to the biological control of the Formosan subterranean termite (with funds from the CRIS 6435-32000-001-00D). The tarnished plant bug and western tarnished plant bug are important pests of many crops, including cotton, and are expected to become more important in cotton as the boll weevil is eradicated and transgenic cotton is adopted for control of lepidopterous insects. Also, pesticide resistance in plant bugs is increasing. Plant bugs have a variety of natural enemies attacking them, but they are unable to maintain low pest populations in annual row crop systems. This project involves developing techniques for mass rearing promising natural enemies of these important pests for release primarily in early season host plants of the tarnished plant bug, in an effort to prevent population build up during the crop season. This approach will be integrated with an area-wide habitat destruction program, to develop a biologically based area-wide management program for this important pest. Tropical soda apple is an invasive exotic weed from South America, which has spread to nine U.S. states and Puerto Rico. Population dynamics studies are being conducted to evaluate arthropods associated with tropical soda apple in the U.S. Potential biological control agents, from South America, have been identified and further exploration is planned. Promising agents will be imported, through the Biological Control and Mass Rearing Research Unit's Stoneville Research Quarantine Facility. Host range studies will be conducted, in quarantine, and release approval will be sought for appropriately selected organisms. Mass rearing and release techniques for those selected organisms will be developed. The Formosan subterranean termite is thought to have been brought into the U.S. on military ships returning from World War II. The main points of entry were New Orleans and Lake Charles, Louisiana; Galveston and Houston, Texas; and Charleston, South Carolina. Foreign explorations will be conducted to discover effective natural enemies in the site of origin, and then will be cleared for release in the U.S. through the Stoneville Research Quarantine Facility. 2. How serious is the problem? Why does it matter? Insect and weed pests cause billions of dollars in losses each year in the U.S. The traditional means of controlling such pests, conventional pesticides, has historically provided effective and economical control for most of our pests. However, a number of issues, including the Food Quality Protection Act, resistance, and environmental concerns raise questions regarding the appropriateness of an almost total reliance on conventional pesticides for pest management and protection of our agricultural base. Thus, there is need to develop alternative pest management strategies that can offer effective control, at a reasonable cost, without the potential negative effects of conventional pesticides. Augmentative biological control is one of those alternatives. Augmentative biological control has been studied for many years by ARS, university, and private sector scientists. It has been demonstrated, experimentally, many times to offer an effective and sustainable alternative to conventional pesticides. An industry devoted to the rearing and marketing of effective biological control agents is developing, both in the U.S. and abroad. Yet, this approach to pest management is used on only a minute portion of our crop land. One of the primary reasons that this approach to pest management has had such a limited impact revolves around the limited capacity for rearing insect biological control agents and the high cost of current rearing systems. Historically, research has been focused on identifying potential biological control agents and small scale studies to demonstrate effectiveness. Very little research effort has been focused on development of mass rearing systems capable of producing the numbers of insects necessary to have a significant impact in major crop systems and to reduce rearing costs. This project is focused, primarily, on solving these problems. 3. How does it relate to the National Program(s) and National Component(s) to which it has been assigned? This project contributes to the "Development of New and Improved Pest Control Technologies" (Objective 5) and the Integration of Component Technologies into IPM Systems (Objective 6) components of the National Program on Crop and Commodity Pest Biology, Control and Quarantine (304). 4. What were the most significant accomplishments this past year? Based on studies to characterize the feeding mechanisms (behavior, feeding structures, and biochemical processes) of Lygus and its predators, a new artificial diet was formulated, leading to the application for a broad patent covering the diet for entomophages and for plant feeders that are facultative entomophages (such as Lygus and other mirids). The provisional patent was filed on February 25, 1999. 5. Describe the major accomplishments over the life of the project including their predicted or actual impact. Since the project's inception in 1998, numerous significant accomplishments have been achieved. A thorough explanation of the solid-to-liquid feeding model, which is the mechanism by which most predatory arthropods consume their prey and which has revolutionized the concept of insect feeding, was developed, showing how it works and how essential it is to our understanding of the ecology and management of predators. Based on this increased understanding of how insects feed, several artificial diets for predators and major pests (plant bugs) have been developed. One of these diets has been patented and has been used to rear over 50 generations and millions of green lacewings. This diet will soon be for use and commercialization. This diet has also been used to rear several other species of predators, including lady beetles, big-eyed bugs, predaceous stink bus, and pirate bugs. It has been used as a supplement to natural prey for fire ants, and with minor modification may be useful as a replacement diet for fire ants and other ant species. The meat based diet and its derivatives serve as the basis for a whole succession of diets for entomophagous arthropods in other laboratories and commercial rearing facilities, worldwide. The presence and nature of the digestive enzymes used by most predators and many important pests for their very specialized feeding mechanisms, was clarified. This information was also used to modify artificial diets for predators and pests, providing a foundation for in vivo mass rearing of natural enemies. For example, the newly developed plant bug diet costs less than 1/10 as much as the earlier Debolt diet, which has been the standard. Over 20 generations and hundreds of thousands of plant bugs have been reared with this new diet. This high level of production serves as a basis for in vivo mass rearing of plant bug parasites. A new meat free diet for plant eating insects (such as Lygus and other mirids) that supplement their diets with insects and for entomophagous insects (such as predators of Lygus, including Geocoris punctipes, insidious flower bug, and green lacewings) was developed. The cost of producing the new diet is less than half that of the existing diet and less than 1/10-1/20 the cost of the commercially used Lygus diet. It also supports faster development, greater longevity, greater adult survival, and far greater egg production in the western tarnished plant bug. An understanding of the feeding behavior of Trichogramma spp. larvae, which are minute parasitoids of insect eggs, was developed. These larvae selectively feed on "solid" particulate material in the host egg. This discovery is relatively revolutionary, in that it was previously believed that these minute insects were liquid feeders and efforts to develop artificial diets for them focused on producing a solutions. Such diets proved to be unsatisfactory, often producing insects with large distended abdomens. A more appropriate approach to diet development for these important parasitoids involves the use of suspensions, which can be much more nutritionally concentrated than solutions. These findings are being applied to current efforts with Anaphes iole, another minute egg parasite. Anaphes iole, a solitary wasp parasitoid of plant bug eggs, is a potentially important augmentative biological control agent for plant bugs. Current rearing practices are in vivo systems, based on the use of plant bug eggs, resulting in limited rearing capacity and relatively high costs. Development of an artificial diet based (in vitro) rearing system for these parasitoids could significantly improve our ability to use biological control techniques against plant bugs. Thus, studies of Anaphes iole larval development, morphology, and behavior were conducted, to determine if an artificial diet based rearing system for this parasitoid was feasible. In the laboratory, Anaphes iole adults deposit numerous eggs in a single host egg, which is important to the development of a technique for collecting large numbers of parasitoid eggs. That females could be induced to probe, with their ovipositor, in artificial substrates treated with chemical stimuli from plant bug females was also demonstrated. However, oviposition into artificial substrates has not yet been achieved. Anaphes iole larvae are sexually dimorphic. First instar larvae are relatively quiescent. Early second instar larvae are very active, both in terms of feeding and in eliminating any other larvae that may occupy the same host egg. Female larvae have longer mandibles and easily kill male larvae that may be present. This attack behavior, to a great extent, appears to be dependent on the attacking larva obtaining support from the host egg chorion, which provides a point of leverage, and/or pinning the attacked larva against the host egg chorion. At first glance, this aggressive behavior indicates that high density artificial diet based rearing may not be possible with this species. However, since the attack behavior appears to be dependent on a larva obtaining a point of leverage and/or pinning the attacked larva against the host egg chorion, high density cultures may well be possible in large rearing cells. On the other hand, since in nature, male larvae appear to have a lower rate of survival than female larvae, an artificial diet based rearing system will likely yield a higher percentage of male adults than a system using host eggs. Techniques for preparing packets of the diet and a Gelcarin oviposition substrate for plant bugs have been significantly improved, allowing scale up of the western tarnished plant bug rearing system. The western tarnished plant bug culture supports the rearing of plant bug parasitoids, including Anaphes iole and Peristenus stygicus. Costs associated with the current plant bug rearing system have been analyzed, to identify diet preparation/packaging as the most costly step, in terms of labor. Efforts to simplify the rearing system for the predator Geocoris punctipes revealed that a source of free water enhanced the fecundity of this predator, when they were being fed the Cohen artificial diet. A green bean/water solution, contained in a Parafilm packet, was equal to the addition of fresh green beans, but free water was still required for maximum fecundity of the predator. Studies comparing freeze-killed western tarnished plant bug adults and lepidopterous eggs as supplemental sources of food for Geocoris punctipes indicated that plant bugs were sub-optimal prey for the predator, but lepidopterous eggs (of two species combined) were optimal prey, with or without the artificial diet. A new technique for preparing stretched membrane packets of semisolid artificial diet, which could easily be automated was developed. A patent application for this technology is being prepared. An efficient mechanized system for distributing green lacewing eggs into verticel larval rearing units was developed. With this technique, 77.1% of the cells receive 1- 4 lacewing eggs. With the manual technique commonly used, only 40.8% of cells receive 1-4 eggs. The mean number of eggs per cell was 1.7, with the new system, compared to 2.8 with the manual system. This technique will more efficiently distribute eggs into the larval rearing units, and require considerably less labor. More than 75 arthropod species were collected from tropical soda apple (TSA), an exotic weed pest, in the Southeastern U.S. Many species were incidental, but approximately two- thirds were phytophagous. Some of these herbivores included polyphagous pests such as tobacco budworm, soybean looper, and southern green stink bug. Several oligophagous foliovores that feed on TSA are also pest species such as tobacco hornworm, Colorado potato beetle, and tomato pinworm. Other native oligophages specializing on Solanaceae also feed on TSA, the suckfly and a pyralid moth (Lineodes integra). The suckfly causes severe leaf chlorosis on TSA and was found throughout the growing season, with populations reaching maximum densities in autumn (up to 500/plant) Lineodes integra cut and tied leaves and damaged TSA foliage in the field and completely defoliated potted TSA plants in the greenhouse. In the Southeastern U.S., this weed continues to grow, reproduce, and spread at an alarming rate. Several niches are available for exploitation by imported South American natural enemies of TSA. In work related to the biological control of the Formosan subterranean termite, cooperative arrangements were established in China to assist in the search for unique natural enemies. Three locations in southern China were selected to receive funding to facilitate searches for FST infestations and collection of colonies and soil samples for holding in the laboratory. At Guangzhou, nematodes will be extracted from soil collected in Guandong and Hunan Provinces. Also at these sites as well as in Chongqing, termites will be held for observation of diseased specimens which will be shipped to the U.S. or France for analysis. Also, termite inspection sites were set up in forests in southern Mississippi. Near Stoneville, sites were set up around the research stations and in Stoneville woods. Predicted impact should be discovery of organisms from China that can be mass propagated and used in a pest management system for this extremely damaging termite pest. Collaboration with Australia scientists who are successful with termite biological control was also established and may lead to organisms that will be useful in the U.S. Testing of Metarhizium strains against New Orleans FST is proceeding. A new automated sting box for phorid flies, which are parasitoids of fire ants, was designed and constructed, in cooperation with scientists from the ARS, Medical, Agricultural, and Veterinary Entomology Center in Gainesville, Florida. This sting box should significantly increase their capacity to rear the phorid flies on fire ant hosts. 6. What do you expect to accomplish, year by year, over the next 3 years? During FY-2000, studies of digestive enzyme characterization and induction will continue, with special attention to responses of the enzymes of key target species (such as plant bugs, the insidious flower bug, Geocoris punctipes, coccinelids, and etc.) to digestive inhibitors and to biochemical factors in the food that may induce or repress the enzymes that are most prominent in digestion. This information will be applied to diet modifications and bioassays for improvement of existing artificial diets or development of new diets, which will be more effective, cheaper, and less prone to microbial contamination and spoilage. In this vein biochemical, physiological, and structure studies will be conducted in conjunction with key microbes to develop methods of improving the shelf life and reducing microbial contamination of diets and mass reared insects. All of this work will be centered around development of standards and practices of improved quality control. Efforts to further mechanize the rearing processes for plant bugs, Geocoris punctipes, Anaphes iole will continue, and these rearing system will be scaled up to allow production of insects for additional field testing. The tropical soda apple work will be discontinued, since that project has been transferred to another research unit. Nematodes, which attack the Formosan subterranean termite, from China and Australia will be tested. Potential new natural enemies of the termite, imported from China via diseased termites, will be isolated, tested and identified. Evaluation will lead to selection and field testing of promising strains. The probability of finding termite specific predators or parasitoids in China is believed to be low, but new efforts to excavate nests may reveal new material that negatively affects survival of gut symbionts. Forest survey in Mississippi will be expanded to include intensive sampling near known infestation sites that represent range expansion and in an effort to identify the northern limits of the termite. An area wide test on the Gulf Coast also will be initiated in cooperation with Mississippi State University. New acoustics research on termites and fire ants is being initiated, via cooperative agreement with University of Mississippi. During FY-2001 artificial diet development and improvement; based on analyses of the behavioral, structural, and biochemical processes of feeding and nutrient acquisition; will continue, as will basic studies of feeding behavior and physiology. This effort will expand to include other insect species, including Anaphes iole. The diet and gelcarin preparation and packaging process for the plant bug rearing system and the diet preparation and packaging process of the Geocoris punctipes rearing system will be automated. These rearing systems, and the in vivo rearing system for Anaphes iole will be continually upscaled and appropriate technology will be transferred to private sector insectaries. Formosan subterranean termite infestations will continue to be monitored in southern Mississippi and the northern limit to their potential range will be identified. Efforts to collect, identify, and evaluate (including field testing) natural enemies of this termite will continue. During FY-2002 mechanized/automated artificial diet based rearing systems for plant bugs and Geocoris punctipes will be completed. Scale up and automation of the insidious flower bug and in vivo Anaphes iole rearing systems will continue. Scale up of an in vitro rearing system for Anaphes iole will begin, assuming a successful artificial diet and artificial oviposition substrate are developed. Development of new and improved artificial diets, for additional biological control agents, will be developed. Potential biological control agents of the Formosan subterranean termite will be selected and identified for further development. 7. What science and/or technologies have been transferred and to whom? When is the science and/or technology likely to become available to the end user (industry, farmer, other scientists)? What are the constraints if known, to the adoption & durability of the technology product? The Artificial Media for Rearing Entomophages was Patented November 10, 1998 (U.S. Patent #5,834177) and licensing negotiations, with four commercial entities, are in the final stages. Once licensing is complete, techniques for preparing, packaging, and shipping commercial quantities of the diet will need to be developed. Also, techniques for packaging the diet for presentation to insects will have to be perfected. To obtain the full benefit of using the artificial diet in commercial production of predatory insects, the rearing systems will need to be scaled up to accommodate the increased rearing capacity that is possible with the diet. This diet will result in a significant increase in rearing capacity and reduction in rearing costs for green lacewings and possibly other predaceous insects. The new automated sting box for phorid flies has been transferred to the ARS, Medica, Agricultural, and Veterinary Entomology Center, Gainesville, Florida. 8. List your most important non-peer reviewed publications and presentations to non-scientific organizations, and articles written about your work(NOTE: this does not replace your peer reviewed publications which are listed below). Cohen A. C. Nutritional ecology of coccinellids. Aphidophaga VII. Aug. 31-Sept. 4, 1999. Bromont, Canada. Nordlund, D. A. Introduction - the Lygus problem. 73rd Annual meeting, Southeastern Branch, Entomological Society of America. Feb. 28-Mar. 3, 1999. Destin, Florida. Smith,R.A. and Nordlund,D.A. Mass rearing technology for biological control agents of Lygus spp. 73rd Ann. meeting, SE Branch, Ent.Society of Am..Feb.28-Mar. 3, 1999. Destin, Fl.

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications

  • COHEN,A.C., NORDLUND,D.A. and SMITH,R.1999. Mass rearing of entomophagous insects and predaceous mites:are the bottlenecks biological...or cultural? Biocontrol News and Info.: Accpt June 1, 1999.
  • COHEN, A.C. 1999. Feeding fitness and quality of domesticated and feral predators: Effects of long term rearing on artificial diet. Biological Control: AccptAug.17,1999.
  • COHEN, A.C. Patent Continue-In Part Serial No. )9/094,154 Filed 06/09/98.Artificial Media for Rearing Entomophages(Amended to include freeze-drying and use arthropod bait). Allow Feb., 1999.
  • COHEN, A. C. Provisional Patent Application Docket No. 0121.99. Diet for Entomophagous Arthropods Including Facultatively Entomophagous phytophages. Filed Feb.25,1999.
  • COHEN,A.C., ... VAIL,P.V. and AUNG,L.H. 1999. Studies of silverleaf.......behavior. Proc. of Sweetpotato Whitefly Prog. Rev: Accepted Feb 16, 1999.
  • CHU,C.C., COHEN,A.C., ...SIMMONS, G.S. and...1999. Silverleaf whitefly colon....leaf morphology ...cotton cultivars. Proc. of Sweetpotato Whitefly Prog. Review: Accpt Feb.16, 1999.
  • CHU,C.C., COHEN,A.C., ... SIMMONS,G.S. AND HENNEBERRY, T.J. 1999. Silverleaf whitefly colon. and leaf shape ... relationships in cotton.Proc. Beltwide Cotton Conf.: Accpt Feb.1, 1999.
  • GOUGE,D.H., COHEN,A.C., LEE.L. L. AND HENNEBERRY,T.J. 1999. Production of collagenase by entomophathogenic nematodes. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology: Accpt Feb. 17, 1999.
  • GILLIAM,M.A., ERICKSON, JR.,E.H., AND COHEN,A.C. 1999. Why do nodules appear in Euro. honey bees,...infested with mite. Inter. Coloquim on Invertebrate Path. and Microbial Control: Accpt May1,1999.
  • CHU,C.C., ...COHEN,A.C., ... AND HENNEBERRY,T.J. 1999. Relation. between leaf morph.and silverleaf ...deltapine cotton cultivars. Nat. Res. And Action Plan for Silver Leaf Whitefly: Accpt Jan.29, 1999.
  • CHU,C.C., ... COHEN, .C. AND HENNEBERRY,T.J. 1999. Relationship between upland cotton leaf shape, ...bemisia argentifolii (homoptera: aleyrodiadae) colonization. Univ. of AZ Agric. Exp. Sta:Accp Jan.8,1999.
  • CHU, C.C., NATWICK, E.T., HENNEBERRY, T.J., COHEN, A.C. and CASTLE, S.J. 1999. Silverleaf whitefly cotton cultivan pref. University of Arizona Agric: Accepted January 8, 1999.
  • CHU,C.C., NATWICK,E.T., HENNEBERRY,T.J., COHEN,A.C. and CASTLE,S.J. 1999. Cotton plant resistance to silverleaf whitefly as management tool. Proc. Beltwide Cotton Conference: Accpt Feb. 1, 1999.
  • CHU,C.C., NATWICK, E. T., ...and COHEN, A.C. 1999. Choice study of cotton cultivar susceptibility to silverleaf whiteflies in fields. Nat. And Action Plan for Silver Leaf Whitefly: Accepted January 29, 1999.
  • CHU, C.C., NATWICK,E.T., HENNEBERRY,T.J. and COHEN,A.C. 1999. No-choice study of cotton cultivar susceptibility to silverl.whitefli greenhouse. Natl.Res.and Act.Plan for SilverL.Whitefly:Accpt Jan29,1999.
  • CHU, C.C., ... BRUSHWOOD, D.E., HENNEBERRY, T.J.,CASTLE, S.J. and COHEN, A.C. 1999. Upland cotton susceptibility to silverleaf whitefly infestations. Proc.of Sweetpotato Whitefly Progress Review: Accpt Jan,1999.


Progress 01/01/98 to 09/30/98

Outputs
1. What major problem or issue is being resolved and how are you resolving it? Alternative pest management strategies, which enable us to reduce our reliance on conventional pesticides, are needed for a variety of reasons, including: Food Quality Protection Act, increasing resistance to conventional pesticides, and environmental concerns. Among the more viable alternative strategies is augmentative biological control via periodic release of biological control agents. The success of this approach is dependent on, among other things, an ability to rear sufficient numbers of high quality agents at a sufficiently low cost. Also, equipment for effective releases of these agents and strategies for their integration into Integrated Pest Management systems are necessary. This project involves research by a team of entomologists and engineers to develop automated mass rearing systems and release technology for selected biological control agents. Primary pest targets include the tarnished plant bug, western tarnished plant bug, and tropical soda apple. This project also has some important activity related to the Formosan subterranean termite (with funds from the CRIS 6435-32000-001-00D). The tarnished plant bug and western tarnished plant bug are important pests of many crops, including cotton, and are expected to become more important in cotton as the boll weevil is eradicated and transgenic cotton is adopted for control of lepidopterous insects. Also, pesticide resistance in plant bugs is increasing. Plant bugs have a variety of natural enemies attacking them, but they are unable to maintain low pest populations in annual row crop systems. This project involves developing techniques for mass rearing promising natural enemies of these important pests, for release, primarily in early season host plants of the tarnished plant bug, in an effort to prevent population build up during the crop season. This approach will be integrated with an area-wide habitat destruction program, to develop a biologically based area-wide management program for these important pests. Tropical soda apple is an invasive exotic weed from South America, which has spread to nine U.S. states and Puerto Rico. Population dynamics studies are being conducted to evaluate arthropods associated with tropical soda apple in the U.S. Potential biological control agents, from South America, have been identified and further exploration is planned. Promising agents will be imported, through the Biological Control and Mass Rearing Research Unit's Stoneville Research Quarantine Facility. Host range studies will be conducted, in quarantine, and release approval will be sought for appropriately selected organisms. Mass rearing and release techniques for those selected organisms will be developed. The Formosan subterranean termite is thought to have been brought into the U.S. on military ships returning from World War II. The main points of entry were New Orleans and Lake Charles, Louisiana; Galveston and Houston, Texas; and Charleston, South Carolina. Foreign explorations will be conducted to discover effective natural enemies in the site of origin, and then will be cleared for release in the United States through the Stoneville Research Quarantine Facility. 2. How serious is the problem? Why does it matter? Insect and weed pests cause billions of dollars in losses each year to U.S. agriculture. The traditional means of controlling such pests, conventional pesticides, have historically provided effective and economical control for most of our pests. However, a number of issues, including Food Quality Protection Act, resistance, and environmental concerns raise questions regarding the appropriateness of an almost total reliance on conventional pesticides for pest management and protection of our agricultural base. Thus, there is need to develop alternative pest management strategies that can offer effective control, at a reasonable cost, without the potential negative effects of conventional pesticides. Augmentative biological control is one of those alternatives. Augmentative biological control has been studied for many years by ARS, university, and private sector scientists. It has been demonstrated many times to offer an effective and sustainable alternative to conventional pesticides. An industry devoted to the rearing of effective biological control agents is developing, both in the U.S. and abroad. Yet, this approach to pest management is used on only a minute portion of our crops. One of the primary reasons that this approach to pest management has had such limited impact revolves around the limited capacity for rearing insect biological control agents and the high cost of current rearing systems. Historically, research has been focused on identifying potential biological control agents and small scale studies to demonstrate effectiveness. Very little research effort has been focused on development of mass rearing systems capable of producing the numbers of insects necessary to have a significant impact in major crop systems and to reduce rearing costs. This project is focused on solving these problems. 3. How does it relate to the National Program(s) and National Component(s) to which it has been assigned? This project contributes to the "Development of New and Improved Pest Control Technologies" (biological control) component of the National Program on Crop & Commodity Pest Biology, Control & Quarantine (304). In addition, this project contributes to the "Integration of Component Technologies into IPM Systems" component of that national program. 4. What were the most significant accomplishments this past year? Development of a "solid-to-liquid" feeding model for arthropods. This model provides an understanding of nutrient composition and feeding processes of insects, which is used to develop artificial diets and feeding systems for natural enemies and pests. The solid-to liquid feeding model has facilitated the development of several artificial diets for predators and pests. It represents a complete re-thinking of how arthropods actually feed, and is the basis of a revolution in artificial diet development. 5. Describe the major accomplishments over the life of the project including their predicted or actual impact? . Developed a thorough explanation of the solid-to-liquid feeding model, which is the mechanism used by most predatory arthropods for consuming their prey, showing how it works and how it is essential to our understanding of the ecology and management of predators. Several artificial diets for predators and major pests, plant bugs, have been developed. One of these diets has been patented and has been used to rear over 50 generations and millions of green lacewings. It has also been used to rear several other species of predators, including lady beetles, big-eyed bugs, predaceous stink bugs, and pirate bugs. It has been used as a supplement to natural prey for fire ants, and with modifications may be useful as a replacement diet for fire ants and other ant species. The meat paste diet and its derivatives serve as the basis for a whole succession of diets for entomophagous arthropods in other laboratories and commercial rearing facilities, worldwide. Discovered and clarified the presence and nature of the digestive enzymes used by most predators and many important pests for using their very specialized feeding mechanism. This information was used to modify artificial diets for predators and pests, providing a foundation for mass rearing of natural enemies. For example, the newly developed plant bug diet costs less than 1/10 as much as the earlier Debolt diet, which had been the standard of the field. Over 10 generations and hundreds of thousands of plant bugs have been reared with this new diet. This high level of production will serve as a basis for mass rearing of plant bug parasites. The feeding model of whitefly feeding is being used as a basis for developing programs in host plant resistance in cotton. Data on the population dynamics of arthropods associated with Tropical Soda apple and other weedy Solanaceae in Mississippi were collected and compiled. This information has been used to identify several native herbivores that have potential for use in an augmentative biological control program for this important weed. A culture of the night shade leaftier is being established for further host feeding studies. Regarding Formosan subterranean termite, termite survey stakes were set up in Stoneville, MS, to ascertain local species and activity, while small colonies of native subterranean termites were collected for observation and testing. 6. What do you expect to accomplish, year by year, over the next 3 years? Refinement of current artificial diets, including one for the tarnished plant bug development of new diets that are less expensive, easier to preserve, package, and ship than previous diets. Improve techniques for reducing microbial contamination in diets. Further elucidation of feeding mechanisms for selected biological control agents, to provide a basis of using the most appropriate raw materials in artificial diets. This will also provide the biotechnology community with essential information for identifying the most appropriate targets for gene manipulation in host plant resistance development. Expansion of our understanding of which predators and parasites are potentially most adept at control of plant bugs. Rearing of Anaphes ioli, bigeyed bug (a plant bug parasite), insidious flower bug, western tarnished plant bug, and tarnished plant bug will be upscaled to support field studies of the parasitoids and predators. Development of an artificial diet based rearing system for Anaphes ioli will begin. Rearing of Peristenus stygicus, another parasite of plant bugs, will also begin. This upscaling will include automation of such processes as diet preparation and packaging and improved cages for holding nymphs/adults. Explorations and collections will be conducted in South America to collect additional potential biological control agents of tropical soda apple. Feeding range studies of insects found to feed on this pest will be conducted and potential biological control agents will be identified and imported for further study on their host range, biology, and rearing. Simulation models of rearing systems, and unit operations within the systems, will be developed and used to analyze and optimize the rearing systems. The models will provide economic data for use in technology transfer activities. For the Formosan subterranean termite; the use of smaller strains of nematodes will be tested; the lab will be setup to handle importation of fungal pathogens; foreign explorations, in search of parasites, predators, and pathogens, will be conducted; and microbiology capabilities at the quarantine facility will be upgraded. 7. What science and/or technologies have been transferred and to whom? When is the science and/or technology likely to become available to the end user (industry, farmer, other scientists)? What are the constraints if known, to the adoption & durability of the technology product? An "Artificial Media for Rearing Entomophages" was patented and published. The Office of Technology Transfer is currently negotiating licensing the diet to companies both in the food industry and in the biological control industry. The diet has been tested by several companies and other scientists via materials transfer agreements (Beneficial Insectary, Buena Biosystems, Biofac, Ciba-Bunting, Cornell University {two agreements}, IPM Systems, Inc., Bunting Bees, Innovative Foods, Oregon Freeze Dry, Van Drunen Farms, Novartis). Several researchers have visited in person or by phone to seek advice on preparation, testing, and use of the diet. The major constraints to adoption of this technology are that having an artificial diet that works to sustain healthy, productive colonies of predators is hitherto unknown and the need for an automated packaging system. Several companies that have tested the diet (Beneficial Insectary, Buena Biosystems, and Biofac) are extremely enthusiastic about its adoption. 8. List your most important non-peer reviewed publications and presentations to non-scientific organizations, and articles written about your work(NOTE: this does not replace your peer reviewed publications which are listed below) . Cohen, A. C. and L. Smith. A new concept in artificial diets for Chrysoperla carnea: the efficacy of solid diet. Biological Control. 13: 49-54. 1998. Cohen, A. C. Artificial media for rearing entomophages. Docket # 0087.96, Serial # 08/699,815, U.S. Patent # 5,834, 177, November 10, 1998. Nordlund, D. A., Wu. Z. X., Cohen, A. C. and Greenberg, S. M. Recent advances in the in vitro rearing of Trichogramma spp. In: Hassan, S. A. (ed.). Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium "Trichogramma and Other Egg Parasitoids." (Accepted 6/10/1998)

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications

  • SMITH, R.A. and NORDLUND, D.A. 1998. Automation in insect rearing - A key to the development of augmentative biological control. Natural Enemies of Insects: Accepted September 15,1998.
  • SUDBRINK, Jr., D.L., MACK, T.P. and ZEHNDER, G.W. 1998. Alternate host plants of cowpea curculio (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Alabama. Florida Entomologist. 81:373-383.
  • NORDLUND, D.A., WU. Z.X., COHEN, A.C. and GREENBERG, S.M. 1998. Recent advances in...rearing of Trichogramma spp. In: Hassan, S.A. (ed.). Proc. 5th Inter. Symp. "Trichogramma..Parasitoids.": Accepted June 10, 1998.
  • NORDLUND, D.A., COHEN, A.C. and SMITH, R.A. 1998. Mass-rearing, Release Techniques, and Augmentation. In: McEwen, P. and T. R. New (eds.). Lacewings in the Crop Environment: Accepted November 16,1998.
  • ATMOWIDJOJO, A.H., WHEELER, D.E., ERICKSON, E.H. and COHEN, A.C. 1998. Regulation of hemolymph osmolality in feral...honeybees, Apis mellifera L....Comparative Biochemistry & Physiology: Accepted November 12, 1998.
  • COHEN, A.C. 1998. Biochemical & morphological...predatory feeding habits in terrestrial Heteroptera. pp. 21-32. In: Coll, M. and Ruberson, J.R. [eds.], Predatory...biological control. Entomol. Soc. of America.
  • COHEN, A.C. 1998. Artificial media for rearing entomophages. Docket # 0087.96, Serial # 08/699,815, U.S. Patent # 5,834, 177, November 10, 1998.
  • COHEN, A.C. and SMITH, L. 1998. A new concept in artificial diets for Chrysoperla carnea: the efficacy of solid diet. Biological Control 13: 49-54.
  • COHEN, A.C. and WHEELER, A.G. 1998. Role of saliva in the highly destructive four-lined plant bug. Annals Entomol. Soc. of America 91:94-100.
  • COHEN, A.C., CHU, C.C., HENNEBERRY, T.J., FREEMAN, T., NELSON, D., BUCKNER, J., MARGOSAN, D., VAIL, P. and AUNG, L. 1998. Feeding biology.. whitefly. J. Chinese Assoc. of Entomol.: Accepted August 15,1998.
  • CHU, C.C., HENNEBERRY, T.J., CASTLE, S.J., COHEN, A.C. and BOYKIN, M. A. 1998. Upland cotton susceptibility to Bemisia argentifolii (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) infestations. J. Cotton Science 2:1-9.
  • CHU, C.C., NATWICK, E.T., COHEN, A.C., SIMMONS, G.S., BRUSHWOOD, D.E. and HENNEBERRY, T.J. 1998. Bemisia argentifolii colonization, vascular bundle...cultivars. Southwestern Entomol.: Accepted August 28,1998.
  • CHU, C.C., NATWICK, E., COHEN, A.C., HENNEBERRY, T.J., SIMMONS, G. 1998. Bemisia tabaci...Biotype B colonization and leaf morphology relationship in upland cotton. Australian J. Entomol.: Accepted December 8, 1998.
  • GREENBERG, S.M., NORDLUND, D.A. and WU, Z.X. 1998. Influence of rearing host on adult size and ovipositional behavior... Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae). Biological Control 11:43-48.
  • GREENBERG, S.M., MORRISON, R.K., NORDLUND, D.A. and KING, E.G. 1998. A review of the scientific literature and methods for production of factitious hosts.....Europe and China. J. Entomol. Sci. 33:15-32.
  • GREENBERG, S.M., LEGASPI, J.C., NORDLUND, D.A., WU, Z.X., LEGASPI, B., Jr. and SALDANA, R. 1998. Evaluation of Trichogramma spp.... against two pyralid stemborers of Texas sugarcane. J. Entomol. Sci. 33:158-164.
  • GREENBERG, S.M., SUMMY, K.R., RAULSTON, J.R. and NORDLUND, D.A. 1998. Parasitism of beet armyworm by T. pretiosum and T. minutum under laboratory and field conditions. Southwestern Entomol. 23:183-188.
  • NORDLUND, D.A. 1998. Capacity and Quality: Keys to success in the mass rearing of biological control agents. Natural Enemies of Insects: Accepted July 16, 1998.