Source: MISSISSIPPI STATE UNIV submitted to
SUSTAINING ROW-CROP YIELD AND PROFITABILITY THROUGH EVALUATION OF SOIL FERTILITY AND FERTILIZATION PRACTICES IN THE MISSISSIPPI DELTA
Sponsoring Institution
National Institute of Food and Agriculture
Project Status
NEW
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
0230920
Grant No.
(N/A)
Project No.
MIS-151240
Proposal No.
(N/A)
Multistate No.
(N/A)
Program Code
(N/A)
Project Start Date
Jul 1, 2012
Project End Date
Jun 30, 2016
Grant Year
(N/A)
Project Director
Golden, B. R.
Recipient Organization
MISSISSIPPI STATE UNIV
(N/A)
MISSISSIPPI STATE,MS 39762
Performing Department
Delta Research & Extension Center
Non Technical Summary
Upland crop management practices in the Mississippi Delta are diverse dependent upon the commodity produced. However, across commodity groups and production methods a foundation exists centered on some form of nutrient application. Short term land rents, volatility in the fertilizer market, and growing concern over environmental issues associated with fertilization have led to challenges in developing fertilization programs and soil nutrient management strategies. Greater efficiency with regard to nutrient management techniques is warranted. Specifically, techniques that adequately describe the proper quantity and source of nutrients required to produce optimal plant yield while minimizing fertilizer movement in the landscape and/or the atmosphere are sought.
Animal Health Component
90%
Research Effort Categories
Basic
10%
Applied
90%
Developmental
(N/A)
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
1020199101010%
1021510101025%
1021542101010%
1021710101020%
1021820101025%
1025210101010%
Goals / Objectives
The project will attempt to improve soil test based fertilizer recommendations via correlation of plant tissue and grain/fiber yield with soil test indices assessed by routine soil analysis. Validation of nutrient recommendations based on field research is needed to further develop agronomic and environmentally sustainable fertilization practices in Mississippi. Field research in the Mississippi Delta is needed to investigate the utility and value of using alternative fertilizer sources as well as application methods that may improve nutrient use efficiency. Objective 1. 1. Categorize the range of critical soil test levels for macro and major micronutrients by routine soil analysis for soils that require nutrient application to produce optimal yields for corn, soybean, cotton, and soft red winter wheat. Objective 2. Evaluate the feasibility of utilizing alternative and enhanced efficiency N sources in comparison to traditional N fertilization programs for principal agronomic row-crops of Mississippi. At Termination of the project expected outcomes include an up to date soil test recommendation for potash and phosphate that is based on both the Mehlich-3 and Lancaster soil test methods resulting from research conducted on modern high yielding cultivars, a set of regression based equations that could be used for variable rate nutrient application strategies, and positive correlation of tissue concentration with crop yield to help aid in season diagnostics for troubleshooting nutrient deficiencies.Determination of specific nutrient application strategies and/or the usefulness of new technology products at minimizing nutrient loss from the plant soil system. These determinations will help revise best management practices for nutrient management in Mississippi, if applicable.Data obtained from this project will be distributed to stakeholders via presentation at county, state, and national meetings, published in both refereed and extension avenues, and used extensively on trouble shooting visits to production fields.
Project Methods
Primary focus of this research will work on correlation of nutrients with soybean, wheat, and corn yield response, and tissue concentration at critical stages of crop growth and development. Trials will focus on correlation of the Mehlich-3 and Lancaster soil test extractant to crop response. Trials will be conducted using a range of single fertilizer rates ranging from low to high and include a no fertilizer of interest control for each crop evaluated. Research will gauge crop response to Other essential plant nutrients will be supplied at optimal levels to ensure they are not yield limiting factors. When resources allow, multiple sites will be established each year. Studies will be conducted on experiment stations and in producer fields when possible for data to include a range of production practices and management techniques. A minimum of four replications will be used at each site-year. Soil samples will be collected from the untreated control areas of each test, extracted with Mehlich-3, cataloged and stored for future analysis if necessary. Aboveground plant biomass will be collected at one to two critical growth stages to examine tissue response to fertilization. Once a critical mass of data has been collected, correlation of soil test data with tissue concentration, biomass, and relative yield response will be evaluated utilizing both linear and nonlinear regression techniques to determine critical concentrations. Commercially available and/or experimental polymer coated N sources will be evaluated for N uptake, N use efficiency, and grain yield compared to standard N fertilization practices for row crops of Mississippi. Each polymer coated N source will be applied at four to five total N rates appropriate for each cropping system (e.g. 0 to 240 lbs N ac-1 for corn; 0 to 150 lbs N ac-1 for cotton) and compared to identical total N rates of either UAN and/or urea. For corn and cotton, N application timings will consist of preplant, sidedress and/or split applications to evaluate management practices effect on the suitability of polymer-coated urea as an alternate N source. Research will be conducted in irrigated environments. Treatments will be replicated at least four times at each site-year. Regression analysis will be used to compare N rate response across N source and application time treatments. If preliminary trial results suggest polymer coated urea may provide utility as an N source, research will be initiated to refine crop management strategies that enhance the probability of adapting controlled release N sources for use in Mississippi. Research would include altering nutrient application times and placement. Field and/or laboratory incubations will be utilized to determine the N release profile across time of selected controlled release N sources in soils commonly cultivated to row crops. Field and laboratory trials will be based at the Delta Research and Extension Center, with additional trials established at other MAFES stations and producers fields when land becomes available. Field measurements will include grain yield, tissue and soil analysis, and possible examination of N loss pathways as resources allow.

Progress 10/01/13 to 09/30/14

Outputs
Target Audience: Producers, Consultants, Ag Industry Professionals, and Soil Agronomists Changes/Problems: Nothing Reported What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided? Research Results were presented at grower meetings, field dats, consultants meetinds and county demonstrations. Specific research was presented at four scientific meetings. How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest? Research Results were presented at grower meetings, field dats, consultants meetinds and county demonstrations. Specific research was presented at four scientific meetings. What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals? Nothing Reported

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? For Soybean field trial testing at five locations within the Mississippi Delta region to determine response to Potash Fertilization. Individual trials were placed in Carroll, Coahoma, Humphreys, Leflore, and Washington Counties. One trial was placed at the DREC while all remaining trials were placed in production fields. The trial in Humphreys Co. was lost due to the producers harvesting through the plot area. In 2013, there is little to report as no trials were statistically responsive to potash fertilization. Across locations yields differed dramatically, with soybean yield from the untreated control ranging from 54 bu/ac (Carroll Co; Double crop beans) to 93 bu/ac (Leflore Co; ESPS Beans). Soybean yield response to potash fertilization trials at all harvestable locations in 2013. Soybean tissue K concentration was similar across research locations and within a research location across potash fertilization rates. This result was expected due to the lack of yield response associated with potash fertilization rate in 2013. Phosphorus response trials were inititated at the same locations in 2013 as the potash response trials. Dissimilar, to 2012, we observed responses to phosphorus fertilization rate at three of the four testing locations. At the DREC, soybean yield increase from phosphorus fertilization occurred at only the greatest (150 lb P2O5/ac) rate of fertilization (p-value = 0.0395). Soybean yield was 96.1 bu/ac compared to the untreated controlyield of 84.5 bu/ac. At the Coahoma Co location we observed our greatest response to P fertilization to date (p-value=0.0268). Soybean yield increased with increasing P2O5 rate across the range of application rates. Mean soybean yield from the untreated control (62.2 bu/ac) was approximately 22% less than yield from 150 lb P2O5/ac (79.4 bu/ac). At the Leflore Co, site single degree of freedom contrast suggested that 60 lb P2O5/ac (92 bu/ac) produced greater soybean yield than the untreated control (88 bu/ac), however all other application rates produced similar yield to the untreated control. Field trials were conducted at two high yielding locations within the state of Mississippi, both at the Delta Research and Extension Center to evaluate soybean response N addition, N form, and critical N timing. Both sites, one a clay soil and the other a very fine sandy loam have a yield history of >65 bushel beans. Preliminary results from year one on both the clay and silt loam site suggested a slight benefit from fertilization of soybean with nitrogen. No statistical differences were observed among application times and N sources on the silt loam site for grain yield and tissue N concentration, respectively. Responses were observed for tissue nitrogen concentration and grain yield for research trials managed on the clay soil site. Soybean tissue nitrogen concentration at R5 was significantly affected by the main effect of nitrogen rate. In general, soybean tissue N concentration followed the logical order with the greatest numerical mean tissue N concentration observed with the greatest N application rate, and the numerical lowest tissue N concentrations observed from the untreated control. For 2013, the potash x cotton variety response trial was ramped up to include more varieties than last year, this resulted in dropping the foliar application treatment and including 5 more varieties for a total of eight. Lint yields in the trial were astronomical with all varieties averaged over potash rates picking >2500 lint. In general, there was no clear trend among varietal maturity when comparing yields, however the main effect of variety was significant for lint yield ( p=0.008) . The greatest yielding variety was NG 1511 B2RF (2948 lb lint ac-1), while the lowest yielding variety was PHY 339 WRF (2508 lb lint ac-1).

Publications

  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Fitts, P.W., T.W. Walker, L.J. Krutz, B.R. Golden, J.J. Varco, J. Gore, J.L. Corbin, and N.A. Slaton. 2014. Evaluation of nitrification and methods to minimize denitrification loss for rice. Agron. J. 106:1541-1548.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Bond, J.A., T.W. Eubank, R.C. Bond, B.R. Golden, and H.M. Edwards. 2014. Glyphosate-resistant Italian Ryegrass (Lolium perenne ssp. Multiflorum) Control with Fall-applied Residual Herbicides. Weed Tech. 28:361-370.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Salmeron, M., E.E. Gbur, F.M. Bourland, N.W. Buehring, L. Earnest. F.B. Fritschi, B.R. Golden, D. Hathcoat, J. Lofton, T.D. Miller, C.M. Neely, G. Shannon, T. Udeigwe, D.A. Verbee, E.D. Vories, and L.C. Purcell. (In Press). Soybean Maturity group choices for early and late plantings in the Midsouth. Agron. J.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Awaiting Publication Year Published: 2014 Citation: Montgomery, G., J.A. Bond, B.R. Golden, J. Gore, M. Edwards, T.W. Eubank, and T.W. Walker. (Accepted 7-17-14). Evaluation of Salflufenacil in Drill-Seeded Rice (Oryza sativa). Weed Tech.
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Dodds, D.M., A.L. Catchot, and B.R. Golden. 2014. 2013 Mississippi Cotton Variety Trials (On Farm). MSU Ext Ser. Bull. 2696. Starkville, MS
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Golden, B.R., D.M. Dodds, W.E. Clark, N.W. Buehring, L. Falconer, M.W. Shankle, and T.P. Wallace. 2014. Mississippi cotton variety trials 2013. MS Agric. Exp. Stn. Bull. 477. Starkville, MS.
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Golden, B.R. 2014. Mid-South Zn fertility in corn. p. 9-11. In Mid-South Soil Fertility Review: Ed. B. Haggard. LSU AgCenter. Baton Rouge, LA
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Wilkerson, T.H., Allen, T.W., and Golden, B.R. 2014. Evaluation of foliar fungicides to prevent yield loss from frogeye leaf spot in Mississippi full-season soybean. 2013. Plant Disease Management Report 8:FC243.
  • Type: Websites Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Allen, T.W., B.R. Golden, and D.M. Dodds. 2014. Scouting cotton for bacterial blight in 2014. [Online]. Available at: http://www.mississippi-crops.com/2014/07/08/scouting-cotton-for-bacterial-blight-in-2014/
  • Type: Websites Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Allen, T.W., B.R. Golden, J. Gore, J.A. Bond. 2014. Tips to improve rice fungicide application effectiveness. [Online]. Available at: http://www.mississippi-crops.com/2014/05/03/tips-to-improve-rice-fungicide-application-effectiveness/
  • Type: Websites Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Bond, J.A., T.W. Allen, B.R. Golden. 2014. Soybean seedling emergence issues: environmental stress compounding factors. [Online]. Available at: http://www.mississippi-crops.com/2014/05/06/soybean-seedling-emergence-issues-environmental-stress-compounding-factors/
  • Type: Websites Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Bond, J.A., J. Gore, T.W. Allen, and B.R. Golden. 2014. Thinking about planting medium-grain rice? [Online]. Available at: http://www.mississippi-crops.com/2014/03/2014-thinking-about-planting-medium-grain-rice/
  • Type: Websites Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Golden, B.R. and D.M. Dodds. 2014. Late season potash deficiency in cotton. [Online]. Available at: http://www.mississippi-crops.com/2014/08/01/late-season-potash-deficiency-in-cotton/
  • Type: Websites Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Golden, B.R., J. Gore, T.W. Allen, and J.A. Bond. 2014. Keys to diagnosing common nutrient deficiencies in rice. [Online]. Available at: http://www.mississippi-crops.com/2014/07/24/keys-to-diagnosing-common-nutrient-deficiencies-in-rice/
  • Type: Websites Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Golden, B.R. and T.W. Allen. 2014. Rice leaf blast confirmed in Mississippi. [Online]. Available at: http://www.mississippi-crops.com/2014/07/23/rice-leaf-blast-confirmed-in-mississippi/
  • Type: Websites Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Golden, B.R. 2014. Diagnosing nutrient deficiencies in Mississippi soybeans. [Online]. Available at: http://www.mississippi-crops.com/2014/06/14/diagnosing-nutrient-deficiencies-in-mississippi-soybeans/
  • Type: Websites Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Golden, B.R., T.W. Allen, J. Gore, and J.A. Bond. 2014. Protecting your preflood nitrogen. [Online]. Available at: http://www.mississippi-crops.com/2014/05/16/protecting-your-preflood-nitrogen/
  • Type: Websites Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Golden, B.R., J.A. Bond, J. Gore, and T.W. Allen. 2014. Rice planting date  are we too late? [Online]. Available at: http://www.mississippi-crops.com/2014/04/25/rice-planting-date-are-we-too-late/
  • Type: Websites Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Golden, B.R. 2014. Altered corn emergence  compaction/crusting issues. [Online]. Available at: http://www.mississippi-crops.com/2014/04/25/altered-corn-emergence-compactioncrusting-issues/
  • Type: Websites Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Golden, B.R. 2014. Dont overlook zinc in your corn fertility program. [Online]. Available at: http://www.mississippi-crops.com/2014/02/07/dont-overlook-zinc-in-your-corn-fertility-program/
  • Type: Websites Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Gore, J., B.R. Golden, and D. Cook. 2014. Armyworms in rice, again! [Online]. Available at: http://www.mississippi-crops.com/2014/06/27/armyworms-in-rice-again/
  • Type: Websites Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Gore, J., B.R. Golden, D. Cook, J.A. Bond, and T.W. Allen. 2014. Rice stink bugs in Mississippi rice. [Online]. Available at: http://www.mississippi-crops.com/2014/07/24/rice-stink-bugs-in-mississippi-rice/
  • Type: Websites Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Gore, J., B.R. Golden, J.A. Bond, and T.W. Allen. 2014. Insecticide seed treatments and rice water weevil management in rice. [Online]. Available at: http://www.mississippi-crops.com/2014/05/15/insecticide-seed-treatments-and-rice-water-weevil-management-in-rice/
  • Type: Websites Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Irby, J.T., and B.R. Golden. 2014. Soybean crop update and replant decisions. [Online]. Available at: http://www.mississippi-crops.com/2014/06/13/soybean-crop-update-and-replant-decisions/
  • Type: Websites Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Krutz, L.J., D. Roach, and B.R. Golden. 2014. Economic benefits of properly managing multiple inlet rice irrigation. [Online]. Available at: http://www.mississippi-crops.com/2014/06/26/economic-benefits-of-properly-managing-multiple-inlet-rice-irrigation/
  • Type: Websites Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Dodds, D.M., A. Catchot, and B.R. Golden. 2013. 2013 On-Farm Cotton Variety Trials. [Online]. Available at: http://www.mississippi-crops.com/2013/12/19/2013-on-farm-cotton-variety-trials/
  • Type: Websites Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Golden, B.R., and D.M. Dodds. 2013. 2013 Small plot cotton variety trial  Final Data. [Online]. Available at: http://www.mississippi-crops.com/2013/12/22/2013-small-plot-cotton-variety-trial-final-data/
  • Type: Websites Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Irby, T., T.W. Eubank, B.R. Golden. 2013. Soybean variety suggestions for 2014. . [Online]. Available at: http://www.mississippi-crops.com/2013/12/16/soybean-variety-suggestions-for-2014/
  • Type: Websites Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Oldham, L., B.R. Golden, and K. Crouse. 2013. Theres Good News about the Potassium in Your Soil. [Online]. Available at: http://www.mississippi-crops.com/2013/12/13/theres-good-news-about-the-potassium-in-your-soil/
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Wilkerson,T.H., T.W. Allen, B.R. Golden, J.T. Irby. 2014. Frogeye leaf spot management with timed fungicide applications in the Mississippi soybean production system. In annual meetings abstract. APS-CPS joint meeting. Minneapolis, MN. Aug 9-13 2014
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Allen, T.W., Wilkerson, T.H., Irby, J.T., and Golden, B.R. 2014. Late fungicide applications to manage frogeye leaf spot in the Mississippi soybean production system. In Proceedings of the Southern Soybean Disease Workers, Pensacola Beach, FL March 5-6, 2014.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Fitts, P.W., T.W. Walker, J.L. Corbin, L.J. Krutz, B.R. Golden, J.J. Varco, J. Gore, and R.L. Atwill. 2014. Nitrogen loss potential by nitrification/denitrification as affected by N-source in rice. In Biannual meetings abstract [CD-ROM]. 35th Rice Technical Working Group. New Orleans, LA. Feb 18-Feb 21, 2014.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Walker, T.W., R.L. Atwill, J.L. Corbin, P.W. Fitts, and B.R. Golden. 2014. Rice planting date effects on yield and grain quality. In Biannual meetings abstract [CD-ROM]. 35th Rice Technical Working Group. New Orleans, LA. Feb 18-Feb 21, 2014.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Mangialardi, J.P., T.W. Eubank, C.B. Edwards, B.H. Lawrence, J.A. Bond, and B.R. Golden. 2014. Postemergence control of glyphosate-resistant Amaranthus palmeri with combinations of mesotrione, fomesafen and glyphosate. Proceedings of the southern WSSA. Birmingham, AL. Jan 27-29, 2014.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Golden, B.R. 2014. Zinc fertilization considerations for Mid-South corn production. In Proc. Conserv. Cotton and Rice Conf. Mid America Farm Pub. Tunica, MS. Jan 15- 16, 2014.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Dixon, T.H., D.M. Dodds, J.D. Copeland, D.Z. Reynolds, C.A. Samples, J.J. Varco, and B.R. Golden. 2014. Impact of nitrogen application rate and plant growth regulator application on double-cropped cotton. Beltwide Cotton Conference. New Orleans, LA, Jan 6-8, 2014.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Golden, B.R., and M.W. Ebelhar. 2014. Fertility Management in a changing world  sources, coatings, inhibitors, and enhancers. Beltwide Cotton Conference. New Orleans, LA, Jan 6-8, 2014.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Samples, C.A., D.M. Dodds, J. Gore, B.R. Golden, A. Catchot, J.J. Varco, J.D. Copeland, T.H. Dixon, and D.Z. Reynolds. 2014. Determining optimum plant growth regulator application strategies in response to fruit removal. Beltwide Cotton Conference. New Orleans, LA, Jan 6-8, 2014
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Samples, C.A., D.M. Dodds, J. Gore, B.R. Golden, A. Catchot, J.J. Varco, J.D. Copeland, T.H. Dixon, and D.Z. Reynolds. 2014. Impact of nitrogen rate on tarnished plant bug populations and control. Beltwide Cotton Conference. New Orleans, LA, Jan 6-8, 2014.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Samples, C., D.M. Dodds, A. Catchot, B.R. Golden, J. Copeland, T. Dixon, and D. Reynolds. 2014. Effect of nitrogen application rate on tarnished plant bug (Lygus lineolaris) in Mid-South cotton. Entomological Society of America. Greenville, SC. March 2-5, 2014.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Golden, B.R., W.E. Clark, N.W. Buehring, L.L. Falconer, M.W. Shankle, and T.P. Wallace. 2014. 2013 Mississippi state cotton variety trial, variety performance. Beltwide Cotton Conference. New Orleans, LA, Jan 6-8, 2014.


Progress 01/01/13 to 09/30/13

Outputs
Target Audience: Producers, Consultants, Ag industry professionals, Soil Agronomists Changes/Problems: Nothing Reported What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided? Nothing Reported How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest? Results have been disseminated from the local to national scale to communities of interest. please see 2013 publications and presentations for detail. What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals? Nothing Reported

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? This research will directly influence the Mississippi soybean industry by providing a set of Mississippi soil test recommendations that could be applied to soil test data from laboratories that utilize Mehlich-3 as an extractant. The research will also be valuable in updating current recommendations for soybean recommendations based on the Lancaster extraction method currently utilized by Mississippi State University’s Soil Test Laboratory. The research will also provide data based on newer high yielding cultivars, The ESPS, and new and evolving production practices. USDA-NASS estimates that approximately 17 and 19% of soybean acres in Mississippi receive P and K fertilization annually. This data would immediately affect those producers who annually apply P and K and perhaps bring heightened awareness to those who do not or provide economic balance for those producers who are over applied nutrients. If successfully correlated the data could provide a university based prescription equation for variable rate nutrient application based on grid sampling. Activities initiated to fulfill objective one during 2013 included field trial testing at six locations within the Mississippi Delta region for soybean and 4 locations for Corn. Individual trials were placed in Bolivar, Cohoama, Humphreys, Leflore, and Washington Counties with four trials occurring at the DREC and the remainder in production fields. Of the harvested trials two positive responses to potash fertilization was observed for corntrials,two positive responses for potash onsoybean, with one postitive response occuring with phosphorus on soybean. For year 2013, no response to P was detected in corn trials. SInce the intiation of the project this research has added significantly to the database for developing new fertilizer reccomendations for Corn and Soybean producers in Mississppi. We Currently have about 1/3 of the sites needed to develop an accurate P or K fertilizer reccomendation. To develop Zn fertilization reccomendations for corn, during 2013trials were placed on soils with characteristics that would suggest a response to zinc. Each site placement had a soil pH > 6.8 and a low Lancaster or Mehlich-3 soil test Zn level (<4 mg/kg). Mean corn grain yields were increased at two of the three research sites, the yield increases were not statistically different, but were economically different. For the two responsive sites, grain yield was increased by 16 and 29 bu/acre for the DREC and the Boyle site, respectively. In many cases zinc deficiency is observed in-season, and foliar applications is the only option to meet the plants critical Zn requirement. Many consultants and producers alike experienced issues with zinc products causing foliar injury. Multiple Zn sources and rates were evaluated to determine injury potential during 2013. In general, the citric acid chelated product caused significant foliar injury, with the severity of injury increasing at total Zn application rate increased. In contrast, the EDTA chelated product caused little to no foliar injury across the range of application rates. The product x Zn rate interaction was not significant for tissue Zn concentration taken 2 wk after application. In general averaged over Zn products tissue concentration increased with increasing application rate. Preliminary data from two sites in the first year of testing suggest that grain yield is unaffected by foliar injury from application of citric acid chelated products. However, the trials were placed on corn that was seeded to soil that was not prone to zinc deficiency. It is unclear if grain yield would be influenced by the foliar injury if corn plants were Zn deficient.

Publications

  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2013 Citation: Slaton, N.A., T.L. Roberts, B.R. Golden, W.J. Ross, and R.J. Norman. 2013. Soybean response to phosphorus and potassium supplied as inorganic fertilizer or poultry litter. Agron J. 105:812-820.
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2013 Citation: Dodds, D.M., A.L. Catchot, and B.R. Golden. 2013. 2012 Mississippi Cotton Variety Trials (On Farm). MSU Ext Ser. Bull.
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2013 Citation: Eubank, T.W., L.J. Krutz, L. Pringle, and B.R. Golden. 2013. PHAUCET improves irrigation efficiency in soybean. p. 22-23. In Mississippi State University Delta Research and Extension Center Annual Research Report. Shaw, MS: TKT Publications.
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2013 Citation: Golden, B.R., D.M. Dodds, W.E. Clark, N.W. Buehring, L. Falconer, M.W. Shankle, and T.P. Wallace. 2013. Mississippi cotton variety trials 2012. MS Agric. Exp. Stn. Bull. 477. Starkville, MS
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2013 Citation: Golden, B.R. 2013. DREC tests corn response to Zn fertilization. p. 16-17. In Mississippi State University Delta Research and Extension Center Annual Research Report. Shaw, MS: TKT Publications.
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2013 Citation: Golden, B.R. 2013. DREC investigates use of soybean inoculants. p. 26-27. In Mississippi State University Delta Research and Extension Center Annual Research Report. Shaw, MS: TKT Publications.
  • Type: Websites Status: Published Year Published: 2013 Citation: D.M. Dodds, A. Cathcot, and B.R. Golden. 2013. 2012 County cotton variety trials. Mississippi Crop Situation blog. . [Online]. http://www.mississippi-crops.com/2013/02/05/2012-county-cotton-variety-trials/
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2013 Citation: Allen, T.W., B.R. Golden, S. Lu. And G.L. Scuimbato. 2013. Environmental Factors Influencing the Response of Cotton Varieties to Xanthomonas Citri subsp Malvacearum in Mississippi. Beltwide Cotton Conference. San Antonio, TX, Jan 7-10, 2013.
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2013 Citation: Walker, T.W., J.A. Bond. and B.R. Golden. 2013. Researchers determine optimum planting dates for Mississippi rice. p. 20-21. In Mississippi State University Delta Research and Extension Center Annual Research Report. Shaw, MS: TKT Publications.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Under Review Year Published: 2014 Citation: Bond,J.A., T.W. Eubank, R.C. Bond, B.R. Golden, and H.M. Edwards. (In-Review). Glyphosate-resistant Italian Ryegrass (lolium perenne ssp. Multiflorum) Control with Fall-applied Residual Herbicides. Weed Tech.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Under Review Year Published: 2014 Citation: Edwards, B., T.Eubank, D. Shaw, B.R. Golden, L. Steckel, and S. Martin. (In-Review). Preemergence and postemergence efficacy of dicamba on glyphosate resistant Palmer Amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Wats.) and optimum rate for control. Weed Tech.
  • Type: Websites Status: Published Year Published: 2013 Citation: T.W. Allen, an B.R. Golden. 2013. Corn foliar disease update: June 26, 2013. Mississippi Crop Situation blog. . [Online]. Available at: http://www.mississippi-crops.com/2013/06/26/corn-foliar-disease-update-june-26-2013.
  • Type: Websites Status: Published Year Published: 2013 Citation: B.R. Golden. 2013. 2012 Small plot official cotton variety trials. Mississippi Crop Situation blog. . [Online]. http://www.mississippi-crops.com/2013/02/11/2012-small-plot-official-cotton-variety-trials/
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2013 Citation: Ebelhar,M.W. B. R. Golden, and Davis R. Clark. 2013. Alternative Nitrogen Strategy for Growing Cotton in the Mid-South. Beltwide Cotton Conference. San Antonio, TX, Jan 7-10, 2013.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2013 Citation: Golden, B.R. 2013. Current soil test correlation and calibration research in Mississippi. Southeast Regional Information Exchange Group-6. Baton Rouge, LA June 16-18, 2013.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2013 Citation: Golden, B.R., J.R. Nichols, and M.W. Ebelhar. 2013. Cotton response to polymer coated urea in Mississippi. Beltwide Cotton Conference. San Antonio, TX. Jan 7-10, 2013.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2013 Citation: Golden, B.R., J.R. Nichols, N.W. Buehring, L.L. Falconer, M.W. Shankle, and T.P. Wallace. 2013. 2012 Mississippi state cotton variety trial, variety performance. Beltwide Cotton Conference. San Antonio, TX. Jan 7-10, 2013.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2013 Citation: Golden,B.R. and J. Nichols. 2013. Fertility needs for maximizing soybean yield. In Proc. Consev. Cotton and Rice Conf. Mid America Farm Pub. Baton Rouge, La. Jan 31- Feb 1.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2013 Citation: Golden, B.R., J.L. Oldham, S.A. Shinkle, and M.W. Ebelhar. 2013. Crop Response to Environmentally Smart Nitrogen in the Mid-South. In Annual meetings abstracts [CD-ROM]. ASA, CSSA, and SSSA, Madison, WI. Tampa, FL. Nov 3-6, 2013.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2013 Citation: S. Jones, J. Lofton, B.J. Haggard, D. Folwer, B. Tubana, and B.R. Golden. 2013. Enhanced Efficiency N Products on Corn Production Systems in the Lower Mid South. In Annual meetings abstracts [CD-ROM]. ASA, CSSA, and SSSA, Madison, WI. Tampa, FL. Nov 3-6, 2013.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2013 Citation: Montgomery, G.B., B.R. Golden, S.A. Shinkle, and T.W. Allen. 2013. Management Considerations for Mid-Southern Soybean Production. In Annual meetings abstracts [CD-ROM]. ASA, CSSA, and SSSA, Madison, WI. Tampa, FL. Nov 3-6, 2013.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2013 Citation: Oldham,J.L, K.K. Crouse, B. Macoon, M.W. Shankle, M.W. Ebelhar, and B.R. Golden 2013. Temporal Variation in Soil Test Values in Mississippi. In Annual meetings abstracts [CD-ROM]. ASA, CSSA, and SSSA, Madison, WI. Tampa, FL. Nov 3-6, 2013.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2013 Citation: Samples, C. D.M. Dodds, J. Gore, A. Catchot., and B.R. Golden. 2013. Influence of nitrogen rates on tarnished plant bug (Lygus lineolaris) Populations in cotton. Entomoligical Society of America. Nov 10-13. Austin, Tx. 2013.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2013 Citation: Samples, C. D.M. Dodds, J.Gore, A. Catchot, T. Dixon, D. Reynolds, and B.R. Golden. 2013. Influence of nitrogen rates on tarnished plant bug (Lygus lineolaris) Populations in cotton. Southeastern Entomological Society of America. March 4, 2013.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2013 Citation: M. Salmeron, L.C. Purcell, F.M. Bourland, N.W. Buehring, L. Earnest, B.R. Golden, D. Hathcoat, J. Lofton, T.D. Miller, G. Shannon, E. Vories, E.R. Walker, and M. Wyss. 2013. Stability of Soybean Yield and Quality Over a Wide Range of Maturities and Planting Dates in the MidSouth. In Annual meetings abstracts [CD-ROM]. ASA, CSSA, and SSSA, Madison, WI. Tampa, FL. Nov 3-6, 2013.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2013 Citation: Samples, C.A., D.M. Dodds, T.H. Dixon, D. Z. Reynolds, J.J. Varco and B.R. Golden. 2013. Effect of Nitrogen Rate and Plant Population on Cotton Growth, Development, and Yield. Beltwide Cotton Conference. San Antonio, TX, Jan 7-10, 2013.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2013 Citation: S.A. Shinkle, B.R. Golden, G. B. Montgomery, and E.J. Larson. 2013. Foliar Injury and Corn Grain Yield Response to Zinc Application. In Annual meetings abstracts [CD-ROM]. ASA, CSSA, and SSSA, Madison, WI. Tampa, FL. Nov 3-6, 2013.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2013 Citation: Wallace, T.P., G.W. Lawerence, B.R. Golden, P.M. Thaxton, J. Scheffler, K.S. Lawrence, and D. Weaver. 2013. Agronomic Performance of Barbadense and Longicalyz Derived Breeding Lines. Beltwide Cotton Conference. San Antonio, TX, Jan 7-10, 2013.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2013 Citation: Golden B.R., 2013. Delta Research and Extension Center corn and soybean field day  Soybean maturity group evaluation and corn zinc fertility; Stoneville, MS (July 18, 2013)
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2013 Citation: Golden, B.R. 2013. Itawamba county mid-season crop update  2013 soil fertility update on correlation calibration; Baldwyn, MS (July 16, 2013)
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2013 Citation: Golden, B.R. 2013. Agronomic crops extension retreat  2013 soil fertility update on current corn and soybean issues; Hamilton, MS (June 6, 2013)
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2013 Citation: Golden, B.R. 2013. High yield corn production information exchange  micronutrient fertility; Belzoni, MS (Feb 22, 2013)
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2013 Citation: Golden, B.R. 2013. Delta Ag Expo Cotton Roundtable  Variety evaluation update; Cleveland, MS (Jan 16-17, 2013)
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2013 Citation: Golden, B.R. 2013. Delta Crop Summit  Soil test correlation and calibration in soybean and corn; Stoneville, MS (Nov 13, 2012)
  • Type: Other Status: Other Year Published: 2013 Citation: Golden B.R. 2013. Current issues in row crop fertility; Jimmy Sanders/Pinnacle Ag Inc. Certified Crop Advisor Training,Monroe, LA (Aug 7, 2013)
  • Type: Other Status: Other Year Published: 2013 Citation: Golden, B.R. 2013. Current issues in row crop fertility; Jimmy Sanders/Pinnacle Ag Inc., Certified Crop Advisor Training. Birmingham, AL (Aug 1, 2013)
  • Type: Other Status: Other Year Published: 2013 Citation: Golden, B.R. 2013. Current issues in row crop fertility; Jimmy Sanders/Pinnacle Ag Inc., Certified Crop Advisor Training. Stoneville, MS (July 31, 2013)
  • Type: Other Status: Other Year Published: 2013 Citation: Golden, B.R. 2013. ESN use on mid southern row crops; Agrium Advanced Technologies Innovation Field Tour. Stoneville, MS (July 30, 2013)
  • Type: Other Status: Other Year Published: 2013 Citation: Golden, B.R. 2013. Fertilization programs for corn and soybean; Mississippi Agriculture Industries Council; Certified Crop Advisor Training Orange Beach, AL (July 24, 2013)
  • Type: Other Status: Other Year Published: 2013 Citation: Golden, B.R. and J.A. Bond. 2013. Cotton agronomics and production in Mississippi; Cotton Mercantile Class Information Exchange Training  Stoneville, MS (April 5, 2013)
  • Type: Other Status: Other Year Published: 2013 Citation: Golden, B.R. 2013. Soil test correlation and calibration for soybean and corn; Mississippi Agricultural Consultants Association  Starkville, MS (Feb 5-6, 2013)
  • Type: Other Status: Other Year Published: 2013 Citation: Golden, B.R. 2013. Alternative N sources and enhanced efficiency stabilizers for mid-south crop production; Arkansas Crop Management Conference  Little Rock, AR (Jan 22-24, 2013)
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2013 Citation: Golden, B.R. 2013.Fertility needs for maximizing soybean yield; Tri State Soybean Grower Meeting  Stoneville, MS (Jan 4, 2013)
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2013 Citation: Golden, B.R. 2013. New fertility Programs for Corn and Soybean Production; Mississippi ASA - Grenada, MS (Nov. 13-14, 2013)


Progress 01/01/12 to 12/31/12

Outputs
OUTPUTS: Activities: Soil Test Correlation/Calibration is extremely important for the overall productivity of Mississippi producers. In 2012 research was initiated to implement a strategy for revisiting Mississippi State University's P and K soil test recommendations. Current work includes the three major row crops in Mississippi soybean, corn, and cotton. Also work is underway to develop Zn fertilization recommendations for corn. Work completed in year one established 7 off station trials for soybean, 4 off station sites for corn and 2 off station sites for cotton. Long term fertilization trials were also initiated at the DREC to serve as a base for the program. Work conducted in 2012 allowed for a great starting point in the updating process. For cotton, year one trial results were variable, with little response to potash fertilization in all trials that were harvestable. For trials evaluating potash fertilization across multiple varieties, the interaction of variety x fertilization strategy was non-significant. Similar to the interaction, the main effect of potash fertilization strategy was also non-significant only the main effect of cotton variety influenced final cotton yield in the trial. In general, the more aggressively growing, longer season varieties tended to have the greatest lint yields. More specifically, PHY499WRF and ST5458B2F produced similar and greater cotton lint yields when compared with DP0912B2RF For soybean, 2 of 7 seven sites responded positively. Visual responses were noted at the trial location on the Jacks and Tabb farms. The Humphrey's Co. site had a significant response to potash fertilization but not to phosphorus. A significant response was also observed at a testing location near Boyle, MS. More specifically yield increases of 7 and 10 bu/ac were observed for the Boyle and Humphrey's county locations respectively. Both responsive sites had Mehlich-3 and Lancaster soil test K values less than 150 ppm. For Corn, 2 of 4 sites responded positively to potash fertilization. The two responsive sites were on producers fields in Bolivar and Leflore Co. At each site corn yields produced statistically greater yields when potash fertilizer was applied compared to the untreated control. Yield increases of 27 and 73 bu/acre were observed at the Bolivar and Leflore Co. sites, respectively. Lancaster and Mehlich-3 soil test K for the two responsive sites was 150 ppm or lower. At the Leflore site were the largest response occurred soil test K was less than 50 ppm. Soil test correlation to agronomic crop yield takes a wealth of data and 2012 provided a good start. Preliminary work conducted in 2012 generated an indication that with the changing crop rotational mix in Mississippi; soil test recommendations will need to be kept current and revised. Events: Research findings were presented at grower meetings, consultant meetings, field days, and demonstrations. Specific research results were presented at three scientific meetings. PARTICIPANTS: Bobby R. Golden Assistant Research Professor, Principal Investigator Activities: Coordinate all activities within research program. Cooperate with researchers at the Delta Research and Extension Center and the Mississippi State University campus. Procure funding for support of research program. Technology transfer to producers, extension agents, researchers, and industry personnel. Jim Nichols Research Associate Activities: Assist with all facets of research program, i.e., plot establishment, treatment application, data collection/processing/summarization, plot harvest Willie Earl Clark Research Technician Activities: Assist with all facets of research program, i.e., plot establishment, treatment application, data collection/processing/summarization, plot harvest Robert Sullivan Research technician Activities: Assist with all facets of research program, i.e., plot establishment, treatment application, data collection/processing/summarization, plot harvest Collaborators: Dr. Wayne Ebelhar, Research Professor Dr. Larry Oldham, Extension Professor TARGET AUDIENCES: Mississippi Corn, Cotton, and Soybean producers Mississippi Agricultural Consultants' Association Agricultural fertilizer companies and distributors PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Not relevant to this project.

Impacts
Research established to evaluate current soil test criteria are essential in revising and improving current soil test recommendations and fertility programs for Mississippi row crop producers. Current changes in the rotational mix as well as wider adaptation of grain crops that remove greater amounts of nutrients at harvest, has led to many producers needed to modify their long term fertility needs. This research provides unbiased data for fertilizer management strategies for the major row crops produced in Mississippi

Publications

  • Golden, B.R., T.W. Walker, and S.L. Linscombe. 2012. Seeding date effects on grain yield stability. Rice Technical Working Group. Feb 27-29. Hot Springs, AR.
  • Golden, B.R, J. Nichols, and L. Oldham. 2012. Corn Response to Environmentally Smart Nitrogen in the Mid South USA. American Society of Agronomy Annual Meetings. Oct 21-24. Cincinnati, OH.
  • Fitts, P.W., Walker, T.W., J.L. Krutz, B.R. Golden, and J.J. Varco. 2012. Nitrogen loss potential by nitrification/denitrification as affected by N-source in rice. In Annual meetings abstracts [CD-ROM]. ASA, CSSA, and SSSA, Madison, WI. Southern Branch American Society Agronomy. Birmingham, AL. Feb 5-7, 2012.
  • Fitts, P.W., Walker, T.W., J.L. Krutz, B.R. Golden, and J.J. Varco. 2012. Evaluation of N source on mitigating nitrification/denitrification loss in rice. . In Biannual meetings abstract [CD-ROM]. 34th Rice Technical Working Group. Hot Springs, AR. Feb 27-Mar 1.
  • Gore, J. A. Catchot, D. Dodds, T. Irby, E. Larson, N. Buehring, T. Allen, J. Bond, T. Eubank, T. Walker, J. Krutz. R. Jackson, F. Musser, B. Golden, D. Cook, A. Henn, L. Oldham, and J.M. Riley. 2012. Using social media in IPM research and extension programs. In annual meetings abstract Journal of Insect Science.
  • Oldham, L. and B.R. Golden. 2012. Macro-scale nutrient budgets in Mississippi Delta agronomic crop production. American Society of Agronomy Annual Meetings. Oct 21-24. Cincinnati, OH.
  • Golden, B.R., T.W. Allen, S. Lu., P. Thaxton, G.L. Ssciumbato. 2012. Response of cottons varieties to inoculation with xanthomonas axonopodis pv. Malvacearum in Mississippi. In proceedings of the annual beltwide cotton conference. Orlando, Fl. January 3-6.
  • Golden, B.R., D.M. Dodds,W.E. Clark, N.W. Buering, L. Falconer. M.W. Shankle. T.P. Wallace 2012. Mississippi cotton variety trials 2012. MS. Agric. Exp. Stn. Bull. 461. Starkville, MS.
  • Irby, J.T., T.W. Eubank, and B.R. Golden. 2012. 2013 Soybean variety suggestions. [Online] Available at http://www.mississippi-crops.com/2012/12/05/2013-soybean-variety-sugg estions/.
  • Golden, B.R. 2012. 2012 Cotton OVT preliminary data tables. 2012. [Online] Available at http://www.mississippi-crops.com/2012/11/12/2012-cotton-ovt-prelimina ry-data-tables/.
  • Allen, T. and B.R. Golden. 2012 Response of Cotton Varieties to Inoculation with Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. malvacearum in Mississippi. [Online] Available at http://www.mississippi-crops.com/2012/07/04/response-of-cotton-variet ies-to-inoculation-with-xanthomonas-axonopodis-pv-malvacearum-in-miss issippi/.
  • Allen, T., B.R. Golden, and D.M. Dodds. 2012. Scouting cotton for bacterial blight. [Online] Available at http://www.mississippi-crops.com/2012/06/29/scouting-cotton-for-bacte rial-blight/
  • Golden, B.R. 2012. Zinc deficient corn observed in MS delta. [Online] Available at http://www.mississippi-crops.com/2012/04/21/zinc-deficient-corn-obser ved-in-ms-delta/.
  • Golden, B.R. 2012. 2011 Official cotton variety trial booklet correction. [Online] Available at http://www.mississippi-crops.com/2012/02/13/2011-official-cotton-vari ety-trial-booklet-correction/
  • Golden, B.R. 2012. Using Environmentally Smart Nitrogen Page 8-9 in Mississippi State University Delta Research and Extension Center 2012 Annual Report. Stoneville, MS: Delta Research and Extension Center. [Online]. Available at http://msucares.com/drec/news/drec_annual_report_2012.pdf
  • Fitts, P.W., T.W. Walker, B.R. Golden, J.L. Corbin, and L.J. Krutz. 2012.Evaluation of nitrogen source on mitigating nitrification/denitrification loss in rice. Page 22 in Mississippi State University Delta Research and Extension Center 2012 Annual Report. Stoneville, MS: Delta Research and Extension Center. [Online]. Available at http://msucares.com/drec/news/drec_annual_report_2012.pdf
  • Larson, E., B.R. Golden, and L. Oldham. 2012. Burning Stalks, What does it really cost [Online] Available at http://www.mississippi-crops.com/2012/08/09/burning-stalks-what-does- it-really-cost/
  • Allen, T., B.R. Golden, and D.M. Dodds. 2012. Bacterial blight of cotton update: July 13, 2012. [Online] Available at http://www.mississippi-crops.com/2012/07/13/bacterial-blight-of-cotto n-update-july-13-2012/
  • Golden, B.R. 2012. Soybean Inoculant Research. Page 26-27 in Mississippi State University Delta Research and Extension Center 2012 Annual Report. Stoneville, MS: Delta Research and Extension Center. [Online]. Available at http://msucares.com/drec/news/drec_annual_report_2012.pdf
  • Golden, B.R., M. W. Ebelhar, and L. Oldham. 2012. Evaluation of Polymer Coated Urea as an Alternative N Source for Cotton. Southern Branch ASA. Feb. 5-7. Birmingham, AL.