Source: OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY submitted to
EVALUATING FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE DYNAMIC EQUILIBRIUM AND THE ECOLOGY OF HEADWATER CHANNEL SYSTEMS
Sponsoring Institution
National Institute of Food and Agriculture
Project Status
NEW
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
0220443
Grant No.
(N/A)
Project No.
OHO01228
Proposal No.
(N/A)
Multistate No.
(N/A)
Program Code
(N/A)
Project Start Date
Oct 1, 2009
Project End Date
Sep 30, 2014
Grant Year
(N/A)
Project Director
Ward, A.
Recipient Organization
OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY
1680 MADISON AVENUE
WOOSTER,OH 44691
Performing Department
Food, Agric and Biological Engineering
Non Technical Summary
The last few decades have seen increasing interest in enhancing, restoring, and protecting the ecology of wetlands, streams, and watersheds. Achieving these goals requires sound fundamental and applied knowledge, close interaction between scientists and engineers, a systems approach, and a good understanding of spatial and temporal scales. Bernhardt et al.(2005), in a synthesis of 37,000 projects, concluded that more than a billion dollars is spent annually on river and stream restoration projects. Other than land acquisition the highest median project costs were floodplain reconnection, channel reconfiguration, and flow modification. Despite a vast number of previous studies, often that were conducted with laboratory flumes or complex theoretical models, the practitioner still grapples with inadequate tools and knowledge on how to quantify discharge, geomorphology and floodplain requirements that are a key to the success of most stream restoration projects. This project will study how stream channel design and modifications within cities, suburbs and rural environments affects storm water runoff rates and water quality. One facet of work will use computer simulation to study discharge sediment transport, and water quality for various landscape settings. Another facet of work will evaluate efficiency of two stage channels and self forming channels at sites in Ohio, Indiana and Michigan in meeting water quality goals for streams. Research from this study will provide insight on: the benefits of floodplain storage for flood peak attenuation; channel evolution modeling; nutrient uptake and assimilation in headwater streams; the impact of best management practices; and understanding the influence of channel morphology on ecological communities in headwater streams of the Midwest.
Animal Health Component
50%
Research Effort Categories
Basic
20%
Applied
50%
Developmental
30%
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
1120399202050%
9010399202025%
1330399202025%
Goals / Objectives
Dynamic equilibrium in stream systems is dependent on many factors including:land use and land use change on the watershed; the degree of connection between the effective discharge channel and the floodplain; the floodplain and streamway sizes; and stabilizing factors such as vegetation on the banks and in the floodplain. Specific research tasks and objectives that will be addressed are: 1. Evaluate how stream geomorphology, ecology and water quality are influenced by land use activities associated with urbanization and agricultural practices with a view to developing practical scientific procedures for quantifying discharges, shear stresses and the role of floodplains in sustaining dynamic equilibrium and improving ecological function in a stream system. 2. Evaluate stream system modification approaches to enhance stream function and provide a more self-sustaining system. 3. Use computer simulation models to evaluate discharge, sediment transport, and water quality on the landscape, within streams, and in reservoirs. 4. Evaluate the ability of biogeochemical processes operating in channel systems to reduce nitrate loads. 5. Evaluate the acceptance by stakeholders of alternative land management and channel system practices that improve water quality and determines what incentives are needed to enhance implementation of these practices. 6. Evaluate how aquatic biota and ecological processes are related to fluvial features and processes to determine if commonly used bio-assessment methods can be enhanced by consideration of fluvial indicators. 7. Communicate project findings to stakeholders, land managers, and general public through outreach and extension efforts. The proposed research will include a comprehensive review of the literature; data collection on small natural and restored channel systems in Ohio, Indiana, and Michigan; and the development and use of a practical suite of stream geomorphology, hydrology, and hydraulic assessment and modeling tools. Project will build on prior work. End products of this research objective will be knowledge on the geomorphic evolution of different ditch geometries. The research data will provide knowledge of the nitrate reduction benefits of different ditch geometries. The project will investigate nitrate reduction associated with the input load, width and depth of the "floodplains" associated with the main inset channel and the length of these "treatment" systems. This research will develope a scorecard based on the myriad facets that contribute to the condition of the watershed landscape and its changing capacities for the provisioning of ecosystem services. The goal is a decision-support tool that can be applied to a wide geographic swath of the upper Midwestern region. This scorecard will directly address the research needs of this solicitation by (1) quantifying current and projected watershed ecosystem services both spatially and temporally, (2) targeting anthropogenic impacts most associated with the loss of ecosystem services, and (3) providing information for improved management, protection, and remediation activities for critical ecosystem services
Project Methods
Sites will be selected to: (1) constructed two-stage channels (2) constructed self-forming channel; and (3) control conditions. Assessment and analysis of physical condition tracks changes in form by repeated surveys of channel dimension, pattern and profile. Hydrology and hydraulics is being evaluated for a range of recurrence intervals and the conditions of the channel reach. Erodibility coefficients are being determined using an in situ submerged jet tester (Hanson and Cook, 2004). Channel system profile and pattern are being characterized. Statistical measures will be used to determine if scour, aggradation, mass wasting, and changes in the pattern, dimension and profile at each site are related to channel system type, soil and vegetation characteristics, watershed size, stream power, and the time since construction. Geomorphology studies are conducted to examine changes in sediment characteristics after two-stage construction. Reductions in phosphorus exports associated with attachment to sediment are quantified and seasonal sediment samples are collected for sediment denitrification assays. Three computer models will be used to demonstrate to stakeholders the benefits of alternative land management and channel system practices. An evaluation will also be made of stakeholder learning associated with each model and whether a similar level of understanding could be obtained if only one or two models were used. The weight-of-evidence approach will be evaluated and enhanced based on results obtained from the field measurements and the development and evaluation work with the models discussed earlier. The approach will be incorporated into a comprehensive step-by-step approach for channel design projects. The CONCEPTS, HEC-RAS, and SWAT will be used to demonstrate to rural and urban stakeholders the benefits of alternative land management and channel system practices. Data sets for the models will be developed for the Creel Ditch, The Klase Ditch, the Bull Creek Tributary, and one of the self-forming channel projects in central Ohio. Model simulations will be made in CONCEPTS to evaluate how land use change or other management scenarios impact instream processes. A list of priority land use or management scenarios will be developed with input from state agencies such as the Ohio Department of Natural Resources or Ohio Environmental Protection Agency. Seasonal sediment samples will be collected within a two-week period each season for sediment denitrification assays. A transdisciplinary approach will be used to to develop and evaluate an ecosystem scorecard that will accurately reflect the current and potential state of ecosystem services from watersheds in the upper Midwest. The scorecard will contribute to the overall 'score' of a watershed's ecosystem services, providing results that are clear and easily communicated to a variety of decision-makers and stakeholders. A comprehensive communications and outreach plan will be developed in the early stages of the project. Outreach education activities will be conducted as an integrated component of the Ohio NEMO for Streams Program at The Ohio State University.

Progress 01/01/13 to 09/30/13

Outputs
Target Audience: State and Federal Agency personnel, farmers, watershed groups, county engineers and surveyors, consultants, land improvement contractors, students, and academia. Changes/Problems: Nothing Reported What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided? A masters student is working on the weir project. A doctoral student and a masters student conducted much of the study to evalaute the evolution of two-stage ditchs. Several undergraduate students assisted with field data collection. Undergraduate students will on the ODOT bridge crossing project. A graduate student is working on the new USDA project. How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest? During the reporting period the project team published 12 factsheets; delivered 5 invited presentations at state, national, and international scientific meetings; provided 5 presentations atoutreach field days and workshops. Dr Ward completed much of the drafting of the 3rd Edition of the texbook Environmental Hydrology. A guidance document was prepare for the USDA-NRCS in Ohio for use within the context of the NRCS Conservation Planning Process and lay out considerations for the selection of a resource management system that includes drainage channel management and the design of two-stage and self-forming channels. What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals? In 2014, the flashboard riser weir system on the two-stage ditch will be used to evaluate nutrient removal associated with saturating the benches for different time periods. Field work and laboratory anaysis of samples will continue on the new USDA project to facilitate science-driven management of agricultural drainage channels Workshops will be conducted as part of the new USDA project and the complete CIG project that has developed a guidance document on self-forming and two-stage ditches. For the ODOT project the project team (OSU, Peggy Johnson at Pennsylvania State University, and Miles Hebert at EMH&T, Inc.) will identify sites with instability problems, identify suitable maintenance methods and a framework to guide selection of optimal site-specific maintenance solutions, work with local ODOT forces to implement solutions, and develop outreach education materials to train ODOT workforces in their use.

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? We completed a study of the geomorphic evolution, sustainability and water quality benefits of constructed two-stage ditches and self-forming channels in Ohio, Indiana, and Michigan. In 2012, we initiated a USDA funded project with the long-term goal of this integrated research, education, and extension project is to inform and facilitate science-based management of agricultural drainage channels to protect and enhance water quality while meeting drainage needs essential for agricultural production. We identified sites and acquired permissions to conduct research at 15 sites. We collected soil cores and bulk samples for analysis of soil physical, chemical, and microbial properties. We developed and delivered a Science, Technology, Engineering and Math (STEM) workshop at Ridgemont Local Schools for junior high school and high school students. Made poster presentations at 68th Annual Conference for the Soil and Water Conservation Society. In 2013, funding was awarded from the Ohio DOT (ODOT) to identify ecologically sensitive and stable channel maintenance practices in the vicinity of bridges and other road crossings in northwest and northern Ohio. The project team identify sites with instability problems, identify suitable maintenance methods and a framework to guide selection of optimal site-specific maintenance solutions, work with local ODOT forces to implement solutions, and develop outreach education materials to train ODOT workforces in their use.Results of evolution studies on 3-10 year old two stage ditches showed they have been very stable, exhibited small adjustments on the constructed benches and inset channel, have maintained their drainage capacity, have required little or no maintenance, and are meeting the project goals for which they were designed. Two-stage ditches have consistently improved N removal potential, while reducing stream water turbidity and sediment export, and improving in-stream habitat. The self-forming stream design approach was evaluated on nine reaches in Ohio. Repeated geomorphological surveys were conducted to track change through time. Channel width, hydraulics,and bedforms all developed quickly and then remained relatively constant. Overall, within just the first few years of succession, key aspects of in stream structure have become established and conservative estimates of assimilative capacity suggest elevated rates of pollutant removal for one to many decades.

Publications

  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2013 Citation: Mecklenburg, D., DAmbrosio, J.L., Witter, J.D., and A.D. Ward, 2013. Building Better Ditches: The Self-Forming Channel. Great Lake Regional Water Program.
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2013 Citation: Ward, A.D., Witter, J.D., DAmbrosio, J.L., Mecklenburg, D., Magner, J. and K. Wamsley. 2013. Tri-State Hydraulic Geometry Relationships for Sizing Two-Stage Ditches. Great Lakes Regional Water Program.
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2013 Citation: Mecklenburg, D., Witter, J.D., Ward, A.D., and J.L. DAmbrosio. 2013. Self-forming Channel Case Study: Bagley Ditch. Great Lakes Regional Water Program.
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2013 Citation: Mecklenburg, D., Witter, J.D., Ward, A.D., and J.L. DAmbrosio. 2013. Self-forming Channel Case Study: Beem Ditch. Great Lakes Regional Water Program.
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2013 Citation: Mecklenburg, D., Witter, J.D., Ward, A.D., and J.L. DAmbrosio. 2013. Self-forming Channel Case Study: Clear Creek Tributary. Great Lakes Regional Water Program.
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2013 Citation: Mecklenburg, D., Witter, J.D., Ward, A.D., and J.L. DAmbrosio. 2013. Self-forming Channel Case Study: Turkey Creek. Great Lakes Regional Water Program.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Under Review Year Published: 2013 Citation: Roley, S.S., J.L. Tank, M. Lipscomb, and J.D. Witter. In review. How cost-effective are cover crops, wetlands, and two-stage ditches for nitrogen removal in the agricultural Midwest? JAWRA.
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2013 Citation: Witter, J., Ward, A., Mecklenburg, D., Reinhart, J. and J. DAmbrosio. 2013. Planning and Design Guidance for Two-Stage and Self-Forming Channels. Final Conservation Innovation Grant Technical Report to Ohio NRCS  Appendix C. Grant Number: NRCS 69-5E34-11-038.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2013 Citation: Witter, J.D., Ward, A., Mecklenburg, D.E., DAmbrosio, J.L., Roley, S. and J. Tank. 25 March 2013. Spreadsheet Tools for Quantifying the Costs and Benefits of Two-Stage Channels. American Water Resources Association Annual Meeting. St. Louis, MO.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2013 Citation: Ward, A. Witter, J.D., DAmbrosio, J.L., Powell, G.E., Jayakaran, A.D., and D.E. Mecklenburg. 25 March 2013. The history and design of two-stage channel systems in an agricultural landscape. American Water Resources Association Annual Meeting. St. Louis, MO.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2013 Citation: DAmbrosio, J.L., Ward, A., and J.D. Witter. 25 March 2013. A decade of benefits from two-stage agricultural ditches in the Midwest region of the United States. American Water Resources Association Annual Meeting. St. Louis, MO.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2013 Citation: Ward, A. Witter, J.D., and J.L. DAmbrosio. 14 May 2013. Two-stage Ditches: An approach that helps restore eco-services to agricultural drainage systems. Abstract #239, HydroEco2013, the 4th International Multidisciplinary Conference on Hydrology and Ecology. Rennes, France. May 13-16, 2013.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2013 Citation: DAmbrosio, J.L., Ward, A., Witter, J.D., Tank, J., and Roley, S. 10 June 2013. A Decade of Benefits from Two-Stage Agricultural Ditches in the Midwest Region of the United States. Invited presentation at 2013 American Ecological Engineering Society Meeting June 10-12,
  • Type: Other Status: Other Year Published: 2013 Citation: Witter, J., Ward, A., and DAmbrosio, J.L. "Enhanced Channel Design/Two-Stage." Presented at Ohio NRCS State Technical Committee Meeting, Other. London Service Center, London, Ohio, United States. (Jun 2013).
  • Type: Other Status: Other Year Published: 2013 Citation: Witter, J., Ward, A., and DAmbrosio, J.L. "Overview of two-stage ditch spreadsheet." Presented at Two-Stage Ditch Workshop, Other. Creative Financial Center, Kokomo, Ohio, United States. (Mar 2013)
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2013 Citation: Mecklenburg, D., Witter, J.D., Ward, A.D., and J.L. DAmbrosio. 2013. Self-forming Channel Case Study: Clover Groff Ditch. Great Lakes Regional Water Program.
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2013 Citation: Mecklenburg, D., Witter, J.D., Ward, A.D., and J.L. DAmbrosio. 2013. Self-forming Channel Case Study: Columbia Street Ditch. Great Lakes Regional Water Program.
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2013 Citation: Mecklenburg, D., Witter, J.D., Ward, A.D., and J.L. DAmbrosio. 2013. Self-forming Channel Case Study: Fisher Run. Great Lakes Regional Water Program.
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2013 Citation: Mecklenburg, D., Witter, J.D., Ward, A.D., and J.L. DAmbrosio. 2013. Self-forming Channel Case Study: Heckman Creek. Great Lakes Regional Water Program.
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2013 Citation: Mecklenburg, D., Witter, J.D., Ward, A.D., and J.L. DAmbrosio. 2013. Self-forming Channel Case Study: Honey Run. Great Lakes Regional Water Program.
  • Type: Other Status: Other Year Published: 2013 Citation: Witter, J., Ward, A., and DAmbrosio, J.L. "Research and Science." Presented at Two-Stage Ditch Workshop, Other. Creative Financial Center, Kokomo, Ohio, United States. (Mar 2013).
  • Type: Other Status: Other Year Published: 2013 Citation: Witter, J., Ward, A., and DAmbrosio, J.L. "Design Recommendations for Two-Stage Ditches." Presented at Upper Midwest Stream Restoration Symposium, La Crosse, Wisconsin, United States. (Feb 2013).


Progress 01/01/12 to 12/31/12

Outputs
OUTPUTS: Ten Central Ohio watersheds reaches were surveyed and data analyzed to: create a geomorphology based dynamic equilibrium evaluation index that could 1.) determine the equilibrium state of a stream without the use of the bank full stage and 2.) determine the key landscape factors,(urbanization, attachment, and area for adjustment) that cause a stream to be in or out of equilibrium. A qualitative analysis of the streams led to an initial classification of the study sites into two categories, in equilibrium or out of equilibrium. Binary logistic regression was used to determine the best model for equilibrium classification. Studied the geomorphic evolution, sustainability and water quality benefits of 7 constructed two-Stage Ditch (2SD) sites in Ohio, Indiana, and Michigan, as well as people's willingness to adopt the practice.. The systems were 3-10 years old. Performed cost comparison, under a range of interest rates and time horizons, for the two-stage ditch to other N-removal best management practices supported by the USDA (wetlands, and cover crops). From 09/2011 to 08/2012, the project team published 3 peer reviewed articles; delivered 11 invited presentations at state, national, and international scientific meetings; provided 12 presentations at extension/outreach field days and/or workshops; and published 1 doctoral dissertation and 1 masters thesis on water channel systems. Results from the completed Master's degree, Determining Equilibrium Drivers in Central Ohio Urban Streams, was presented at the 2012 EcoSummit in Columbus, Ohio. A guidance document was prepare for the USDA-NRCS in Ohio for use within the context of the NRCS Conservation Planning Process and lay out considerations for the selection of a resource management system that includes drainage channel management and the design of two-stage and self-forming channels. A flashboard rise weir system was constructed on the campus two-stage ditch at Waterman farm. It will be used to evaluate nutrient removal associated with saturating the benches for different time periods. Index for hydraulic performance of treatment wetlands was derived and evaluated for its ability to detect effluent pollutant fractions and assess its suitability as a predictor of treatments. (Wahl et al., 2010). Additional experimental data has been collected on physical properties of clay ceramic materials compatible for drinking water filtration in field laboratories in Nigeria, West Africa. Also, studies was the influence of alkalinity on flow through porous filtration devices (Plapally, et al., 2010a, 2010b, 2010c). PARTICIPANTS: Andy Ward, Professor The Ohio State University (OSU). Mazeika Sullivan, Assistant Professor, OSU. Larry C Brown, Professor OSU. Alfred Soboyejo, Professor OSU. Jessica DAmbrosio, Ohio NEMO Program, OSU. Matt MacFarland, Graduate student, OSU. Leslie Riesck, Graduate Student, OSU. Sarah Roley, Graduate student, University of Notre Dame, Robert Davis, Graduate Student, University of Notre Dame; Ursula Mahl, Research Technician, University of Notre Dame.. Dr Anand K Plappally, Postdoctoral Research Fellow OSU. Winston O Soboyejo, Professor Princeton University. Carrie Volmer-Sanders, Conservation Director, The Nature Conservancy. TARGET AUDIENCES: State and Federal Agency personnel, farmers, watershed groups, county engineers and surveyors, consultants, land improvement contractors, students, and academia. Collaborators outside are especially from Africa, India and China. TARGET AUDIENCES: State and Federal Agency personnel, farmers, watershed groups, county engineers and surveyors, consultants, land improvement contractors, students, and academia. Collaborators outside are especially from Africa, India and China. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.

Impacts
Previous research has led to the modification of some trapezoidal agricultural ditches to two-stage geometries with the primary goals of increasing drainage capacity, decreasing bank instability, reducing flooding in fields, and reducing or eliminating the need for ditch maintenance. Thirty to fifty two-stage ditches have been modified to a two-stage geometry with many of these innovative systems located in Indiana together with some in Michigan, Minnesota and Ohio. Results from the project team have also indicated that two-stage ditches may provide water quality benefits in terms of reducing sediment, nitrate, and phosphorus exports downstream. Results for Binary (2-parameter) models showed they were able to predict equilibrium with 100% success. Results showed that watersheds with large amounts of recent or total urban area would result in streams that were out of equilibrium but that positive landscape features such as a wide adjustment area and a well-connected floodplain could mitigate the urban effects. Total developed area correctly explained the equilibrium state of all sites. Results of evolution studies on 3-10 year old two stage ditches showed they have been very stable, exhibited small adjustments on the constructed benches and inset channel, have maintained their drainage capacity, have required little or no maintenance, and are meeting the project goals for which they were designed. Two-stage ditches have consistently improved N removal potential, while reducing stream water turbidity and sediment export, and improving in-stream habitat. Results of cost comparison indicated wetlands were the most cost-effective practice per unit N removed; two-stage ditches were the second-most cost-effective, over a 50-year time horizon; and cover crops were the second-most cost-effective, over a 10-year time horizon. To date, this project has leveraged about $1.5 million in additional state and regional funding for research and development on two-stage ditches.

Publications

  • D'Ambrosio, J.L., Ward, A., Witter, J.D., Tank, J., Roley, S.S, and R. Kallio. 31 July 2012. Ecological services of constructed two-stage agricultural ditches. Paper No. 121338344, ASABE Annual International Meeting. Dallas, TX., ASABE, http://www.asabe.org/
  • Fry B.E., A. Ward, and K.W. King. 2012. The frequency of channel-forming discharges in a tributary of Upper Big Walnut Creek, Ohio. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 67 (3): 173-182.
  • Gowda P.H., Mulla D. J., Desmond E. D., Ward A. D., and D. N. Moriasi. 2012. ADAPT: Model use, calibration and validation. Transactions of the ASABE Vol. 55(4):1345-1352 American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers.
  • Keck, G.C. 2012. Double Ditching. Ohio Farmer. 2012. cover story. July Issue Pages 1 and 32, http://farmprogress.com/ohiofarmer
  • MacFarland, M.F. 2012. Determining Equilibrium Drivers in Central Ohio Urban Streams. Master of Science Thesis, , Food, Agricultural and Biological Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH. http://etd.ohiolink.edu/view.cgiacc_num=osu1343065174
  • Roley, S. S., J.L. Tank, M.L. Stephen, L.T. Johnson, J.J. Beaulieu and J.D, Witter. 2012. Floodplain restoration enhances denitrification and reach-scale nitrogen removal in an agricultural stream. Ecological Applications. 22: 281-297.
  • Wahl, M. D., L. C. Brown, A. O. Soboyejo, J. Martin, and B. Dong. 2010. Quantifying the hydraulic performance of treatment wetlands using the moment index. Ecological Engineering 36(12):1691-1699
  • Plappally Anand Krishnan, Ismaiel Yakub, Katie Friedman, Megan Leftwich, Karen Malatesta, Ron Rivera, Larry C Brown, Winston O Soboyejo; Alfred Soboyejo, 2010c . Strength of organic whisker-clay composite ceramics. Mechanics of Materials MOM 10-184
  • Anand Krishnan Plappally; Ismaiel Yakub; Katie Friedman; Megan Leftwich; Karen Malatesta; RonRivera; Larry C Brown; Winston O Soboyejo; Alfred Soboyejo, 2010c. Strength of Organic Whisker-Clay Composite Ceramics, Mechanics of Materials MOM 10-184


Progress 01/01/11 to 12/31/11

Outputs
OUTPUTS: Research results led to 13 fact sheets on two-stage channels and multiple publications to inform landowners, managers, and producers of the potential benefits and costs of two-stage ditches. Sixteen presentations given at local, state, national, and international meetings. Topics addressed included: 1) ecosystem driven stream restoration planning and implementation, 2) STREAM modules to evaluate stream and watershed systems, and 3) effects of floodplain reconnection for reducing peak discharges and stages in watersheds. A mini-symposium was held with Great Lakes Regional Water Program to discuss a regional collaboration on research and outreach activities related to two-stage ditches. Research results led to incorporation of the two-stage ditch design into Ohio Conservation Practice Standard 582 (Open Channels), and will now be cost share eligible through EQIP in Indiana and Ohio. We initiated a study on the impact of urban development on headwater stream systems in central Ohio. Began studies using probabilistic methods, i.e. stochastic models bio systems related to water systems. Investigated transport through micro/nano porous clay based ceramic materials and physical properties of porous clay ceramic-ware. Result was quantification of hydraulic inefficiencies using a new hydraulic index based on residence time distribution theory. Personnel began studies on strength of organic whisker - clay composite ceramics compatible for drinking water filtration. The porous media were manufactured by combining natural composites, clay and sifted fibers of wood. Study used a novel multi-parameter lognormal multivariate regression approach to assess the combined effects of quantity of compositional constituent on toughness of material. The approach was validated for two specimen types (T- and S-specimens) derived from a circular base of the frustum shaped, porous clay ceramic ware (PCCW). Study done on health of people using ceramic filters for water purification. Filters were distributed to 52 families at Eweje Village, Odeda, Ogun State, Nigeria. Using survey data related to hygiene, health, water source and treatment, socio-economic and educational status of people and their use of clay ceramic water filters, a multi parameter multivariate regression approach enumerated the hierarchy of the effects of variables on the health of Eweje community. Apart from population and time of filter utility, access to medical services influenced health in this rural community using ceramic water filters. Studies initiated on quantification of the hydraulic performance of treatment wetlands using the moment index and a paper presented. PARTICIPANTS: Andy Ward, Professor The Ohio State University (OSU). Mazeika Sullivan, Assistant Professor, OSU. Larry C Brown, Professor OSU. Alfred Soboyejo, Professor OSU. Jessica DAmbrosio, Ohio NEMO Program, OSU. Matt MacFarland, Graduate student, OSU. Leslie Riesck, Graduate Student, OSU. Sarah Roley, Graduate student, University of Notre Dame. Dr Anand K Plappally, Postdoctoral Research Fellow OSU. Winston O Soboyejo, Professor Princeton University. Carrie Volmer-Sanders, Conservation Director, The Nature Conservancy. TARGET AUDIENCES: State and Federal Agency personnel, farmers, watershed groups, county engineers and surveyors, consultants, land improvement contractors, students, and academia. Collaborators outside are especially from Africa, India and China. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.

Impacts
Analysis of stream geomorphology, hydrology, hydraulics, soil erosion and geotechnical parameters, and soil physical properties at 36 sites in Ohio, Indiana, and Michigan yielded statistically significant relationships between: 1) the soil erodibility coefficients and critical shear stresses needed to initiate channel erosion, 2) clay content, soil moisture, and streambank internal angle of friction, and 3) silt content, soil moisture, and soil effective cohesion. Each of these relationships are useful for predicting parameters needed to model instream processes by simply extracting soil cores/samples at a site and measuring soil moisture and soil particle size distribution. Soil erodibility coefficients were not well predicted by the suite of soil properties measured and are more likely impacted by processes, such as freeze-thaw cycling, wetting-drying, or by other soil properties not measured as part of this study (e.g. Atterberg Limits, plasticity index, root density, etc.). Our research has demonstrated that the Two-Stage Ditch consistently improved N removal potential, while reducing stream water turbidity and sediment export, and improving instream habitat. Additionally, these positive environmental outcomes from the Two-Stage Ditch are either maintained, or improve, over time without additional ditch maintenance. Research findings led to the development of multiple spreadsheet analysis tools. The Instream Nitrogen Assimilation Spreadsheet Tool, the Instream Phosphorus Assimilation Spreadsheet Tool, and the Cost Estimator Tool. Studies conducted at 10 sites in OH, IN, and MI in collaboration with Univ. of Notre Dame leveraged further state and regional funding to continue study of two-stage ditches for water quality and floodplain storage benefits. The novel statistical model expressions developed can be used for the prediction of material and mechanical properties of natural and engineered materials, as well as predicting performance of filtration devices. The probolistic module enabled building low cost, effective water filtration devices to improve health of Eweje community (rural villagers). Studies provided ecological engineers knowledge on using the moment index as a way to quantify the hydraulic performance of treatment wetlands.

Publications

  • D'Ambrosio, J.D. Witter, and A.D. Ward. 2011. Building Better Ditches. Madison, WI, USA. http://agdrainage-dev.cfaes.ohio-state.edu/sites/drupal-agdrainage.we b/files/Builing%20Better%20Ditches-FV.pdf
  • D'Ambrosio, J.L., J.D. Witter, A.D. Ward, and D. Mecklenburg. 2011. Approaches to Enhancing Ecosystem Services in Modified Headwater Channel Systems. Madison, WI, USA. http://agdrainage-dev.cfaes.ohio-state.edu/sites/drupal-agdrainage.we b/files/Enhancement%20Approaches.pdf
  • Ward, A.D., G.E. Powell, A.D. Jayakaran, J.D. Witter, J.L. D'Ambrosio, and D. Mecklenburg. 2011. Selecting and Sizing a Two-Stage Channel System in an Agricultural Landscape. Madison, WI, USA. http://agdrainage-dev.cfaes.ohio-state.edu/sites/drupal-agdrainage.we b/files/Sizing%20Ditches.pdf
  • Witter, J.D., J.L. D'Ambrosio, A.D. Ward, and D. Mecklenburg. 2011. Two-Stage Channel Case Study: Needles Creek. Madison, WI, USA. http://agdrainage-dev.cfaes.ohio-state.edu/sites/drupal-agdrainage.we b/files/Needles%20Creek%281%29.pdf
  • Witter, J.D., J.L. D'Ambrosio, A.D. Ward, J. Magner, and B. Wilson. 2011. Considerations for Implementing Two-Stage Channels. Madison, WI, USA. http://agdrainage-dev.cfaes.ohio-state.edu/sites/drupal-agdrainage.we b/files/Implementation%20Consideration.pdf
  • Witter, J.D., J.L. D'Ambrosio, and A.D. Ward. 2011. Two-Stage Channel Case Study: Creel Ditch. Madison, WI, USA. http://agdrainage-dev.cfaes.ohio-state.edu/sites/drupal-agdrainage.we b/files/Creel%20Ditch%281%29.pdf
  • Witter, J.D., J.L. D'Ambrosio, and A.D. Ward. 2011. Two-Stage Channel Case Study: Crommer Ditch. Madison, WI, USA. http://agdrainage-dev.cfaes.ohio-state.edu/sites/drupal-agdrainage.we b/files/Crommer%20ditch.pdf
  • Witter, J.D., J.L. D'Ambrosio, and A.D. Ward. 2011. Two-Stage Channel Case Study: Davis-Freeman Ditch. Madison, WI, USA. http://agdrainage-dev.cfaes.ohio-state.edu/sites/drupal-agdrainage.we b/files/Davis%20Freeman%20Ditch.pdf
  • Witter, J.D., J.L. D'Ambrosio, and A.D. Ward. 2011. Two-Stage Channel Case Study: Van Gorder Ditch. Madison, WI, USA. http://agdrainage-dev.cfaes.ohio-state.edu/sites/drupal-agdrainage.we b/files/Vangorder%20Ditch.pdf
  • Witter, J.D., J.L. D'Ambrosio, and A.D. Ward. 2011. Final technical report to Ohio EPA: Modeling nutrients in watersheds, streams, and ditches. Columbus, Ohio, USA.
  • Witter, J.D., J.L. D'Ambrosio, and A.D. Ward. 2011. Two-Stage Channel Case Study: Klase Ditch. Madison, WI, USA. http://agdrainage-dev.cfaes.ohio-state.edu/sites/drupal-agdrainage.we b/files/Klase%20Ditch.pdf
  • Witter, J.D., J.L. D'Ambrosio, and A.D. Ward. 2011. Two-Stage Channel Case Study: Sugar Creek. Madison, WI, USA. http://agdrainage-dev.cfaes.ohio-state.edu/sites/drupal-agdrainage.we b/files/Sugar%20Creek-FV.pdf
  • Witter, J.D., J.L. D'Ambrosio, and A.D. Ward. 2011. Two-Stage Channel Case Study: Tributary to Bull Creek. Madison, WI, USA. http://agdrainage-dev.cfaes.ohio-state.edu/sites/drupal-agdrainage.we b/files/Bull%20Creek.pdf
  • Witter, J.D., J.L., D'Ambrosio, and A.D. Ward. 2011. Final Project Report: A Scientific Investigation to Better Understand, Evaluate, and Predict Instream Processes in Natural, Modified, and Constructed Streams in Ohio. Ohio Water Deveopment Authority Columbus, OH, USA.
  • D'Ambrosio, J.L., A.D. Ward, and J.D. Witter. 2011. Two-stage agricultural drainage channels: a decade later. Ohio's Country Journal. June 2011: 31.
  • Witter, J.D., J.L. D'Ambrosio, and A.D. Ward. 2011. Considerations for implementing two-stage channels. Ohio's Country Journal. August 2011: 36.
  • Plappally A, Soboyejo A, Fausey N, Soboyejo W and Brown L, 2010, Stochastic modeling of Filtrate Alkalinity in Water Filtration Devices: Transport through Micro/Nano Porous Clay Based Ceramic Materials, J Nat Env Sci 2010, 1(2):96-105.
  • A K Plappally, I. Yakub, L C Brown, W O Soboyejo and A B O Soboyejo , 2011. Physical Properties of Porous Clay Ceramic-Ware, Journal of Engineering Materials and Technology, ASME, Vol 113 (3):311004-1-311004-9
  • Plappally, A. Haoqian Chen, Wasiu Ayinde, Samson Alayande, Andrew Usoro, Katie C. Friedman, Enoch Dare, Taiwo Ogunyale,Iismaiel Yakub, Megan Leftwich, Karen Malatesta, Ron Rivera,Larry Brown, Alfred Soboyejo and Winston Soboyejo. 2011. A Field Study on the Use of Clay Ceramic Water Filters and Influences on the General Health of Eweje Village, Odeda, Ogun state, Nigeria, Africa. Journal of Health Behavior and Public Health, 1(1):1-14. http://www.asciencejournal.net/asj/index.php/HBPH/issue/view/32
  • Xiaohua Wei, Anand K. Plappally, Alfred B. O. Soboyejo, Bin Dong, Zhi Mao and Larry C. Brown. 2011. Numerical and multivariate stochastic approaches to characterize flow in a constructed wetland basin. Journal of Stochastic Environmental Research & Risk Assessment (SERRA) Vol 25 Issue 8
  • Griffiths, N. A., J. L. Tank, T. V. Royer, T.J. Warrner, T. C. Frauendorf, E. J. Rosi-Marshall, and M. R. Whiles. 2011. Temporal variation in organic carbon spiraling in Midwestern agricultural streams. Biogeochemistry. DOI 10.1007/s10533-011-9585-z http://www.indiana.edu/~royerlab/publications.php
  • Roley, S. S., J.L. Tank, M.L. Stephen, L.T. Johnson, J.J. Beaulieu and J.D, Witter. 2011. Floodplain restoration enhances denitrification and reach-scale nitrogen removal in an agricultural stream. Ecological Applications. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/11-0381.1
  • Surendran-Nair, S., K. King, J. Witter, B. Sohngen and N. Fausey. 2011. Importance of crop yield for calibrating water quality simulation tools. Journal of the American Water Resources Association. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1752-1688.2011.00570.x/p df
  • Ward, A.D., J.D. Witter, J.L. D'Ambrosio, J.L.Tank, S.S. Roley, S. Kallio, and R. Kallio. 2011. The sustainability and nitrate reduction potential of two-stage ditches. Meeting Paper #1111833. 2011 ASABE International Meeting, August 7-10, 2011, Louisville, KY, USA.
  • Witter, J.D., A. D. Ward and J.L. D'Ambrosio. 2011. Predicting stream dynamic equilibrium in a central Ohio watershed. Journal of Natural and Environmental Sciences. Vol. 2, No.1


Progress 01/01/10 to 12/31/10

Outputs
OUTPUTS: Studies conducted at 8 drainage channel sites in OH, IN, and MI in collaboration with Univ. of Notre Dame. Four sites were a constructed 2-stage treatment reach and four sites were an upstream non-constructed control reach. Data collected included: in situ water variables temperature, pH, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, specific conductivity, photosynthetic irradiance, water capacitance, geomorphology profiles, cross-sections, and particle size. Results presented at numerous meetings (see references). A modeling study was conducted in the Chagrin River Watershed on the watershed-scale impacts of land use, storm water, and floodplain management practices on watershed hydrology. A study was conducted at 36 sites in the Olentangy River Watershed in central Ohio to assess the physical integrity of stream reaches within the drainage network. Project personnel working with Purdue Univ. Ext. ,The Ohio State Univ. Ext. and The Nature Conservancy (TNC) did a webinar workshop on the use and application of agricultural drainage systems for ecological functions. Project completed developing the multimedia learning modules on stream and watershed basics (Ohio EPA Ohio Environmental Education Fund grant). Learning modules were piloted and tested by Ohio Watershed Academy students as well as Ohio EPA staff. Modules were introduced to undergraduate and graduate students in two courses, and to participants at the National NEMO Conference in Maine. (See CRIS 2010 Report OH1029 for additional information). Began studies using probabilistic methods, i.e. stochastic models bio systems related to water systems. Investigated transport through micro/nano porous clay based ceramic materials and physical properties of porous clay ceramic-ware. Result was quantification of hydraulic inefficiencies using a new hydraulic index based on residence time distribution theory. Personnel began studies on strength of organic whisker - clay composite ceramics compatible for drinking water filtration. The porous media were manufactured by combining natural composites, clay and sifted fibers of wood. Study used a novel multi-parameter lognormal multivariate regression approach to assess the combined effects of quantity of compositional constituent on toughness of material. The approach was validated for two specimen types (T- and S-specimens) derived from a circular base of the frustum shaped, porous clay ceramic ware (PCCW). Study done on health of people using ceramic filters for water purification. Filters were distributed to 52 families at Eweje Village, Odeda, Ogun State, Nigeria. Using survey data related to hygiene, health, water source and treatment, socio-economic and educational status of people and their use of clay ceramic water filters, a multi parameter multivariate regression approach enumerated the hierarchy of the effects of variables on the health of Eweje community. Apart from population and time of filter utility, access to medical services influenced health in this rural community using ceramic water filters. Studies initiated on quantification of the hydraulic performance of treatment wetlands using the moment index and a paper presented. PARTICIPANTS: Andy Ward, Professor The Ohio State University (OSU). Larry C Brown, Professor OSU. Alfred Soboyejo, Professor OSU. Jessica DAmbrosio, Ohio NEMO Program Manager, OSU. Rebecca Kallio, Graduate student, OSU. Sara Kallio, Graduate student, OSU. Elenor Kern, Undergraduate student, OSU. Jamie Johnson,Undergraduate student, OSU. Natalie Struble, Undergraduate student, OSU. Mary Beth Mayo, Undergraduate student, OSU. Matthew MacFarland, Undergraduate student, OSU. Sarah Roley, Graduate student, University of Notre Dame. Mia Stephen, Graduate student, University of Notre Dame. Dr Anand K Plappally, Postdoctoral Research Fellow OSU. Winston O Soboyejo, Professor Princeton University. Joe Draper, Conservation Director, The Nature Conservancy. Chad Watts, Tippeecanoe Project Manager, The Nature Conservancy. Training was provided to about 10 undergraduate and graduate students. TARGET AUDIENCES: State and Federal Agency personnel, farmers, watershed groups, county engineers and surveyors, consultants, land improvement contractors, students, and academia. Collaborators outside are especially from Africa, India and China. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.

Impacts
The analysis of 5 two-stage ditches indicated that the constructed two-stage ditches were maintaining channel form in a state of dynamic equilibrium, and bench denitrification rates were higher than instream rates. Data also suggest bench organic content increasing through time, directly influencing N-removal rates via denitrification. Quantification of potential N-removal benefits will require scaling denitrification rates to the stream reach and accounting for differences in water-sediment contact time when benches are flooded. Research findings led to the development of multiple spreadsheet analysis tools. The Instream Nitrogen Assimilation Spreadsheet Tool, developed with University of Notre Dame, integrates geomorphology, hydrology and biogeochemistry data to estimate instream nitrogen uptake potential of agricultural drainage ditches and compares an incised trapezoidal ditch system to a ditch with two-stage geometry. The Instream Phosphorus Assimilation Spreadsheet Tool, developed collaboratively with ODNR, utilizes an approach similar to the Instream Nitrogen Assimilation spreadsheet tool. Research results led to the development of a model to simulate peak discharge rates in a watershed affected by land use change and stormwater controls applied to urbanizing landscapes. Results suggest that the management of floodplains by protecting active floodplain in watersheds where they exist and restoring or rehabilitating disconnected floodplains will likely have benefits in terms of storm water management. Studies using probabilistic methods were applied to the design, operation, and social impact of ceramic water filtration devices. The novel statistical model expressions developed can be used for the prediction of material and mechanical properties of natural and engineered materials, as well as predicting performance of filtration devices. Studies provided ecological engineers knowledge on using the moment index as a way to quantify the hydraulic performance of treatment wetlands.

Publications

  • Anand Plappally, Alfred Soboyejo, Norman Fausey, Winston Soboyejo, Larry Brown, Stochastic Modeling of Filtrate Alkalinity in Water Filtration Devices: Transport through Micro/Nano Porous Clay Based Ceramic Materials, J Nat Env Sci 2010 1(2):96-105
  • Griffiths, N.S., Tank, J.L., Roley, S.S., Stephen, M.L. 2010. Comparison of detrital decomposition in floodplain and main channel habitats of restored agricultural streams. North American Benthological Society Annual Meeting. Santa Fe, NM. 11 June http://www.sgmeet.com/aslo/santafe2010/viewabstract2.aspAbstractID=6 583
  • Jayakaran, A.D., Mecklenburg, D.E., Witter, J.D., Ward, A.D. and G.E. Powell. 2010. Fluvial processes in agricultural ditches in the North Central Region of the United States and implications for their management. In Agricultural Drainage Ditches: Mitigation Wetlands for the 21st Century, Matthew T. Moore and Robert Kroger (eds.) pp. 195-222.
  • Jung-Chen Huang, William J. Mitsch, and Andrew D. Ward. 2010. Design of Experimental Streams for Simulating Headwater Stream Restoration. Journal of the American Water Resources Association. Vol. 46, no. 5. (October): 957-971.
  • Kallio, S., A. Ward, J. DAmbrosio, J. Witter. 2010a. A Decade Later: A Look at Agricultural Ditch Floodplains as a Water Quality BMP. Paper CSBE10207, ASABE's 9th International Drainage Symposium. Quebec City, Canada June 13-17. (search at asae.frymulti.com)
  • Kallio, R., A. Ward, J. DAmbrosio, J. Witter. 2010b. A Decade Later: The Establishment, Channel Evolution, and Stability of Innovative Two-Stage Agricultural Ditches In the Midwest Region of the United States. Paper CSBE10209, ASABE's 9th International Drainage Symposium. Quebec City, Canada June 13-17. (search at asae.frymulti.com)
  • Stephen, M.L., Tank, J.L., Roley, S.S. 2010. The influence of two-stage restoration on sediment and nitrogen removal across a range of Midwest agricultural streams. North American Benthological Society Annual Meeting. Santa Fe, NM. 9 June http://www.sgmeet.com/aslo/santafe2010/viewabstract2.aspAbstractID=7 450
  • Wahl, M. D., L. C. Brown, A. O. Soboyejo, J. Martin, and B. Dong. 2010 Quantifying the hydraulic performance of treatment wetlands using the moment index. Ecological Engineering 36(12):1691-1699.
  • Witter, J., D. Mecklenburg, R. Webb, J.Dorsey, A. Ward and J. D'Ambrosio. 2010. Improving Land Use in the Lake Erie Basin Through Better Planning, Improved Regulations and Stormwater Modeling. Technical Report to the Chagrin River Watershed Partners. 37pp. Columbus, OH.
  • Witter, J., J. DAmbrosio and A. Ward. 2010. Research an Outreach on Modeling Instream Processes in Agricultural Headwater Streams. Technical Report to Ohio Environmental Protection Agency. 307pp. Columbus, OH.
  • Witter, J., A. Ward and J. DAmbrosio. 2010. Predicting dynamic equilibrium in streams in the Olentangy River Watershed, Ohio, USA. In: CIGR 2010 World Congress. Quebec City, Canada.