Source: UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA submitted to
INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT OF INSECT TURF PESTS IN FLORIDA
Sponsoring Institution
National Institute of Food and Agriculture
Project Status
NEW
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
0218993
Grant No.
(N/A)
Project No.
FLA-BGL-004911
Proposal No.
(N/A)
Multistate No.
(N/A)
Program Code
(N/A)
Project Start Date
Dec 1, 2009
Project End Date
Dec 1, 2013
Grant Year
(N/A)
Project Director
Cherry, R. H.
Recipient Organization
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
BOX 100494, JHMHC
GAINESVILLE,FL 32610
Performing Department
Everglades Research and Education Center, Belle Glade
Non Technical Summary
Several species of insects are important pests of turf grass in Florida. These insects include important species such as southern chinch bugs in St. Augustinegrass and tropical sod webworms in all grass species. Five to six insecticide applications are typically applied each year to control these pests. Thus there is a large monetary cost and environmental cost to control these pests. Hence, efficient use of insecticides and alternative controls are constantly needed for these pests. One alternative to insecticides is host plant resistance which has been used especially well against the southern chinch bug in the past. Also, there is a constant need to develop new insecticides against these pests as insects develop resistance to current insecticides and insecticides are restricted and/or removed from the market. Biological control is also an area that has received limited attention in controlling insect pests of turf in Florida. The effect of predators, parasites, and pathogens needs to be clarified in order to see if their effect on pest populations can be enhanced. The southern chinch bug, the most important insect pest of St. Augustinegrass, has and continues to become resistant to a wide variety of insecticides. Insecticide Resistance Management (IRM) needs to be studied to most effectively use the chemical controls available against this adaptable insect. And last, we must be vigilant in controlling new insect pest problems as they arise. Florida in general, and especially southern Florida, is an excellent stage for evolving new insect pest problems because of the salubrious climate. Moreover, the large amount of shipping, both air and water, brought into Florida enhances its insect pest problems. Hence, it is important to study these new insect pest problems as they arise to protect the homeowners and turf industry of Florida.
Animal Health Component
50%
Research Effort Categories
Basic
50%
Applied
50%
Developmental
(N/A)
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
21121301130100%
Goals / Objectives
1. Work with plant breeder(s) to find new varieties of turf grass resistant to turf insect pests. 2. Work with chemical control industries to develop new insecticides to control insect pests of turf grasses. 3. Study biological control agents of insect pests of turf grasses to enhance the effectiveness of these natural enemies. 4. Develop Insecticide Resistance Management (IRM) for the southern chinch bug which is resistant to several insecticides. 5. Be ready to develop control strategies against new insect pests as these problems develop in turf grass.
Project Methods
The following research will be conducted on southern chinch bugs. First, I will cooperate with a plant breeder to develop varieties of St. Augustinegrass resistant to the insects. Second, I will continue to cooperate with various companies to test various insecticides for chinch bug control. Third, the natural occurrence and manipulation of parasites for southern chinch bug control will be studied. Fourth, the dispersal of the adults will be determined since we currently have little understanding of the insect's movement between populations. Fifth, insecticide resistance management will be examined since southern chinch bugs are notorious for becoming resistant to insecticides. The following research will be conducted on tropical sod webworms. First, I will cooperate with a plant breeder to develop varieties of turf grass resistant to the insects. Second, I will continue to cooperate with various companies to test various insecticides for tropical sod webworm control. Third, the natural occurrence and manipulation of parasites for tropical sod webworm control will be studied. Fourth, the effect of refined mineral oil based herbicides and fungicides in suppressing tropical sod webworms and other turf insect pests. This is an ongoing area of research I have been conducting which shows great promise. Last, I will have my research program in place so that when new turf insect pests are found I will be able to react quickly to a new problem. For example, Cherry et al (2006) reported on Liburnia pseudoseminigra, a new and unusual pest of St. Augustinegrass. This insect was first noted in sod farms in southern Florida in 2004. Florida is notorious for the importation of new insect pests and evolution of native insect species into pests. As these pests occur which surely they will, I will move rapidly to help Florida homeowners and sod growers control the insect pests of their turf.

Progress 10/01/11 to 09/30/12

Outputs
OUTPUTS: No outputs reported PARTICIPANTS: Not relevant to this project. TARGET AUDIENCES: Not relevant to this project. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Not relevant to this project.

Impacts
"Captiva is a recently released variety of St. Augustinegrass which is resistant to southern chinch bug, Bissus insularis Barber. We tested to determine if fertilization of captiva influenced it's resistance to the insect and/or disease incidence. Fertilization did not have a significant effect on captiva resistance to southern chinch bug as measured by adult survival. However, incidence and severity of gray leaf spot disease, Pyricularia grises (Coke)Sacc., increased with increasing fertilization. The parasitic wasp Eumicrosoma benefica has year round activity and was found at all southern chinch bug infestations that were sampled in southern Florida. This parasite is an important, if not the most important biological control agent in reducing southern chinch bug populations in southern Florida. "Aloha" seashore paspalum was developed at the Everglades Research and Education Center, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida and jointly released by florida and Hawaii agricultural experiment stations. Aloha was slected for improved agronomic, horticultural and host plant restance traits including a faster rate of crop establishment and ground coverage, darker and deeper green leaf color and superior resistance to greenbug aphid ( Schizaphis graminum Rondani; homoptera: Aphidae). The greenbug aphids tool longer to reach reproductive maturity, had shorter lifespans, and produced fewer offspring when cultured on Aloha.

Publications

  • Cherry, R.,A. Wright, R. Raid, and Y. Luo. 2011. Effect of fertilization on resistance of Captiva St. Augustinegrass to southern chinch bug ( hemiptera:Blissidae) and gray leaf spot disease. J. Entomol. Sci. 46:96-101. Cherry R. 2011 Distribution of Eumicrosoma benefica (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae) in shouthern chinch bug (hemiptera:Blissidae) populations. Florida Entomologist 94(2):352-353. Scully< B., R. Nagata, D.Sistrunk, R. Cherry, K. Kenworthy, and J DeFrank. 2011. Registration of Aloha seashore paspalum. J. Plant Registrations 5:22-26.


Progress 10/01/10 to 09/30/11

Outputs
OUTPUTS: Research results have been presented at professional and non-professinal meetings. Results have been presented in refereed and non-refereed publications. PARTICIPANTS: Not relevant to this project. TARGET AUDIENCES: Not relevant to this project. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Not relevant to this project.

Impacts
"Captiva" is a recently released variety of St. Augustinegrass which is resistant to the southern chinch bug, Blissus insularis Barber. We tested to determine if fertilization of Captiva influenced its resistance to the insect and/or disease incidence. Fertilization did not have a significant effect on Captiva resistance to southern chinch bug as measured by adult survival. However, incidence and severity of gray leaf spot disease, Pyricularia grisea(coke) Sacc., increased with increasing fertilization. The parasitic wasp Eumicrosoma benefica has year round activity and was found at all southern chinch bug infestations that were sampled in southern Florida. This parasite is an important, if not the most important, biological control agentin reducing southern chinch bug populations in southern Florida. "Aloha" seashore paspalum was developed at the Everglades Research and Education Center, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida and jointly released by the Florida and Hawaii agricultural experiment stations. Aloha was selected for improved agronomic, horticultural, and host-plant resistance traits including a faster rate of crop establishment and ground coverage, darker and deeper green leaf color, and superior resistance to the greenbug aphid (Schizaphis graminum Rondani; homoptera:Aphididae). The greenbug aphids took longer to reach reproductive maturity, had shorter lifespan, and produced fewer offspring when cultured on Aloha.

Publications

  • Cherry, R., A. Wright, R. Raid, and Y. Luo. 2011. Effect of fertilization on resistance of Captiva St. Augustinegrass to southern chinch bugs (hemiptera:Blissidae) and gray leaf spot disease. J. Entomol. Science. 46:96-101.
  • Cherry, R. 2011. Distribution of Eumicrosoma benefica (Hymenoptera:Scelionidae) in southern chinch bug (Hemipitera:Blissidae) populations. Florida Entomologist. 94(2):352-353.
  • Scully, B., R. Nagata, D. Sistrunk, R. Cherry, G. Nuessly, K. Kenworthy, and J. DeFrank. 2011. Registration of Aloha seashore paspalum. J. Plant Registrations. 5:22-26.


Progress 10/01/09 to 09/30/10

Outputs
OUTPUTS: The use of Clear Choice, an environmentally safe herbicide which has a side benefit of helping to control southern chinch bugs, has been reported. This product is available to the general public. The effect of fertilization on resistance of St. Augustinegrass "Captiva" to southern chinch bugs and disease was determined. Results of these tests were reported at the 2010 annual ASA-CSSA-SSSA international meeting. Research was initiated to determine the effect of Silicon on host plant resistance of St. Augustinegrass to southern chinch bugs and disease. Research was also initiated to screen St. Augustinegrass varieties for resistance to southern chinch bugs. I am the co-advisor for a graduate student, Crystal Atkinson, who is studying aggregation behavior in southern chinch bugs. An overview presentation "Recent research in turf entomology" was presented to the Florida Sod Growers Cooperative on April 22, 2010. PARTICIPANTS: Not relevant to this project. TARGET AUDIENCES: Not relevant to this project. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.

Impacts
Examples of a change in knowledge garnered during the last year of this project are as follows. First, Clear Choice is an environmentally friendly herbicide for broad-leaf control in turfgrasses. However, our laboratory and field data show that the herbicide also will help to control tropical sod webworm populations in St. Augustinegrass. This is the first report of an herbicide helping to control a pest insect in any turfgrass. Second, we tested to determine if fertilization of Captiva St. Augustinegrass influenced its resistance to the insect and/or disease incidence. Tissue nitrogen and phosphorus content increased in plants with increasing fertilization levels. Fertilization did not have a significant effect on Captiva resistance to southern chinch bug as measured by adult survival. However, incidence and severity of gray leaf spot disease, Pyricularia grisea (Cooke) Sacc., increased with increasing fertilization. These data may be used by homeowners and sod producers in fertilizer usage decisions.

Publications

  • Cherry, R., M. Fefer, and J. Liu. 2010. Effect of Clear Choice herbicide on tropical sod webworms in St. Augustinegrass. J. Entomol. Science. 45: 44-50..
  • Cherry, R., A. Wright, R. Raid, and Y. Luo. 2010. Effect of fertilization on resistance of Captiva St. Augustinegrass to southern chinch bugs (Hemiptera: Blissidae) and gray leaf spot disease. J. Entomol. Science (In press).
  • Cherry, R. and C. Rainbolt. 2010. Effect of southern chinch bug on weed establishment in St. Augustinegrass. U. of Florida EDIS publication SSAGR277/AG282.