Source: MICHIGAN STATE UNIV submitted to
IMPROVEMENT OF SOFT WHITE AND RED WINTER WHEAT ADAPTED TO MICHIGAN AND SURROUNDING REGION
Sponsoring Institution
National Institute of Food and Agriculture
Project Status
TERMINATED
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
0217220
Grant No.
(N/A)
Project No.
MICL02193
Proposal No.
(N/A)
Multistate No.
(N/A)
Program Code
(N/A)
Project Start Date
Jan 1, 2009
Project End Date
Dec 31, 2013
Grant Year
(N/A)
Project Director
Freed, R.
Recipient Organization
MICHIGAN STATE UNIV
(N/A)
EAST LANSING,MI 48824
Performing Department
Plant, Soil and Microbial Science
Non Technical Summary
Wheat production in Michigan is a critical component of the Agri-food industry. Soft red and soft white winter wheats produced in Michigan are used in numerous products such as breakfast cereals, pastries and baked goods, and soup thickeners. An economic study by Peterson and colleagues, 2006, showed the total value of breakfast cereal, breads, bakery, cookies crackers and pasta manufacturing in Michigan was greater than $3.9 billion in 2002. Any improvement in wheat production in MI will have a large beneficial effect on MI economy and natural resources. The MSU Wheat Breeding and Genetics Program employs breeding and research for wheat improvement. The advantage of developing improved genotypes through breeding is that this improvement is packaged in the seed itself, and therefore the new technology is available to the farmer with the purchase of the seed. The Wheat Industry in Michigan has many needs from farm to fork. From producers, to millers, end users and consumers, limiting factors at any one of these stages hinder the wheat industry. Two issues are of great concern to the MI wheat industry are Fusarium head blight (FHB) and Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS). FHB is a fungal disease of wheat that attacks the wheat grain, and DON (deoxynivalenol), a toxin, is produced in the wheat. PHS is germination of the seed before harvest, a phenomenon that quickly destroys wheat quality. The US Food and Drug Administration has set a federal advisory limit of DON according to the end-use of the food product (http://www.ag.ndsu.edu/pubs/plantsci/pests/pp1302w.htm). Losses felt by the farmers during epidemic years in MI have had a major impact on farmers' views towards producing wheat. Furthermore, losses to millers, wheat users (such as Kellogg'sr and Postr Cereal companies in MI), and consumers compound the losses at the farm gate. Likewise, regarding PHS, in 2008 some white wheat farmers in the thumb of MI suffered extensive losses due to PHS, as rains during harvest season prevented timely harvest. The activation of the alpha amylase enzyme during germination degrades starches, and therefore dramatically affects the quality of sprouted grain. While MI farmers grow both soft red and soft white winter wheat, the bran of soft white winter wheat is an especially valuable commodity for local industries, as the bran is more palatable and has higher consumer preference. MI is one of the few areas of eastern North America that produce soft white wheat. Although MI still produces a large quantity of soft white wheat, the soft white wheat production in MI has declined. The drop in sales in MI is believed to be from a number of factors, including FHB, PHS, and perceived lower yield by growers. Although companies often offer premiums for white wheat, these premiums cannot always make up for the challenges in production. Improving soft white wheat resistance to FHB and PHS can therefore have a major impact on white wheat production and benefit the Agri-Food industry in MI.
Animal Health Component
(N/A)
Research Effort Categories
Basic
(N/A)
Applied
(N/A)
Developmental
(N/A)
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
2021549108110%
2041549108145%
2121549108145%
Goals / Objectives
OBJECTIVES: The goals of the MSU Wheat Breeding Program over the next five years include the following two broad objectives: 1. Development and release of improved soft red and soft white winter wheat varieties and germplasm with an emphasis on improved FHB and pre-harvest sprouting resistance. 2. Focused research to hasten improved variety/germplasm development. Within these two broader objectives are many specific objectives: 1. Variety/Germplasm development a. Conduct crosses to combine superior agronomic characteristics (yield, testweight, etc.), with improved resistance to Fusarium head blight and pre-harvest sprouting b. Select and advance breeding lines for variety development with improved traits based on various field, greenhouse and laboratory tests. i. Replicated yield trial testing in multiple counties in MI (http://www.css.msu.edu/varietytrials/wheat/Variety_Results.html). ii. Genotype and select lines using Marker Assisted Selection with the cooperation of the USDA-ARS Eastern Small Grains Genotyping Lab, under the direction of Gina Brown-Guedira. iii. Test lines for milling and baking quality with the cooperation of Edward Souza (USDA) and Perry Ng (MSU). iv. Identify lines with improved FHB resistance and lower DON levels through studies at MSU and with the cooperation of Clay Sneller, Yanhong Dong, and other researchers involved in regional FHB trials. v. Identify lines with improved resistance to Pre-harvest sprouting using sprouting assays at MSU. c. Release improved varieties and/or germplasm with important traits. Varieties will be released for commercial production. Germplasm will be released for use in research and breeding programs. d. Development of database of molecular marker information for breeding parents, to be used in MAS of breeding populations. 2. Focused research to hasten variety/germplasm improvement. a. Investigate aspects of bran relevant to growers and industry: i. Identify the level of correlation of bran vs. flour DON toxin contamination in the field and greenhouse following FHB infection. ii. Identify germplasm with improved resistance to DON accumulation in the bran iii. Identify germplasm with improved bran qualities for industries, such as quantity of bran and bran flaking size. b. Identify and/or develop an effective sprouting assay for identifying sprouting resistance at MSU. c. Identify additional sources of FHB and sprouting resistance to use as parents in crosses.
Project Methods
Objective 1: Development and Release of Improved Varieties and Germplasm Breeding parents will be analyzed by molecular markers linked to relevant QTL. These data will be maintianed in a database to help in evaluation of crosses. Crosses will be made to combine complimentary traits between parents. A pedigree breeding method will be employed for advancement. Selection of progeny will begin in the first segregating generation, including both phenothypic selection and, of for a subset of populations, Marker-Assisted Selection. FHB evaluation is conducted in parallel to the breeding nursery at either the F3 and/or F4 generation. In the F5 generation onward, plots are evaluated for sufficient uniformity and performance to be included in MSU yield trials. Replicated multi-location yield trials are conducted in six different counties in MI (http://www.css.msu.edu/varietytrials/wheat/Variety_Results.html). In addition to standard yield test criteria, milling and baking performance are assessed on yield trial entries. Furthermore, yield trial lines are again evaluated for FHB, and resistance to PHS is begun. Objective 2: Focused research to hasten variety/germplasm improvement. DON contamination in the bran vs. flour will be examined for twenty genotypes (red and white) adapted to MI. Evaluation of DON contamination will be conducted in the field and greenhouse. Genotypes with lower DON levels in the bran will be identified. Two management studies will be conducted to highlight any genoytpe x herbicide problems, and genotype x fungicide combinations. Flake size will be examiend on MSU field samples from several years of yield trial sites. Results of will help direct crossing and/or commercialization of genotypes relevant to the cereal industry. We will re-evaluate our method of sprouting resistance considering timing of harvest, method of misting, and the use of freezing to help synchronize the evaluation of lines. Outputs expected from this research include the development and distribution of improved varieties and germplasm. Scientific knowledge will be gained about FHB and PHS resistance, which will be applied to further breeding efforts. Dissemination of Information: The MSU wheat breeding program will annually distribute the Michigan State Performance Trial report direction to trial participants via e-mail. The PI will participate in multiple grower field days and extension meetings in which the results of work conducted in the wheat program will be presented. Companies involved in marketing released varieties will be communicated with via MSU technologies. The MSU wheat breeding program will meet with the Eastern Soft White Wheat endowment group twice year to discuss progress and needs. Varities and germplasm releases will be published in the Journal of Plant Registrations. Results of research will be presented annually at conferences, and will be published in peer-reviewed journal articles as well as non-peer-reviewed reports.

Progress 01/01/09 to 12/31/13

Outputs
Target Audience: Wheat production in Michigan is a critical component of the Agri-food industry. Soft red and soft white winter wheats produced in Michigan are used in numerous products such as breakfast cereals, pastries and baked goods, and soup thickeners. Any improvement in wheat production in MI will have a large beneficial effect on MI economy and natural resources. The MSU Wheat Breeding and Genetics Program employs breeding and researchfor developing new soft wheat varieties for Michiganfarmers, millers, end users and consumers. The breeding program also provides a service to the private seed companies in testing their new varieties in state yield trials conducted on 6 sites across Michigan. Changes/Problems: MSU hired a new wheat breeder, Dr. Eric Olson from Kansas State University. Dr. Olson will be doing several new activities including doubled haploids, genotyping-by-sequencing and looking at preharvest sprouting in the Aegilops tauschii germplasm. What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided? A graduate student, Esteban Falconi, continues his PhD work. Yuanjiesucessfully defended his thesis. A new Post-Doc and two graduates students joined the program. Several undergraduates received training in plant breeding. How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest? The website http://www.varietytrials.msu.edu/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/2013-MSU-Wheat-Commercial-Report-Final-8_2_13.pdfgives variety performance and other agronomic and milling information to the farmers. Presentations were givento the Michigan Agriculture Business Association in January,and also two presentations were given to the Michigan Millers Association. There wasalsosignificant interaction with the Michigan Wheat Program (wheat check-off). What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals? Nothing Reported

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? We made over320 crosses in our breeding program. The emphasis on FHB resistance in the crosses made at MSU will hasten the development of FHB resistant varieties for Michigan. In addition, though many of the MSU sources of FHB resistance are derived originally from the well-known Asian sources of resistance, many cooperators have additional native sources of resistance that are now also being incorporated into the MSU germplasm. The MSU germplasm that is developed will also be used by other breeding programs. We were able to identify some lines with good resistance in our scab nursery. The identification of FHB resistance and lower DON accumulation in these earlier generations focuses our resources towards developing advanced lines with better FHB resistance. The breeding nursery consisted of 3,592 plots - 1423 F2 and above white wheat plots, 1094 F2 and above red wheatplots, 192 white F2 headrows, 291 F2 red headrows, 108 F1 populations, and 305 space planted increases. The Fusarium Head Blight nursery had 2,672 plots and notes were taken on these entries. We planted and harvested 4,016 yield trial plots at 6 locations in Michigan. There were the state performance trials with 93 entries, advanced and preliminary trials, quality drill strips, Uniform Eastern Soft white and Red Nurseries and a speciality wheat trial. 127 samples were sent to Wooster for advanced Milling and Baking testing. 1,380 samples were sent to Minnesota for DON analysis. Yuanjie's thesis research results showed promisefor some additional genes for sprouting resistance.

Publications

  • Type: Websites Status: Published Year Published: 2013 Citation: Michigan State Wheat Performance Trials: 2013, Lee Siler, Sue Hammar, and Eric Olson
  • Type: Theses/Dissertations Status: Published Year Published: 2013 Citation: QTL and Transcriptomic Analysis between Red Wheat and White Wheat During Pre-Harvest Sprouting Induction Stage. Su, Yuanjie


Progress 01/01/12 to 12/31/12

Outputs
OUTPUTS: The 2012 State Wheat Performance Trials including 92 (commercial and experimental) entries were planted at seven sites in 6 counties: Allegan, Huron, Ingham (2), Lenawee, Sanilac, and Tuscola. Yield and agronomic data is presented at this URL http://www.css.msu.edu/varietytrials/ wheat/Variety_Results.html. One hundred and eight crosses were made in the spring of 2012 to incorporate Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistance along with other important attributes. Sources of resistance included MSU lines as well as cooperators lines selected from the Northern Uniform Winter Wheat Scab Nursery and the Preliminary Northern Uniform Winter Wheat Scab Nursery. The research conducted by Swasti Mishra (graduate student) showed that visual measures for FHB are better correlated with toxin data in spray inoculation with bagging (with or without heat stress) compared to grain spawn inoculation followed by misting. We also found that DON in whole grain can predict DON quantities in bran and flour in both SWW and SRW, but they have different equations. In 2012 we screened F3 and F4 generations for FHB resistance in single row plots in the MSU artificially inoculated FHB nursery. A corresponding plot of each F3 and F4 line was present in the breeding nursery. Lines that performed well for FHB resistance are the focus of further selection in the breeding nursery (while the vast majority of those that performed poorly in the FHB nursery are discarded). As with selections in previous years, selected lines will be sent for toxin evaluation to the University of Minnesota DON testing lab. MSU is widening the base of germplasm being used for crossing for FHB resistance, and increasing selection pressure for breeding lines being advanced for variety development. This strategy will help develop varieties with different sources of FHB resistance, and more varieties with increased levels of FHB resistance. PARTICIPANTS: I am the principal investigator for the project, except for a portion of the perennial wheat project (See Dr. Snapp). Lee Siler is head technician for the MSU Wheat Breeding and Genetics Program and oversees field planting/maintenance/harvest and data analysis of field trials. Sue Hammar is a part-time technician for the project and oversees our greenhouse and laboratory. Swasti Mishra is a graduate student working on FHB resistance. She completed her masters degree in May. Yuanjie Su and Chong Yu are graduate students working on PHS resistance. Chong Yu finished his masters degree in May. Esteban Falconi began his PhD in our program in August 2010, and is working on an Association Mapping project regarding FHB and stripe rust in partnership with CIMMYT (International Center for Wheat and Maize Improvement, Mexico) and INIAP (National Agriculture Institution, Ecuador), funded by the Monsanto Beachell-Borlaug International Scholars Program. Partner Organizations include: USDA-ARS (providing funding through the U.S. Wheat and Barley Scab Initiative in addition to funding additional projects on perennial wheat), The Soft White Wheat Endowment Committee, Michigan Crop Improvement Association, Michigan State Millers Association, Kellogg's. The following companies contribute directly to the program: Star of the West Milling, King Milling, Chelsea Milling, and the Cooperative Elevator Co. Cooperators of the project include, but are not limited to: Dr. Perry K.W. Ng, Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Michigan State University, who serves on two student committees, is the co-advisor or a third student, collaborates on PHS and bran studies projects and coordinates a large quality trial to test wheat lines being considered for release. Dr. Edward Souza, USDA-ARS, Director of the Soft Wheat Quality Laboratory, Wooster Ohio, assesses the quality of yield trials entries and collaborates in PHS and bran studies. Dr. Gina Brown-Guedira, USDA-ARS, Director of the Small Grains Genotyping Center, Raleigh, NC, collaborates in MAS. Dr. Yanhong Dong, Department of Plant Pathology, University of Minnesota, oversees quantification of deoxynivalenol (DON) from FHB samples. Dr. Clay Sneller, Wheat Breeder, Ohio State University, and I work on FHB. Dr. Sieglinde Snapp, Cropping Systems, Department of Plant, Soil and Microbial Sciences, Michigan State University and I work together on perennial wheat. TARGET AUDIENCES: Target audiences included the following: Michigan wheat industries, through multiple meetings, yield trial testing, funding and collaborations; Michigan farmers, through the yield trial testing reports, extension meetings, and telephone and e-mail communications; research colleagues, through research meetings, workshops, teleconferences, phone calls and e-mails; MSU students, both including MSU graduate students through advising and mentoring, and undergraduate students primarily through the classroom. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.

Impacts
The emphasis on FHB resistance in the crosses made at MSU will hasten the development of FHB resistant varieties for Michigan. In addition, though many of the MSU sources of FHB resistance are derived originally from the well-known Asian sources of resistance, many cooperators have additional native sources of resistance that are now also being incorporated into the MSU germplasm. The MSU germplasm that is developed will also be used by other breeding programs. Three registrations have been published of varieties tested for FHB resistance, one of which (MSU E5024) shows improved FHB resistance and DON levels for the standard Michigan soft white winter wheat. Screening techniques have been elucidated to screen better for FHB resistance. Also, two white lines (E6003 and E6055) were identified that have DON levels comparable to the most resistant red lines. These will be used in our breeding program. We had very low infection rates in our FHB nursery this year. However, we were able to identify some lines with good resistance. The identification of FHB resistance and lower DON accumulation in these earlier generations focuses our resources towards developing advanced lines with better FHB resistance.

Publications

  • Lewis,Janet M., Siler,Lee, Ellis,Donna, Souza,Edward, Ng,Perry K.W., Dong,Yanhong, Brown-Guedira,Gina, Marshall,David, Kolmer,Jim, Jiang,Guo-Liang and Ward,Richard W. Registration of Red Ruby Wheat, Journal of Plant Registrations, Vol. 6, No. 3, September 2012.
  • Lewis,Janet M., Siler,Lee, Ellis,Donna, Souza,Edward, Ng,Perry K.W., Dong,Yanhong, Brown-Guedira,Gina, Marshall,David, Kolmer,Jim, Jiang,Guo-Liang and Ward,Richard W. Registration of MSU E5024 Wheat, Journal of Plant Registrations, Vol. 6, No. 3, September 2012.
  • Lewis,Janet M., Siler,Lee, Ellis,Donna, Souza,Edward, Ng,Perry K.W., Dong,Yanhong, Brown-Guedira,Gina, Marshall,David, Kolmer,Jim, Jiang,Guo-Liang and Ward,Richard W. Registration of Jupiter Wheat, Journal of Plant Registrations, Vol. 6, No. 3, September 2012.


Progress 01/01/11 to 12/31/11

Outputs
OUTPUTS: We conducted the Michigan State Performance Trial, Advanced and Preliminary Yield trials, Northern and Preliminary Northern Uniform Winter Wheat Scab Nurseries, Uniform Eastern Soft Red and Uniform Eastern Soft White Winter Wheat Nurseries (the last of which I coordinate). Thousands of early generation plants were evaluated for advancement. Marker Assisted Selection (MAS) was conducted in collaboration with the USDA-ARS genotyping center in Raleigh, NC. Crosses were made. Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistance was evaluated. Alpha amylase accumulation and falling number during grain maturation was studied. Genotype x management studies were conducted. Perennial wheat was assessed as a crop. I serve as the advisor of 4 graduate students, co-advisor of 1 graduate student, and serve on 3 other graduate student committees. Funding was obtained by one of my graduate students from the Monsanto Beachell Borlaug International Scholars Program. I taught Introduction to Plant Genetics (110 students). I attended the National FHB Forum, the 58th Annual Research Review of the USDA Soft Wheat Quality Lab, the National Plant Breeding Coordinating Committee Meeting, the 4th annual Great Lakes Wheat Workers meeting, the International Symposium on Preharvest Sprouting in Cereals, and the Plant and Animal Genome meeting. My students made several presentations of their work at multiple venues. I served on the Northern Winter Wheat Coordinated Project Committee for the U.S. Wheat and Barley Scab Initiative, and served as a member of the Assoc. of Official Seed Certifying Agencies Natl. Small Grain Variety Review Board. Data of the Michigan State Performance Trial (MSPT) were sent to participants, published in Michigan Farm News, reported at http://www.css.msu.edu/varietytrials/wheat/Variety_Results.html , and discussed in meetings. The progress of the breeding program was discussed in industry and extension meetings. PATENTS/INVENTIONS: We released cultivar E5024, licensed by MSU. PARTICIPANTS: I (Janet Lewis) am the principal investigator for the project, except for a portion of the perennial wheat project (See Dr. Snapp). Lee Siler is head technician for the MSU Wheat Breeding and Genetics Program and oversees field planting/maintenance/harvest and data analysis of field trials. Sue Hammar is a part-time technician for the project and oversees our greenhouse and laboratory. Randy Laurenz is a part time technician for the project assisting in field studies, including sampling for PHS and sampling for DON testing from FHB trials. Swasti Mishra is a graduate student working on FHB resistance. Yuanjie Su and Chong Yu are graduate students working on PHS resistance. Esteban Falconi began his PhD in our program in August 2010, and is working on an Association Mapping project regarding FHB and stripe rust in partnership with CIMMYT (International Center for Wheat and Maize Improvement, Mexico) and INIAP (National Agriculture Institution, Ecuador), funded by the Monsanto Beachell-Borlaug International Scholars Program. Partner Organizations include: USDA-ARS (providing funding through the U.S. Wheat and Barley Scab Initiative in addition to funding additional projects on perennial wheat), The Soft White Wheat Endowment Committee, Michigan Crop Improvement Association, Michigan State Millers Association, Kellogg's. The following companies contribute directly to the program: Star of the West Milling, King Milling, Chelsea Milling, and the Cooperative Elevator Co. Cooperators of the project include, but are not limited to: Dr. Perry K.W. Ng, Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Michigan State University, who serves on two student committees, is the co-advisor or a third student, collaborates on PHS and bran studies projects and coordinates a large quality trial to test wheat lines being considered for release. Dr. Edward Souza, USDA-ARS, Director of the Soft Wheat Quality Laboratory, Wooster Ohio, assesses the quality of yield trials entries and collaborates in PHS and bran studies. Dr. Gina Brown-Guedira, USDA-ARS, Director of the Small Grains Genotyping Center, Raleigh, NC, collaborates in MAS. Dr. Christy Sprague, Weed Scientist, Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Michigan State University, collaborated on an herbicide x genotypes study. Dr. Yanhong Dong, Department of Plant Pathology, University of Minnesota, oversees quantification of deoxynivalenol (DON) from FHB samples. Dr. Clay Sneller, Wheat Breeder, Ohio State University, and I exchange advanced breeding lines before the final stages of testing. This exchange provides both of us with more elite material to consider for variety development. Dr. Sieglinde Snapp, Cropping Systems, Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Michigan State University. Dr. Snapp and I work together on perennial wheat at MSU. TARGET AUDIENCES: Target audiences in 2011 included the following: Michigan wheat industries, through multiple meetings, yield trial testing, funding and collaborations; Michigan farmers, through the yield trial testing reports, extension meetings, and telephone and e-mail communications; research colleagues, through research meetings, workshops, teleconferences, phone calls and e-mails; MSU students, both including MSU graduate students through advising and mentoring, and undergraduate students primarily through the classroom. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: The project has been expanded to include an Association Mapping proposal being developed with PhD student Esteban Falconi in collaboration with CIMMYT and INIAP.

Impacts
MSU Line E5024 was identified for marketing by Michigan Crop Improvement Association (MCIA) and Genesis Ag. Ltd. and released by MSU in early 2011. A three year study on genotype x management was completed in collaboration with Michigan Crop Improvement Association (MCIA), and a report was submitted. The 2011 MSPT was successfully conducted with the incorporation of a new yield trial site on the West side of Michigan. The MSPT results are extremely important for marketers and farmers when they make selections of the varieties that they want to grow. From results of the regional evaluation trials, breeders can assess the consistency of the performance of their varieties across environments. The study of alpha amylase and falling number over seed maturation is giving a precise look at the behavior of genotypes during the dry-down period, and will help us identify lines that are more resistant to pre-harvest sprouting, to be used for commercial production and/or breeding. By participating in various industry and research meetings I have been able to learn the goals and challenges for Michigan industry and identify areas of collaboration with fellow research colleagues. These exchanges of ideas have led to focused research projects, grant writing activities and additional funding for the program. The teaching activities of graduate students have led to the development of multiple research projects addressing the needs of farmers and industry in Michigan, as well as questions relevant to the research community. Introduction to Plant Genetics (which I teach) is a required course for the majority of students to take it, and thus completely of this course enables them to further complete their degrees. Crossing and Marker Assisted Selection activities conducted enable us to create and select populations of wheat with improved characteristics, from which future wheat varieties will be identified. The data collected in the perennial wheat studies is helping to assess the viability of perennial wheat as a crop for organic farmers in Michigan, and is helping us to identify which lines perform best in the Michigan.

Publications

  • Falconi, E., L. Ponce, J. Ochoa, J.Lewis, J. Garofalo, J. Coronel, J. Velasquez, M. Cathme, S. Abad (2011). Plan to recover wheat production in Ecuador. Poster presented at the Borlaug Global Rust Initiative Workshop, St. Paul, MN, June, 2011. Y. Su, L. Siler, S. Hammar, R. Laurenz, J. Lewis (2011) Relationships between genotype, grain color, and α-Amylase quantification in a red x white mapping population of wheat. Poster presented at the 12th International Preharvest Sprouting Symposium, Red Deer, Alberta, Canada. Lewis J., L. Siler, S. Hammar, R. Laurenz, T. Dietz, E. Falconi, S. Mishra, Y. Su, N. Yu (2011), The Challenges and Value of White Wheat in Michigan. Poster presented at the Plant Animal Genome Conference, San Diego, California, January 2011. Falconi, E., E. Duveiller, J. Crossa, R. Singh, J. Huerta, J. Ochoa, J. Garofalo, L. Ponce, J. Lewis (2011) Association mapping for detecting QTLs to Fusarium Head Blight and Yellow Rust resistance in Bread Wheat. Poster presented at the 58th Annual Soft Wheat Quality Laboratory Research Review; Wooster, OH, March 2011. Lewis, J., Siler, L., Hammar, S., Laurenz, R. Dong, Y., Souza, E. 2011. Michigan State Wheat Variety Trial Report.(http://www.css.msu.edu/varietytrials/wheat/Variety_Results.ht ml) Ng, Perry K.W., Lewis, Janet M., Nyombare, G. 2011. MSU Wheat Quality Testing of Advanced Lines: Report on Milling and Baking Test Results for Selected Michigan-Grown Soft Wheats Harvested in 2010.


Progress 01/01/10 to 12/31/10

Outputs
OUTPUTS: We conducted the Michigan State Performance Trial, Advanced and Preliminary Yield trials, Northern and Preliminary Northern Uniform Winter Wheat Scab Nurseries, Uniform Eastern Soft Red and Uniform Eastern Soft White Winter Wheat Nurseries (the last of which I coordinate). Thousands of early generation plants were evaluated for advancement. Marker Assisted Selection (MAS) was conducted in collaboration with the USDA-ARS genotyping center in Raleigh, NC. Crosses (206) were made. Fusarium head blight (FHB) of lines adapted to Michigan was evaluated. Alpha amylase accumulation and falling number during grain maturation was studied. Bran flaking characteristics of genotypes were evaluated. Genotype x management studies were conducted. Perennial wheat was assessed as a crop. I serve as the advisor of 4 graduate students, co-advisor of 1 graduate student, and serve on 4 other graduate student committees. I taught Introduction to Plant Genetics (62 students). I visited a wheat breeding program in Algeria as follow-up to a Borlaug Fellowship 2009. I visited Ecuador to help secure funds for a PhD student and review a wheat breeding program. I attended the National FHB Forum, the 57th Annual Research Review of the USDA Soft Wheat Quality Lab, the National Plant Breeding Coordinating Committee Meeting, the 3rd annual Great Lakes Wheat Workers meeting, the 1st annual Purdue Conference for Pre-Tenure Women, and a Cereal Rust Workshop. I and my students made personal trips to several mills, the USDA Soft Wheat Quality Lab, and The Ohio State University wheat related programs, to help develop a collaborative environment and foster learning opportunities for the students. I served on the Northern Winter Wheat Coordinated Project Committee for the U.S. Wheat and Barley Scab Initiative, and served as a member of the Assoc. of Official Seed Certifying Agencies Natl. Small Grain Variety Review Board. Data of the Michigan State Performance Trial were sent to participants, published in Michigan Farm News, reported at http://www.css.msu.edu/varietytrials/wheat/Variety_Results.html , and discussed in meetings. Data of the FHB study of genotypes adapted to Michigan were presented at the National FHB Forum. Data of the genotype x herbicide study and a genotype x fungicide and seed treatment study were sent to the funding agency. The progress of the breeding program was discussed in industry and extension meetings. PATENTS/INVENTIONS: We released cultivar E5011B (Jupiter), licensed by MSU. PARTICIPANTS: I (Janet Lewis) am the principal investigator for the project, except for a portion of the perennial wheat project (See Dr. Snapp). Lee Siler is head technician for the MSU Wheat Breeding and Genetics Program and oversees field planting/maintenance/harvest and data analysis of field trials. Sue Hammar is a part-time technician for the project and oversees our greenhouse and laboratory. Randy Laurenz is a part time technician for the project assisting in field studies, including sampling for PHS and sampling for DON testing from FHB trials. Swasti Mishra is a graduate student working on FHB resistance. Yuanjie Su and Chong Yu are graduate students working on PHS resistance. Esteban Falconi began his PhD in our program in August 2010, and is planning to work on an Association Mapping project regarding FHB and stripe rust in partnership with CIMMYT (International Center for Wheat and Maize Improvement, Mexico). Partner Organizations include: USDA-ARS (providing funding through the U.S. Wheat and Barley Scab Initiative in addition to funding additional projects on perennial wheat), The Soft White Wheat Endowment Committee, Michigan Crop Improvement Association, Michigan State Millers Association, Kellogg's. The following companies contribute directly to the program: Star of the West Milling, King Milling, Chelsea Milling, and the Cooperative Elevator Co. Cooperators of the project include, but are not limited to: Dr. Perry K.W. Ng, Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Michigan State University, who serves on two student committees, is the co-advisor or a third student, collaborates on PHS and bran studies projects and coordinates a large quality trial to test wheat lines being considered for release. Dr. Edward Souza, USDA-ARS, Director of the Soft Wheat Quality Laboratory, Wooster Ohio, assesses the quality of yield trials entries and collaborates in PHS and bran studies. Dr. Gina Brown-Guedira, USDA-ARS, Director of the Small Grains Genotyping Center, Raleigh, NC, collaborates in MAS. Dr. Christy Sprague, Weed Scientist, Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Michigan State University, collaborated on an herbicide x genotypes study. Dr. Yanhong Dong, Department of Plant Pathology, University of Minnesota, oversees quantification of deoxynivalenol (DON) from FHB samples. Dr. Clay Sneller, Wheat Breeder, Ohio State University, and I exchange advanced breeding lines before the final stages of testing. This exchange provides both of us with more elite material to consider for variety development. Dr. Sieglinde Snapp, Cropping Systems, Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Michigan State University. Dr. Snapp and I work together on perennial wheat at MSU. TARGET AUDIENCES: Target audiences in 2010 included the following: Michigan wheat industries, through multiple meetings, yield trial testing, funding and collaborations; Michigan farmers, through the yield trial testing reports, extension meetings, and telephone and e-mail communications; research colleagues, through research meetings, workshops, teleconferences, phone calls and e-mails; MSU students, both including MSU graduate students through advising and mentoring, and undergraduate students primarily through the classroom. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: The project has been expanded to include an Association Mapping proposal on both FHB and stripe rust being developed with PhD student Esteban Falconi in collaboration with CIMMYT. Stripe rust is being included in the project because of the importance in Ecuador, and Ecuador is providing some funding for the work.

Impacts
From the 2009 Michigan State Performance Trial (MSPT), two breeding lines (E5011B and E5024) were identified for marketing by Michigan Crop Improvement Association (MCIA, both E5011B and E5024) and Genesis Ag. Ltd. (E5024). E5011B (Jupiter) has since been released and licensed to MCIA. E5024 is planned for release in early 2011. In addition, the results of the 2010 MSPT are extremely important for marketers and farmers when they make selections of the varieties that they want to grow. From the results of the regional evaluation trials, breeders could assess the consistency of the performance of their varieties across environments. The study of alpha amylase and falling number over seed maturation is giving a precise look at the behavior of genotypes during the dry-down period, and will help us identify lines that are more resistant to pre-harvest sprouting, to be used for commercial production and/or breeding. By participating in various industry and research meetings I have been able to learn the goals and challenges for Michigan industry and identify areas of collaboration with fellow research colleagues. These exchanges of ideas have led to focused research projects, grant writing activities and additional funding for the program. The teaching activities of graduate students have led to the development of multiple research projects addressing the needs of farmers and industry in Michigan, as well as questions relevant to the research community. Introduction to Plant Genetics (which I teach) is a required course for the majority of students to take it, and thus completely of this course enables them to further complete their degrees. Students who pass this class are well equipped with a basic understanding of plant genetics. Crossing and Marker Assisted Selection activities conducted enable us to create and select populations of wheat with improved characteristics, from which future wheat varieties will be identified. The data collected in the perennial wheat studies is helping to assess the viability of perennial wheat as a crop for organic farmers in Michigan, and is helping us to identify which lines perform best in the Michigan.

Publications

  • Roman B., Lewis, J.M. and Kelly, J.D. 201X Fusarium Genetic Control: A Long Term Strategy. In: Control of Fusarium Diseases. Alves-Santos, F. M. and J.J. Diez (Ed.) (in press)
  • Lewis, J.M., L. Siler, P.K.W. Ng, E. Souza, G.L. Jiang, R.W. Ward. 2010. Registration of Coral Wheat. Journal of Plant Registrations 4(3):205-214.
  • Lewis, J.M., L. Siler, P.K.W. Ng, E. Souza, G. Brown-Guedira, G.L. Jiang, R.W. Ward. 2010.Registration of Red Amber Wheat. Journal of Plant Registrations 4(3) 215-223.
  • Lewis, J.M., L. Siler, P.K.W. Ng, E. Souza, G. Brown-Guedira, G.L. Jiang, R.W. Ward. 2010. Registration of Ambassador Wheat. Journal of Plant Registrations 4(3):195-204.
  • Mishra, S., Hammar, S., Siler, L. and Lewis, J.M )2010) Comparison of Different Inoculation Methods for Evaluation of FHB Resistance in Wheat Varieties In: Proceedings of the 2010 National Fusarium Head Blight Forum, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, December 7-9.
  • Lewis, J.M, Dietz, T., Siler, L., Hammar, S., Mishra, S., Laurenz, R. (2010) Efficacy of Near-Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy to Predict Fusarium Damaged Kernels and Deoxynivelanol in Red and White Wheat in Michigan. In: Proceedings of the 2010 National Fusarium Head Blight Forum, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, December 7-9.
  • Yu, N., Laurenz, R., Siler, L., Ng P.K.W., Lewis, J. 2010. Evaluation of Alpha Amylase Accumulation and Falling numbers in Soft Red and Soft White Wheat Adapted to Michigan. Poster presented at both the 57th Annual Soft Wheat Quality Laboratory Research Review; Poster, Wooster, OH, March 2010, and the Plant Breeding Coordinating Committee Meeting, August 2010.
  • Kandel, R., Siler, L., Lewis J. 2010. Wheat: Status, uses and breeding at MSU. Poster presented at the 2010 Michigan Agricultural Exposition, East Lansing, MI, July, 2010.
  • Lewis, J., Siler, L., Hammar, S., Laurenz, R. Dong, Y., Souza, E. 2010. Michigan State Wheat Variety Trial Report.(http://www.css.msu.edu/varietytrials/wheat/Variety_Results.ht ml)
  • Ng, Perry K.W., Lewis, Janet M., Nyombare, G. 2010. MSU Wheat Quality Testing of Advanced Lines: Report on Milling and Baking Test Results for Selected Michigan-Grown Soft Wheats Harvested in 2009.


Progress 01/01/09 to 12/31/09

Outputs
OUTPUTS: We conducted the Michigan State Performance Trial, Advanced and Preliminary Yield trials, Northern and Preliminary Northern Uniform Winter Wheat Scab Nurseries, Uniform Eastern Soft Red and Uniform Eastern Soft White Winter Wheat Nurseries (the last of which I coordinate). Thousands of early generation plants were evaluated for advancement. Marker Assisted Selection (MAS) was conducted in collaboration with the USDA-ARS genotyping center in Raleigh, NC. Crosses (165) were made. FHB of lines adapted to Michigan was evaluated. Alpha amylase accumulation during grain maturation was studied. Bran flaking characteristics of genotypes were evaluated. Genotype x management studies were conducted. Perennial wheat was assessed as a crop. The correlation of visual sprouting and falling number was assessed in collaboration with Star of the West Milling Co. I serve as the advisor of 3 graduate students, co-advisor of 1 graduate student, and serve on 4 other graduate student committees. I oversaw an undergraduate student research project. I taught Introduction to Plant Genetics (52 students). I hosted 16 plant breeding graduate students and 2 faculty from the University of Guelph for a visit to MSU. I was the presiding officer of the Coordinated Agricultural Projects session at the ASA-CSSA-SSSA annual meeting. I attended the National FHB Forum, the Joint Meeting of Eastern US Wheat, Southern US Small Grains Workers and NCERA-184 Members, and the 56th Annual Research Review of the USDA Soft Wheat Quality Lab. I helped host the 2nd Great Lakes Wheat Workers Workshop and participated in a PHS workshop. I gave invited presentations at 7 industry meetings, 3 extension meetings and had 3 company meetings. I had multiple telephone conversations with industry, research colleagues, farmers and journalists. I met with the National Association of Wheat Growers (NAWG), the North American Milling Association (NAMA) and the National Wheat Improvement Committee (NWIC) in Washington, DC. I served on the Northern Winter Wheat Coordinated Project Committee for FHB. Data of the Michigan State Performance Trial were sent to participants, published in Michigan Farm News, reported at http://www.css.msu.edu/varietytrials/wheat/Variety_Results.html, and discussed in meetings. Data of the correlation of sprout count and falling number were presented in an industry/grower/research meeting. Data of the FHB study of genotypes adapted to Michigan were presented at the National FHB Forum. Data of the bran flaking study were sent to the funding agency, and trends were presented in an industry meeting. Data of the genotype x herbicide study were sent to the funding agency. The progress of the breeding program was discussed in industry and extension meetings. The undergraduate student research was presented at the University Undergraduate Research and Arts Forum. PATENTS/INVENTIONS: We released cultivars Red Amber and Coral, licensed by MSU. A Plant Variety Protection (PVP, #201000001) is pending for Coral. A patent was submitted for wheat cultivar Ambassador (United States 61/171,982, filed 4/23/2009. Pending). MSU licensed cultivar Envoy (not released). PARTICIPANTS: I (Janet Lewis) am the principal investigator for the project, except for a portion of the perennial wheat project (See Dr. Snapp). Lee Siler is head technician for the MSU Wheat Breeding and Genetics Program and oversees field planting/maintenance/harvest and data analysis of field trials. Sue Hammar is a part-time technician for the project and oversees our greenhouse and laboratory. Randy Laurenz is a part time technician for the project assisting in field studies, including sampling for PHS and sampling for DON testing from FHB trials. Swasti Mishra is a graduate student working on FHB resistance. Yuanjie Su and Chong Yu are graduate students working on PHS resistance. Chong Yu has been working on characterizing varieties adapted in Michigan for alpha amylase accumulation and was sent for training at the USDA-ARS Soft Wheat Quality Laboratory. Partner Organizations include: USDA-ARS, providing funding through the U.S. Wheat and Barley Scab Initiative in addition to funding additional projects on perennial wheat. The Soft White Wheat Endowment Committee set up an endowment at MSU for work on soft white winter wheat, Michigan Crop Improvement Association, Michigan State Millers Association, Kellogg's. The following milling companies contribute directly to the program: Star of the West Milling, King Milling, Knappen Milling, and Chelsea Milling. Cooperators of the project include: Dr. Perry K.W. Ng, Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Michigan State University, who serves on two student committees, is the co-advisor or a third student, collaborates on PHS and bran studies projects and coordinates a large quality trial to test wheat lines being considered for release. Dr. Edward Souza, USDA-ARS, Director of the Soft Wheat Quality Laboratory, Wooster Ohio, assesses the quality of yield trials entries and collaborates in PHS and bran studies. Dr. Gina Brown-Guedira, USDA-ARS, Director of the Small Grains Genotyping Center, Raleigh, NC, collaborates in MAS. Dr. Christy Sprague, Weed Scientist, Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Michigan State University, collaborated on an herbicide x genotypes study. Dr. Yanhong Dong, Department of Plant Pathology, University of Minnesota, oversees quantification of deoxynivalenol (DON) from FHB samples. Dr. Clay Sneller, Wheat Breeder, Ohio State University, and I exchange advanced breeding lines before the final stages of testing. This exchange provides both of us with more elite material to consider for variety development. Dr. Sieglinde Snapp, Cropping Systems, Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Michigan State University. Dr. Snapp is a collaborator who was previously not listed in the originally proposed 5-year plan. Dr. Snapp has involved me in the perennial wheat work at MSU, including me as a cooperator, and also encouraging me to take the lead in one aspect of the project. TARGET AUDIENCES: Target audiences in 2009 included the following: Michigan wheat industries, through multiple meetings, yield trial testing, telephone conversations, funding and collaborations; Michigan farmers, through the yield trial testing reports, extension meetings, and telephone and e-mail communications; MSU students, both including MSU graduate students through advising and mentoring, and undergraduate students primarily through the classroom; and other research colleagues, through research meetings, workshops, teleconferences, phone calls and e-mails. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: The project has been expanded to include perennial wheat, as is funded by a USDA-OREI grant with an interstate collaboration (Dr. Sieglinde Snapp as the lead PI) and a USDA-OREI grant to assess perennial wheat as a crop for Michigan (myself as the lead PI).

Impacts
From the 2009 Michigan State Performance Trial, two breeding lines (E5011B and E5024) were identified for marketing by Michigan Crop Improvement Association (MCIA, both E5011B and E5024) and Genesis Ag. Ltd. (E5024). Seed of these lines were given to MCIA and Genesis Ag. Ltd. for increase and preparation for commercialization. In addition, the results of the trial are extremely important for marketers and farmers when they make selections of the varieties that they want to grow. From the results of the regional evaluation trials, breeders could assess the consistency of the performance of their varieties across environments. The study of sprout count and falling number allowed the research, industry and farming community see how poorly sprout count (the historically recognized measure of PHS by farmers) correlated to falling number. These types of data are currently being used by Michigan Farm Bureau to work towards changing farmer insurance policies. By participating in various extension/industry/research meetings I have been able to learn the goals and challenges for Michigan farmers and industry and fellow research colleagues. These exchanges of ideas have led to focused research projects, grant writing activities and additional funding for the program. The teaching activities of graduate students have led to the development of multiple research projects addressing the needs of farmers and industry in Michigan, as well as questions relevant to the research community. Introduction to Plant Genetics (which I teach) is a required course for the majority of students to take it, and thus completely of this course enables them to further complete their degrees. Students who pass this class are well equipped with a basic understanding of plant genetics. Crossing and MAS activities conducted enable us to create and select populations of wheat, from which future wheat varieties will be identified. Initial results of the bran study are influencing our decisions for further assessment of the varieties for biochemical traits. These results will be useful for companies interested in tailoring their purchasing of wheat for those with specific qualities. The data collected to date of the perennial wheat studies is helping to assess the viability of perennial wheat as a crop for organic farmers in Michigan, and is helping us to identify which lines perform best in the Michigan. Coral and Ambassador are being continued as varieties in Michigan (both Coral and Ambassador) and Canada (Ambassador only). Red Amber has not received sufficient attention from farmers in Michigan to be continued by MCIA.

Publications

  • Mishra, S., Hammar, S., Schlee, K., Laurenz, R., Siler, L. and Lewis, J.M. (2009) Evaluation of Different Greenhouse Inoculation Models for Prediction of FHB Infection Rates in Field. (Abstract) In: Proceedings of the 2009 National Fusarium Head Blight Forum, Orlando, Florida, December 7-9, p 137.