Source: COLORADO STATE UNIVERSITY submitted to
USING MOUNTAIN ECOSYSTEM SERVICES TO PROVIDE SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIC GROWTH AND JOB DEVELOPMENT IN RURAL COMMUNITIES
Sponsoring Institution
National Institute of Food and Agriculture
Project Status
TERMINATED
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
0214632
Grant No.
2008-55401-04476
Project No.
COL0-2008-02698
Proposal No.
2008-02698
Multistate No.
(N/A)
Program Code
62.0
Project Start Date
Sep 1, 2008
Project End Date
Aug 31, 2012
Grant Year
2008
Project Director
Keske, C. M.
Recipient Organization
COLORADO STATE UNIVERSITY
(N/A)
FORT COLLINS,CO 80523
Performing Department
AGRICULTURAL AND RESOURCE ECONOMICS
Non Technical Summary
This integrated project applies results from a 2006-2007 non-market valuation study conducted by this project team to cultivate creative employment/small business opportunities associated with mountain ecosystem services in two Colorado rural mountain communities. Visitors to one studied community spent $2 million in town and are willing to pay another $2 million to enjoy local mountain amenities. The project will assist stakeholders in the evaluation and selection of policy options to provide sustainable revenues from ecosystem services in rural communities to diversify a traditionally agricultural and extraction economic base. We meet all integrated project priorities with a three phase plan: Phase I analyzes an in-depth non-market valuation study and regional economy of fourteen thousand foot peaks to develop sustainable economic job opportunities for visitors to the mountain ecosystem (Priority Two). Phase II consists of community meetings and a mail evaluation of stakeholders to determine preferences for trade-offs between economic and environmental objectives. This phase includes calculation of opportunities to "market" the "nonmarket" natural resource amenities, an economic analysis of jobs and income related to visitation, and a study of about how economic development affects a community's sense of place in the Colorado Rocky Mountains (Priority One). In the third phase we will assist with developing a community business-development plan that balances the use and protection of mountain ecosystems with community development. A critical component of these programs will be retention of rural youth as employees through partnering with county and national governments and non-profit organizations (Project Priority Three).
Animal Health Component
70%
Research Effort Categories
Basic
15%
Applied
70%
Developmental
15%
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
1310612301020%
6036110301010%
6050120301070%
Goals / Objectives
Long-Term Goals: 1) A resource economic development trajectory based upon a plan that is inclusive, transparent, and research-based. The economic development will reflect stakeholder preferences for a vibrant rural economy, which includes job growth. 2) Healthy, sustainable mountain ecosystem economies that diversify the current agricultural and extraction economic base, and provide employment for rural youth. 3) Economic development that is balanced with maintaining community sense of place and cultural identity. 4) An integrated research, extension, education program that serves as a template for other similar economies within the state of Colorado, Rocky Mountain region, and nation. Supporting Objectives: There are three main objectives of this integrated research project. Specific tasks are listed under the project objectives: Objective 1) Increase researcher and economic stakeholder knowledge of regional economic opportunities presented by mountain ecosystems (Research and Extension Knowledge Areas) Task 1: Quantitative Resource Baseline Outcomes: Knowledge of Development Opportunities Task 2: Community contact plan Outcomes: Facilitation of process model Task 3: Qualitative Resource Baseline Outcomes: Determination of baseline impacts of mountain ecosystems and impacts of alternative mgt plans. Task 4: Recalibrate Regional Economic Model Outcomes: Refined Knowledge of Development Opportunities Task 5: Reconcile Information and Preferences Outcomes: Refined Knowledge of Development Opportunities Task 6: Stakeholder Survey Outcomes: Determine community awareness of impacts, stakeholder preferences, and sense of place Objective 2)Affect stakeholder attitudes and motivation (Extension and Research Knowledge Areas) Task 1: Develop Action Plans Outcomes: Development of at least three alternatives economic development plans to discuss at community meetings Task 2: Conduct Community Meetings Outcomes: Presentation of different action plans and measure community attitudes and preferences. Allow stakeholders to ask questions and express opinions about survey results. Objective 3)Adoption of Economic Policies and Procedures (Research, Extension, and Education Knowledge Areas) Outcomes: Determination of baseline impacts of mountain ecosystems and impacts of alternative mgt plans. Task 1: Develop Action Plans Outcomes: Development of at least three alternatives economic development plans Task 2: Choose Action Path Outcomes: Selection of an economic development plan Task 3: Identify Funding Sources Outcomes: Grant and financial opportunities identified, including identification of lending institutions that will embrace study results empirical evidence of successful investment opportunity Task 4: Identify Resources and Experts Outcomes: Integration of local youth work base in the rural community ecosystem management Task 5: Hold Training/Education Meetings Outcomes: Educational curricula, professional papers, guest lecturer, and additional projects to continue project momentum and educate others.
Project Methods
In year one, Keske and Loomis will utilize results from their 2006-2007 non-market valuation study of mountain ecosystem services to develop a comprehensive regional impact analysis baseline that will identify the following economic variables through an input-output model: direct, indirect, and induced economic benefits of mountain ecosystems, and current source of jobs and revenues related to mountain ecosystem services. The non-market valuation study employs contingent valuation and travel costs model with survey data. We will also model employment opportunities using an IMPLAN input output model (Minnesota IMPLAN Group, 2007), and we will calculate demand elasticities for different employment sectors and ecosystem amenities. During year one, Keske will coordinate a qualitative research study with stakeholder leaders in the community. The purpose is to collect local stakeholder views that can be compared to quantitative model results in Task Four. Furthermore, stakeholders will also be identified who may affect change in these communities by opening up funding opportunities for entrepreneurial business ventures and youth employment related to ecosystem service management. At the beginning of year two, Loomis and Keske will recalibrate their economic model (from Task One) using input from community stakeholders (presented in Task Three). We intend to disaggregate and re-aggregate the IMPLAN generated employment sectors, based upon feedback from economic stakeholders, local economic statistics, and refined, targeted local data gathering efforts. For example, because we are interested in finding out how natural resource amenities affect jobs, we may re-aggregate employment sectors in a way that shows growth more effectively. In year two, Keske and Hoag will integrate the results of the data analysis (which includes the community input) and present results to community leaders. Doyle and Nichols will assist with identification of and communication with residents. The project team will help the community resolve disputes over quantitative data and qualitative information in order to have a comprehensive understanding about the relationship between jobs, income and how mountain ecosystem services are managed. In year two, Keske and Loomis, with the assistance of graduate students, will design and implement a choice model quantitative study with a stratified sample of 4,000 community residents (2,000 in each community) to determine the regional and community stakeholder economic preferences, place attachment, and value of mountain ecosystem services. The first part of the survey is targeted to assess the community sense of place, which will factor into how to develop an economic management plan. A second portion of the survey involves four separate scenarios that represent management options to create an orthogonal design that will statistically determine attribute preferences related to economic development and policy strategies. We will utilize a modified Dillman method (2000), which involves a follow-up survey method to increase survey response rate.

Progress 09/01/08 to 08/31/12

Outputs
OUTPUTS: 1) As outlined in our project plan, in fall 2011 we conducted our final stakeholder meetings in an Extension setting to validate findings and to disseminate the results from the 4-year project. 2) PD Catherine Keske submitted her findings to the 2011 annual PD meetings in Miami, FL. November 8, 2011. See: Keske, C.M.H. Update: Using Mountain Ecosystem Services to Provide Sustainable Economic Growth and Job Development in Rural Communities. Panelist and presenter at The AFRI-Small and Medium Sized Farms & Rural Development FY 2012 Project Director Meeting, Miami, FL. Hosted by The Northeast Regional Center for Rural Development at: http://nercrd.psu.edu/AFRI.PD.Meeting/2012.CombinedPD.Mtg.Pres.html 3) Dr. Keske met with Dr. Sureshwaran in November 2011 in Fort Collins to discuss final results. 4) Dr. Keske presented her findings, along with published manuscripts, in two graduate classes at the Denver University Sturm School of Law, and at Colorado State University, respectively: LAWS 4452 Natural Resource and Environmental Economics, and AGRI 638 Ecosystem Services on Agricultural Lands 5) Dr. Keske presented results from her papers at the 2012 National Science Foundation Long-Term Ecological Research All Scientists Meeting (LTER-ASM) in Estes Park, Colorado from September 12-15, 2012. 6) The Colorado mountain recreation community, and the public in general, remains very interested in this project. Dr. Keske's research is often the subject of blogging at 14ers.com, and was the source of active commentary in July and August 2012. 7) Dr. Keske has used knowledge and results collected from this AFRI-NIFA grant to expand the work conducted on a National Science Foundation project: Dynamics of Coupled Natural and Human Systems in the Colorado Front Range Wildland/Urban Interface: Causes and Consequences". National Science Foundation-CNH Program. Project PI at University of Colorado-Boulder: Patrick S. Bourgeron. Co-PIs: Hope Humphries, Catherine Keske (sub-contract PI), Patricia N. Limerick, Timothy R. Seastedt, Randall Walsh (sub-contract PI), Mark Williams. September 1, 2011-August 30, 2014. $1,430,000. 8) Dr. Keske has used knowledge and results collected from this AFRI-NIFA grant to expand work on The Niwot Ridge Long-Term Ecological Research Program 2011-2016: Tipping Points in High-Elevation Ecosystems in Response to Changes in Climate and Atmospheric Deposition". National Science Foundation Long Term Ecological Research Grant renewal proposal for Niwot Ridge LTER site. PI: Mark Williams, University of Colorado-Boulder. Co-PIs: Peter D. Blanken, Patrick Bourgeron, William D. Bowman, Nel Caine, Detlev Helming, Catherine Keske, Pieter Johnson, Diane M. McKnight, Noah Molotch, Russel K. Monson, Jason C. Neff, Chris Ray, Robert L. Sanford, Steven K. Schmidt, Tim Seastedt, Katharine Nash Suding, Alan R. Townsend. 2011-2017. $5,900,000. Contract #DEB-1027341. 9)Dr. Keske is on the Colorado Mountain Club Conservation Advisory Council. PARTICIPANTS: 1) Dr. Catherine Keske has been the project PD. Dr. Keske began the project as an Assistant Professor at Colorado State University, and she was promoted during 2011/2012 to Associate Professor. The work she conducted on this project contributed to her professional advancement. Dr. Keske recently transferred her research program to the University of Colorado-Boulder's Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research (INSTAAR). She has obtained several additional grants from the National Science Foundation to continue her research on mountain ecosystem research, and she intends to expand her work on the economic development in rural mountain communities with USDA AFRI NIFA. 2) This research project funded tuition and assistantships for one master of science student (who successfully completed her program), and a doctoral student (who is in the final stages of his research). These students have been trained in the social sciences pertaining to economic development in rural mountain communities. 3) The U.S.D.A. Forest Service has reviewed and integrated research and extension publications from this project, to develop recreation and trail maintenance policies. The USFS also has used the studies for resource budgeting purposes. 4) Local communities and municipalities (eg. Alma and Leadville Colorado) have cited study results to promote economic development initiatives that encourage recreation. 5) Local and state-wide non-profit organizations (Colorado Fourteeners Initiative, Mosquito Range Heritage Initiative, Colorado Mountain Club) have cited results from this project in their quest to seek additional resources for education, trail maintenance, historic preservation, and economic development. These communities have also developed policies to promote private-public partnerships that minimize risk to private landowners and increase recreation access (see Keske and Loomis, 2008). 6) Dr. John Loomis and Dr. Steve Smutko, identified as collaborators on this project, have contributed to academic and extension publications. 7) Graduate students at Colorado State University and the University of Denver have benefitted from lectures directly resulting from this project. Lectures have focused on economic development, forest policy, and ecosystem services. TARGET AUDIENCES: 1) The rural mountain communities have been provided science-based results that recreation is a resiliant source of economic development. 2) The U.S. Forest Service has been provided science-based results about the decision making and the trade-offs faced by recreators on Forest Service lands. 3) Graduate students seeking knowledge about rural economic development have been trained in economics, ecosystem services, and natural resource policy. Several of these students have moved on to jobs that are connected to the study area. 4) NGO's have received science-based results that they can use to advocate for increased resources to support their mission. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: No major changes have been reported. We requested a one-year, no-cost extension so that we could disseminate study results.

Impacts
1) Results from this project have increased the knowledge of the impacts of recreation on rural mountain communities located in central and western Colorado. In short, demand for high mountain recreation appears to be inelastic. Even during times of recession, on average, recreators infuse large sums of money into small mountain communities. However, the averages may be skewed by the extremes. In other words, many recreators spend little to no money to recreate, while others spend very large sums to recreate (and indicate that they would be willing to spend even more). Mountain communities are divided as to whether they want to encourage more recreation, even if it means losing recreation-related jobs. Economic development opportunities focused on increasing jobs in these rural areas are often divisive. 2) Science-based results from the project have been used to inform agency personnel and policy makers about the complex dynamics of instituting recreation use fees. While a majority of individuals surveyed support site-based user fees, a small but vocal minority adamantly oppose fee-based recreation at high mountain recreation sites. Those who oppose fees have demonstrated that they are able and willing to quickly mobilize in response to policy makers. In other words, results from this project have influenced U.S. Forest Service Policy. 3) Environmental damage from high alpine hiking has also been demonstrated, so that policy makers are aware of the economic-environmental trade-offs, and so that they may fund trail restoration/protection projects, if they are so inclined. 4) Results from this project have been cited by non-profit organizations like the Colorado Fourteeners Initiative and the Colorado Mountain Club to increase donor contributions for trail maintenance work.

Publications

  • Keske, C.M.H., and A. Mayer. In press. Visitor willingness to pay U.S. Forest Service recreation fees in New West rural mountain economies. Economic Development Quarterly (EDQ) Special Edition. Accepted for publication, with revisions, with 2013 estimated publication date.
  • Keske, C.M.H., G. Lohman, J. Loomis. In press. Do Respondents Report Willingness to Pay on a Per Person or Per Group Basis A Mountain Recreation Example. Tourism Economics 19(1). Accepted for publication, with February 2013 estimated publication date.
  • Loomis, J.B. and C.M.H. Keske, 2012, Did the great recession reduce visitor spending and willingness to pay for nature-based recreation Evidence from 2006 and 2009, Contemporary Economic Policy. 30(2), pp. 238-246.
  • Lohman Birch, G, C.M.H. Keske, and E.Kelly. Environmental Impacts of Recreation on Colorado Fourteeners. Working Paper with expected submission for peer review in November 2012.
  • Bixler, P, J. Cross, C.M.H. Keske and C.T. Bastian. Impacts of Perceived Versus Actualy Changes in Population Growth in Exurban Communities. Working Paper with expected submission for peer review in December 2012.


Progress 09/01/10 to 08/31/11

Outputs
OUTPUTS: 1) In May 2011 we conducted follow-up focus groups with stakeholders for the Colorado. We presented our study results and collected more data about how to further our research and impact in the region. 2) Research funded by this project enabled us to apply for--and receive--a grant from the Transportation Research Board to increase tourism traffic and to protect mountain ecosystem services in the study region. Study title: "Pilot Test the Ecological Approaches to Environmental Protection Developed in Capacity Research. Project C06B". PI: David Anderson. Co-PIs Joshua Goldstein and Catherine Keske. National Academy of Sciences Strategic Highway Research Program, Transportation Research Board (TRB) FFIWA Cooperative Agreement No. DTFH61-06-H-00009. March 30, 2011-March 30, 2012. $304,986. 3) Research funded by this project enabled us to apply for and to secure an NSF grant, "Dynamics of Coupled Natural and Human Systems in the Colorado Front Range Wildland/Urban Interface: Causes and Consequences". National Science Foundation. Catherine Keske PI for CSU sub-contract in the amount of $255,810. Project PI at University of Colorado-Boulder: Patrick S. Bourgeron. Co-PIs: Hope Humphries, Patricia N. Limerick, Timothy R. Seastedt, Randall Walsh, Mark Williams. September 1, 2011-August 30, 2014. $1,430,000. Description of Interdisciplinary Work: This interdisciplinary project couples economic data (to be collected in a survey directed by Keske) with bio-physical data obtained in the mountainous exurban communities west of Boulder to determine the economic impact of ecosystem changes. Data analysis and modeling will be conducted by Keske and her co-PIs. 4) Master's Thesis: Greta G. Lohman. Master of Science Degree in Soil and Crop Sciences. conferred by Colorado State University Department of Soil and Crop Sciences. PARTICIPANTS: Not relevant to this project. TARGET AUDIENCES: Not relevant to this project. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Not relevant to this project.

Impacts
1) We have obtained additional funding to continue more research in the study region, and to broaden the study region to other mountain communities. 2) We have developed a scientific process for engaging and interviewing stakeholders in mountain communities. 3) We have established that mountain recreation provides a sustainable source of income to mountain communities and that it results in sustainable jobs. 4) We have influenced Forest Service policy to increase FTEs for recreation and trail maintenance.

Publications

  • Keske, C.M.H., G. Lohman, J. Loomis, 2012, Do Respondents Report Willingness to Pay on a Per Person or Per Group Basis, A Mountain Recreation Example. Accepted for March 2012 publication in Tourism Economics.
  • Loomis, J.B. and C.M.H. Keske, 2011, Did the great recession reduce visitor spending and willingness to pay for nature-based recreation Evidence from 2006 and 2009, Contemporary Economic Policy, accepted and in press.
  • Lohman, G., Keske, C.M.H., and E.F. Kelly, 2011, Environmental Impacts from Recreation on Colorado Fourteeners. VDM, Verlag Dr. Muller Aktiengesellschaft and Co. Publishers, ISBN 9783844388091
  • Keske, 2012, Socioeconomic Impacts of Alpine Recreation, In Monographs in Long-term Alpine Ecological Research Mark Williams, Ed., Oxford University Press, Forthcoming 2012.
  • Laitos, J.G. and C.M. Keske, 2012, The Right of Non-Use, In The Right of Non-Use (Jan Laitos, Ed.), Oxford University Press, Forthcoming 2012.


Progress 09/01/09 to 08/31/10

Outputs
OUTPUTS: 1) Analysis of economic survey data from 2009 field experience. 2) Collection of soils field data during summer 2010. 3) Three professional academic meetings presentations 4) Three outreach events, totaling more than 200 people 5) Lectures integrated into three graduate level courses and three undergraduate courses 6) Stories featured in four regional newspapers (High Timber Times, Denver Post, Ag Family Newsletter, Fort Collins Coloradoan) 7) Collaboration with other grant projects and funding agencies (eg. NSF Niwot Ridge LTER and Colorado State University Clean Energy Supercluster) to build synergy in mountain ecosystems research 8) Applied for funding from 6 additional grant sources in order to continue research PARTICIPANTS: Most of the project team remained the same, as reported in the previous summary, with one exception. During 2010, Dr. Gene Kelly worked the project team to collect soil sample data in fulfillment of the ecological carrying capacity portion of the project. Graduate student Ms. Greta Lohman graduated with her Master of Science in Soil and Crop Sciences in December 2010. She will continue on the project, with funding through an NSF IGERT scholarship to study woody biomass in the context of bioenergy. The project continued to build support from the USDA Forest Service, who has used study results to inform them for policy making decisions. TARGET AUDIENCES: Target audiences such as the USDA Forest Service, trail stewardship NGOs, and community residents have cited our research as a basis for continuing economic development efforts that support recreation as well as mining heritage. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.

Impacts
1) Studies cited by USDA USFS as research to support their policy decision to impose fees in the Sangre de Cristo Mountain Range at the Chicago Basin Trailhead. 2) Studies cited by Leadville Mayor as a basis for more financial investment into recreation as part of an economic development effort. 3) Cited by NGO organizations as a basis to increase funding for trail stewardship

Publications

  • Keske, C.M.H. (2010). High Mountain Ecosystems: How Much Love Can They Sustain? Chapter 10 in Environmental Management. Santosh Sarkar, Ed. Sciyo Publishers. ISBN 978-953-7619.
  • Laitos, J.G. and C.M. Keske. 2011. The right of non-use. Journal of Environmental Law and Litigation (JELL), University of Oregon School of Law 25(2).
  • Keske, C.M.H. 2011. How to value environmental and non-market goods: a guide for legal professionals. Invited submission, for Denver Journal of International Law and Policy (DJILP). American Branch of the International Law Association (ABILA) Special Edition, Sustainable Development, Corporate Governance, and International Law, 39(2).
  • Keske, C.M.H. and L.S. Smutko. 2010. Consulting communities: using audience response system technology (ARS) to assess community preferences for sustainable recreation and tourism development. Journal of Sustainable Tourism 18(8): 951-970.
  • Keske, C.M.H., G. Lohman, J. Loomis. Minimizing CVM bias to capture individual responses: wording matters. In review for Forest Economics in September 2010.
  • Loomis, J.B., C.M.H. Keske, and G. Lohman. Did the Great Recession Reduce Visitor Spending and Willingness to Pay for Nature-Based Recreation? Evidence from 2006 and 2009. Currently in review for Contemporary Economic Policy in July 2010.
  • Lohman, G. G. 2010. ECONOMIC AND ECOLOGICAL IMPACTS ASSOCIATED WITH RECREATION ON COLORADO FOURTEENERS. Master of Science Thesis, Colorado State University
  • Keske, C.M.H. 2010. Sustainable Development, Corporate Governance, and International Law. American Branch of the International Law Association. Ved Nanda Center for International Law & International Legal Studies Program. Denver Journal of International Law & Policy. University of Denver Sturm College of Law. February 12-13, 2010.
  • Lohman, G., Keske, C.M.H., and Loomis, J.B. Verbiage Matters: High Individual WTP for High Mountain Recreation in a CVM Model. Poster presentation at American Agricultural Economics Association, Western Agricultural Economics Association, and Canadian Agricultural Economics Association Joint Annual Meeting. July 25-27, 2010.
  • Loomis, J.B., Keske, C.M.H., and Lohman, G. 2010. Did the Great Recession Reduce Visitor Spending and Willingness to Pay for Nature-Based Recreation? Evidence from 2006 and 2009. Poster presentation at American Agricultural Economics Association, Western Agricultural Economics Association, and Canadian Agricultural Economics Association Joint Annual Meeting. July 25-27, 2010.


Progress 09/01/08 to 08/31/09

Outputs
OUTPUTS: Activities: 1) Doyle (Collaborator) with Keske (PI) and Smutko (Collaborator) conducted 48 individual community interview during January-May, 2009. 2) Keske (PI) with Smutko (Collaborator) collected anonymous community preferences for economic development scenarios using innovative data collection techniques during two community meetings on May 20 and May 21, 2009 in the respective study communities of Alma and Leadville, Colorado. 3) Doyle (Collaborator) and Lohman (grad student), under the direction of Keske (PI) disseminated 700 surveys to recreationists at Colorado mountains in the study recreation area (June-August, 2009). 4) Lohman (grad student) entered survey data from recreation survey (August-November 2009). 5) Loomis (Collaborator) and Keske (PI) began analyzing mountain recreation data (November 2009). 6) Keske (PI) has begun the design of the community surveys, which will be disseminated in the study region in January 2010. Events: 1) Keske (PI) and Doyle (Collaborator) attended Colorado Rural Philanthropy Days September 22-24, 2008 to connect potential funders with non-profits and businesses in the study area. 2) Keske (PI), with Doyle and Smutko (Collaborators) disseminated interview results and evaluated stakeholder preferences during two community meetings on May 20, 2009 and May 21, 2009 in the respective study communities of Alma and Leadville, Colorado. 3) Grad student (Lohman) represented the USDA-NIFA-NRI project at regional economic development conference sponsored by Colorado Mountain College in Leadville June 10-12, 2009. 4) Keske (PI) used stakeholder focus group results to conduct a symposium at the annual Western Agricultural Economics meeting in Kauai, Hawaii: Old West, New West, What's Best June 26, 2009. 5)Keske (PI) delivered preliminary study results at an NSF All Scientist Meeting in Estes Park, Colorado. September 14, 2009. 6) Keske (PI) delivered preliminary study results at the Colorado State University Dept. of Soil and Crop Sciences Weekly Seminar: Keske, C.M. (2009). Economic Considerations and the Carrying Capacity of High Alpine Regions. Ft. Collins, Colorado. October 8, 2009. 7) Keske (PI) delivered project update at annual project leader's meeting Keske, C.M. Using Mountain Ecosystem Services to Provide Sustainable Economic Growth and Job Development in Rural Communities. Annual Project Director's Meeting, U.S. Department of Agriculture NIFA/NRI Program. Washington, D.C. October 22, 2009. PARTICIPANTS: Catherine Keske (PI): Dr. Keske has been involved in each stage of the project. She has attended 2 regional conferences focused directly on enhancing the economic development in the study area. She has conducted data collection on stakeholder preferences, and she designed a non-market valuation recreation demand study. She conducted four academic seminars pertaining to study results. She conducted two outreach presentations in the study area. She has co-authored two written journal articles. She collaborated on two new grants that have been generated as part of this project. Cara Doyle (collaborator): Ms. Doyle has been the community point person to help garner local and regional support for the study. Ms. Doyle conducted stakeholder interviews and helped to plan stakeholder meetings. Ms. Doyle also helped to distribute recreation surveys. Ms. Doyle has helped to promote local events. She also attended two regional conferences regarding regional economic development. Greta Lohman (master's student): Ms. Lohman has assisted with the data collection and data entry segments of the recreation demand study. TARGET AUDIENCES: The target audience has included residents, visitors, and potential investors in Park and Lake Counties in Colorado. Other targeted audiences who have benefitted from our collaboration have included Colorado Mountain College, South Park College, the South Park Economic Development Council, Colorado Renewable Resources Cooperative, and the Mosquito Range Heritage Initiative. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Not relevant to this project.

Impacts
Change in Knowledge: 1) Increased awareness within study area and around state of Colorado about sustainability of recreation as an industry, even when economy is in recession. 2) There is potential for mining and recreation to co-exist and to form a sustainable economy. 3) Communities are aware of, and have bought into, larger community survey project, which will be conducted in January 2010. 4) Collaboration and sharing of knowledge conducted with several current economic development efforts, including South Park Economic Development Council. 5) Support of project and information sharing with U.S. Senator Michael Bennett's office. Change in Actions: 1) Collaboration in writing USFS sustainable forestry grant with community forestry cooperative. The forestry is in the study area. 2) Collaboration in writing SBIR grant with Colorado Mountain College (which is in the study area). 3) Appointment of Keske (PI) and Loomis (collaborator) to the Advisory Council for the Colorado Mountain Club. 4) Progress is being made to offer classes through the newly established South Park College. Change in Conditions: 1) Study has validated County Commissioners' policy for Town of Alma to indemnify landowners from liability associated with property access across mining claims. This ultimately led to the opening of access to three mountain peaks, which will stimulate the county's economic development.

Publications

  • Loomis, J., Keske, C., and Lohman, G. 2009. Did the Great Recession Reduce Visitor Spending and Willingness to Pay for Nature-Based Recreation Evidence from 2006 and 2009. In review for Contemporary Economic Policy.
  • Keske, C., and Smutko, S. 2009. Using Audience Response System Technology (ARS) to Assess Community Preferences for Sustainable Recreation. In review for Leisure Sciences.
  • Keske, C., Smutko, S., and Doyle, C. 2009. Using Audience Response Systems to Assess Rural Stakeholder Preferences. Proceedings Paper for Western Agricultural Economic Association Annual Meeting. Kauai, Hawaii. June 26, 2009.
  • Keske, C.M. 2009. Regional Economic Development & Net Economic Values of Public Access to Colorado Fourteeners. Long Term Ecological Research Grant All Scientists Meeting Poster Proceedings. Estes Park, Colorado. September 14, 2009.
  • Keske, C.M. 2009. Using Mountain Ecosystem Services to Provide Sustainable Economic Growth and Job Development in Rural Communities. Abstract from Annual Project Director Meeting, U.S. Department of Agriculture NIFA/NRI Program. Washington, D.C. October 22, 2009.
  • Keske, C., and Smutko, S. 2009. Dissemination of findings of community meetings in Alma and Leadville, Colorado. June 10, 2009.
  • Turning Point Case Study. 2009. USDA National Research Initiative. Link http://www.turningtechnologies.com