Source: LOUISIANA STATE UNIVERSITY submitted to
DEVELOPING MOLECULAR TOOLS FOR THE IDENTIFICATION, CLASSIFICATION, AND CHARACTERIZATION OF RUSTS AND OTHER PHYTOPATHOGENIC FUNGI
Sponsoring Institution
National Institute of Food and Agriculture
Project Status
TERMINATED
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
0214088
Grant No.
(N/A)
Project No.
LAB93913
Proposal No.
(N/A)
Multistate No.
(N/A)
Program Code
(N/A)
Project Start Date
May 1, 2008
Project End Date
Sep 30, 2012
Grant Year
(N/A)
Project Director
Aime, M. C.
Recipient Organization
LOUISIANA STATE UNIVERSITY
(N/A)
BATON ROUGE,LA 70893
Performing Department
PLANT PATHOLOGY & CROP PHYSIOL
Non Technical Summary
Fungi that cause plant disease cause serious economic damage worldwide on agricultural, forest and ornamental plants, resulting in billions of dollars worth of damage each year. Rust fungi are the largest group of plant disease fungi, with more than 7000 species. A few crops seriously affected by rust disease include wheat, sugar, soybeans, coffee, ornamental flowers, fruit trees, and forest trees. When a new disease is encountered, the first necessary step to start effective treatment is to identify what is causing the disease. Yet, for more than 100 years, scientists have had difficulty in identifying and classifying rust fungi. This research will use DNA sequencing of specific genes to do two things. First, by looking at the genetic relatedness of different species of rust fungi, a classification for these fungi will be developed that can also be used to help researchers predict the behavior and identity of unknown disease agents. Secondly, specific genes will be sought and developed as molecular markers that will allow disease-causing fungi to be rapidly identified even in new environments.
Animal Health Component
10%
Research Effort Categories
Basic
90%
Applied
10%
Developmental
(N/A)
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
21240201102100%
Knowledge Area
212 - Pathogens and Nematodes Affecting Plants;

Subject Of Investigation
4020 - Fungi;

Field Of Science
1102 - Mycology;
Goals / Objectives
The objectives of this project are: 1. To identify resident rusts and other phytopathogenic fungi and their hosts in Louisiana. 2.To catalog rusts and other phytopathogenic fungi in tropical and Gulf regions that may have capacity for causing exotic disease in Louisiana. 3. To develop a phylogenetic framework for rusts and other phytopathogenic fungi that will allow prediction of biology and host associations. 4. To develop molecular tools that will allow rapid identification and/or monitoring of rusts and other phytopathogenic fungi of interest at the level of species and/or population/race. Outputs will include the conduction of surveys for rust disease; the establishment of a reference herbarium collection of Louisiana phytopathogens; and the development of new rust-specific tools (primers, protocols, etc.) for the molecular genetic studies of rusts; and proposals for revisions to rust taxonomy.
Project Methods
To identify resident rusts and their hosts in Louisiana, a checklist of all rust species and their hosts recorded from Louisiana will be compiled from available literature such as Farr et al. (2007), and through herbarium searches, such as of the Arthur Herbarium (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN), US National Fungus Collections (USDA-ARS, Beltsville, MD), and Bernard Lowy Mycological Herbarium (LSU, Baton Rouge, LA). Records will be supplemented by field collecting throughout Louisiana. Additional sampling will be concentrated in tropical, especially neotropical, regions of the world. USDA-APHIS-PPQ permits that specifically allow for the importation of dried rust fungi from around the world have been applied for. Newly acquired rust samples will be extracted for DNA, amplified, and sequenced following protocols developed by the PI. Sequencing reactions will be edited and contiguous sequences assembled and analyzed by maximum parsimony and Bayesian analyses. Genomes will be probed, primers designed, and products analyzed to identify gene regions particularly suitable for species and/or race-level identifications of phytopathogens of interest. Results from phylogenetic studies will be published in peer-review journals as taxonomic proposals for incorporation into textbooks and public websites and databases, such as the Tree of Life.

Progress 05/01/08 to 09/30/12

Outputs
OUTPUTS: Training was provided for 12 undergraduate students, six graduate students, two post-doctoral fellows, three visiting scientists/interns, and two research associates. Additional student (undergraduate and graduate) training and access to equipment was provided for those engaged in research projects within the LSU AgCenter. This project provided laboratory material and lecture data for academic courses for students in five departments (Renewable Natural Resources, Entomology, Biological Sciences, Horticulture, and Plant Pathology). Five invited presentations, numerous contributed presentations, and departmental seminars were generated from results of this project. Consulting activities include fungal identification for the Plant Disease Diagnostic Clinic at LSU, as well as scientists and citizens. Development of a database for recording rusts reported or collected in the state of Louisiana, including host data, geographic data, voucher details, and literature/herbarium citations was initiated. The addition of data and herbarium vouchers from nearly 100 new rust collections from Louisiana, and more than 100 collections of Phakopsora pachyrhizi (causal agent of soybean rust) were used to help determine the genetic diversity of this pathogen in Louisiana. Hundreds of sequences have been deposited into the public GenBank database. Numerous vouchered specimens have been placed into the LSU herbarium to be maintained in perpetuity and provide a permanent scientific resource. PARTICIPANTS: Mary Catherine Aime (PI), Ramandeep Kaur, Gregory Heller, Maj Padamsee, Merje Toome, Tomas Rush, Youwen Gong, Andrew Rodriguez, Sebastian Albu, Jorge Diaz, Donald Nelsen, and Nicole Ward, LSU AgCenter. One high school student Emily Salzer, was supported by this project and received general laboratory training. Training in general mycology including field collection, culturing, and molecular techniques was provided to numerous LSU undergraduate students including Jeanclaude Jubert, Bethany Kennedy, Bryan Goldberger, Paige Muse, Michelle Warr, Shiquita Brooks, Kelly Landry, Catherine Perino, Katie Stephenson, Aislinn Smith, Andrew Lloyd, Whitney Pilcher, and Alex Cassara. This project also supported training of one exchange student from the University of Tennessee, Jennifer Kozeman, and four summer interns, Clare Whittaker and Rohan Hebbar (University of Maryland) and Nattawut Boonyuen and Amnat Eamvijarn (Thailand). TARGET AUDIENCES: Target audiences for this project are other researchers and students in mycology, plant pathology, and systematics as well as plant breeders, diagnosticians, and the amateur mycological community. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.

Impacts
Historical searches revealed 163 previously recorded species of rust in Louisiana, which is a 300% increase in the number of rust species in the state prior to the initiation of this project. In addition, knowledge of the world distribution and biology of rusts included, for example, development of a fungal barcoding locus, analysis of Melampsora species in the pacific northwest US, description of several mycoparasites of rusts, and description of an entirely new fungal class. New molecular protocols and techniques were developed exclusively for working with rust fungi and their relatives. Rust-specific primers were tested for effectiveness as rust barcodes. Twenty-five new single-copy protein genes were screened for their applicability at different phylogenetic levels; specific primers were created for three of these and three supplementary barcode candidate genes were identified and further tested, although ultimately all failed in one or more barcoding criteria. Specimen collecting, molecular data collection, and multiple-gene analyses contributed to the resolution and the family and ordinal-level placement of several previously misclassified or incertae sedis pathogens and related environmental yeasts isolated from Louisiana. Protocols developed in the laboratory are now used by graduate students and pathogen diagnosticians in this Department and researchers at other universities. The findings are intended to provide early and improved identification of the causal agents of fungal disease agents and aid in developing more effective control measures.

Publications

  • Bruckart WL, Eskandari FM, Berner DK, Aime MC. 2012. Comparison of Puccinia acroptili from Eurasia and the USA. Botany 90:465-471.
  • Kaur R, McTaggart AR, Ferrin DM, Aime MC. 2012. First report of Uromyces plumbarius, rust of Gaura, in Louisiana and a new host, Guara lindheimeri. Plant Disease 96:590.
  • Minnis AM, McTaggart A, Rossman A, Aime MC. 2012. Taxonomy of mayapple rust: the genus Allodus resurrected. Mycologia 104:942-950.
  • Schoch CL, et al. 2012. The internal transcribed spacer as a universal DNA barcode marker for Fungi. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 109:6241-6246.


Progress 01/01/11 to 12/31/11

Outputs
OUTPUTS: Training was provided for six undergraduate students, six graduate students, two post-doctoral fellows, three visiting scientists/interns, and two research associates. Additional student (undergraduate and graduate) training and access to equipment was provided for those engaged in research projects within the LSU AgCenter. This project provided laboratory material and lecture data for academic courses for students in five departments (Renewable Natural Resources, Entomology, Biological Sciences, Horticulture, and Plant Pathology). Five invited presentations, numerous contributed presentations, and departmental seminars were generated from results of this project. Consulting activities include fungal identification for the Plant Disease Diagnostic Clinic at LSU, as well as scientists and citizens. The ongoing development of a database for recording all rust fungi reported or collected in the state of Louisiana, including host data, geographic data, voucher details, and literature/herbarium citations has been created. The addition of data and herbarium vouchers from nearly 100 new rust collections from Louisiana, and more than 100 collections of Phakopsora pachyrhizi (causal agent of soybean rust) will be used to determine the genetic diversity of this pathogen in Louisiana. Hundreds of sequences have been deposited into the public GenBank database. Numerous vouchered specimens have been placed into the LSU herbarium to be maintained in perpetuity and provide a scientific resource. PARTICIPANTS: Mary Catherine Aime (PI), R. Kaur, G. Heller, M. Toome, A. McTaggart, T. Rush, Y. Gong, A. Rodriguez, S. Albu, R. Koch, D. Nelsen W. deSilva, B. Kennedy, K. Stephenson, S. Brooks, K. Landry, P. Muse, LSU AgCenter; J. Diaz, Honduras. TARGET AUDIENCES: Other researchers and students in mycology, plant pathology, and systematics as well as plant breeders, diagnosticians, and the amateur mycological community. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.

Impacts
Historical searches have revealed records of 163 previously recorded species of rust in Louisiana; this is a considerable increase over the 56 species currently accepted. Many additional species have been collected and identified for which no prior record exists in Louisiana. Additional publications contributing to knowledge of the world distribution and biology of rusts include, for example, development of a fungal barcoding locus, analysis of Melampsora species in pacific northwest US, description of several mycoparasites of rusts, and description of an entirely new fungal class. Several new molecular protocols and techniques have been developed exclusively for working with rust fungi and their relatives. Rust-specific primers have been developed and tested for effectiveness as rust barcodes. Twenty-five new single-copy protein genes have been screened for their applicability at different phylogenetic levels; specific primers have been created for three of these and three excellent candidate genes have been identified and further tested. Specimen collecting, molecular data collection, and multiple-gene analyses have all contributed to the resolution and the family and ordinal level of several previously mis-classified or incertae sedis pathogens and related environmental yeasts isolated from Louisiana. Protocols developed in our laboratory have been requested and are now used by graduate students and pathogen diagnosticians in our department and researchers at other universities. The findings are intended to provide early and improved identification of the causal agents of fungal disease agents to aid in developing and providing more effective control measures.

Publications

  • Busby PE, Aime MC, Newcombe G. 2011. The fungal pathogen community of Populus angustifolia. Inoculum 62(3):11.
  • Henkel TW, Aime MC, Smith ME, Miller SL, Vilgalys R. 2011. Ectomycorrhizal fungal diversity of Dicymbe-dominated forests in the Guiana Shield. Inoculum 62(3):22-23.
  • Mersha Z, Aime MC, Cannon P, Nandwani D, Nelson S, Spaine PC, Schlub RL. 2011. Decline of Casuarina equisetifolia (ironwood) trees on Guam: Ganoderma and Phellinus. Phytopathology 101:S216.
  • Miller SL, Henkel TW, Aime MC. 2011. Diversity of the ectomycorrhizal genus Russula in forests of the Guiana Shield. Inoculum 62(3):33.
  • Toome M, Aime MC. 2011. Tritirachiomycetes, Tritirachiales, Tritirachiaceae. Version 22 November 2011, http://tolweb.org/Tritirachiomycetes/147934/2011.11.22 . In: The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/.
  • Bennett C, Aime MC, Newcombe G. 2011. Molecular and pathogenic variation within Melampsora on Salix in western North America reveals numerous cryptic species. Mycologia 103:1004-1018.
  • Henk DA, Farr DF, Aime MC. 2011. Mycodiplosis infestation of rust fungi is frequent, wide spread and possibly host specific. Fungal Ecology 4:284-289.
  • Henkel TW, Aime MC, Uehling JK, Smith ME. 2011. New species and distribution records of Clavulina (Cantharellales, Basidiomycota) from the Guiana Shield. Mycologia 103:883-894.
  • Kaur R, Rush TA, Ferrin DM, Aime MC. 2011. First report of Puccinia thaliae rust on Canna lily in Louisiana. Plant Disease 3:353.
  • Kirbag S, Aime MC, Kursat M. 2011. A new Puccinia on Thymelaea from Turkey. Mycotaxon 115:501-504.
  • Ovrebo CL, Lodge DJ, Aime MC. 2011. A new Cantharocybe from Belize with notes on the type of Cantharocybe gruberi. Mycologia 103:1102-1109.
  • Schell WA, Lee AG, Aime MC. 2011. A new lineage in Pucciniomycotina: class Tritirachiomycetes, order Tritirachiales, family Tritirachiaceae. Mycologia 103:1331-1340.
  • Ward NA, Schneider RW, Aime, MC. 2011. Colonization of soybean rust sori by Simplicillium lanosoniveum. Fungal Ecology 4:303-308.
  • Yun HY, Minnis AM, Kim YH, Castlebury L, Aime MC. 2011. The rust genus Frommeella revisited: a later synonym of Phragmidium after all. Mycologia 103:1451-1463.
  • Aime MC. 2011. Overview of the rust fungi. 2011 Field Crops Rust Symposium Proceedings, p 4.
  • Albu S, Aime MC. 2011. Phenology of basidiomycete ballistosporic phylloplane yeasts from seven fern species growing in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Inoculum 62(3):7.
  • Albu S, Blackwell M, Aime, MC. 2011. Gulf coast tarball-associated yeasts: understudied agents of microbial hydrocarbon degradation and potential human pathogens. Inoculum 62(3):7.
  • Padamsee M, Binder M. Kumar TKA, Riley R, Boyd A, Calvo A, Furukawa K, Hesse C, Hohmann S, James TY, LaButti K, Lapidus A, Lindquist E, Lucas S, Miller K, Shantappa S, Hibbett DS, Spatafora JW, Grigoriev IV, McLaughlin DJ, Aime MC. 2011. The Wallemia sebi genome: small in size but reveals clues to surviving an osmotically challenging environment. Inoculum 62(3):36.
  • Rush TA, Aime MC. 2011. The genus Meir: phylogenetic placement and description of a new species. Inoculum 62(3):39.
  • Rush TA, Schneider RW, Aime MC, Hartman GL, Hambleton S, Ward NB. 2011. Assessing the validity of diagnostic quantitative PCR assays for Phakopsora pachyrhizi and P. meibomiae. Phytopathology 101:S157.
  • Rush TA, Schneider RW, Hartman GL, Hambleton S, Ward NA, Aime MC. 2011. Validation of diagnostic assays for Phakopsora pachyrhizi in the United States. Inoculum 62(3):45.
  • Smith ME, Williams, GC, Henkel TW, Aime MC, Vilgalys R. 2011. Do different soil microhabitats associated with Dicymbe corymbosa trees harbor distinct communities of tropical ectomycorrhizal fungi Inoculum 62(3):42.
  • Toome M, Padamsee M, Aime MC. 2011. Resolving phylogenetic relationships in Pucciniomycotina. Inoculum 62(3):45.
  • Uehling JK, Smith ME, Aime MC, Henkel TW, Vilgalys R. 2011. Is Clavulina hyperdiverse in the Guiana Shield Species diversity and phenotypic variation in Guyana. Inoculum 62(3):46.
  • Toome M, Aime MC. 2011. Mixiomycetes, Mixia osmundae, Mixiales. Version 11 October 2011, http://tolweb.org/Mixia-osmundae/51266/2011.10.11 . In: The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/.


Progress 01/01/10 to 12/31/10

Outputs
OUTPUTS: This project has contributed to the support of several activities, including the training of five undergraduates engaged in independent research and ongoing surveys of rust-infected hosts throughout the state of Louisiana that are conducted by all members of the laboratory (in addition to undergraduates, four graduate students and three post doctoral researchers). Supported events include attendance at the Mycological Society of America annual meeting (co-author on four papers, including the winner for best student poster presentation), International Mycology Conference (invited seminar speaker), Global Food Security and Plant Biosecurity annual symposium (invited symposium speaker), in each case to give presentations on data generated by this project. Consulting activities include fungal identification for the Plant Disease Diagnostic Clinic at LSU, the Forensic Anthropology and Computer Enhancement Services Laboratory at LSU, and dozens of scientists and citizens in Louisiana, other U.S. states, and internationally (e.g., Nigeria, Guam, Ecuador, South Africa). Products include the development of a database for the recording of all rust fungi reported or collected in the state of Louisiana, including host data, geographic data, voucher details, and literature/herbarium citations has been created and all available historic (literature and herbarium) data have been collected and entered and the addition of data and herbarium vouchers from nearly 100 new rust collections from Louisiana, and more than 100 collections of Phakopsora pachyrhizi (causal agent of soybean rust) that will be used to determine the genetic diversity of this pathogen in Louisiana. PARTICIPANTS: Dr. Mary Catherine Aime, Assistant Professor (PI) provided project direction, data collection and analyses, database development and overall laboratory management and training. Dr. Ramandeep Kaur, Research Associate, and Dr. Gregory Heller, transient Research Associate, provided bench work (data collection) and laboratory maintenance and student training. Drs. Maj Padamsee and Merje Toome, Postdoctoral Associates, provided molecular protocol testing, molecular data collection and phylogenetic analyses. Mr. Tomas Rush, Youwen Gong, Andrew Rodriguez, and Sebastian Albu, graduate students, received training on microscopy, culturing, molecular biology, and field data collection and research guidance. Training and molecular and culturing laboratory facilities were supplied to several other graduate students within our department including Ms. Nicole Ward. Training in general mycology including field collection, culturing, and molecular techniques was provided to numerous LSU undergraduate students, Mr. Jeanclaude Jubert, Ms. Bethany Kennedy, Ms. Katie Stephenson, Ms. Aislinn Smith, Mr. Andrew Lloyd, and Mr. Alex Cassara, and two summer interns, Ms. Clare Whittaker (from University of Maryland) and Mr. Nattawut Boonyuen (from Thailand). TARGET AUDIENCES: Target audiences for this project are other researchers and students in mycology, plant pathology, and systematics as well as plant breeders, diagnosticians, and the amateur mycological community. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Not relevant to this project.

Impacts
Support of this project has contributed to significant changes in knowledge. Historical searches have revealed records of 163 previously recorded species of rust in Louisiana; this is a considerable increase over the 56 species currently accepted. Many additional species have thus far been collected and identified in Louisiana for which no prior record exists; three of these have been published. Additional publications contributing to knowledge of the world distribution and biology of rusts include, for example, elucidation of the life cycle of Puccinia acroptili, a survey of the rusts of Oman, new species of rusts from Turkey, a phylogeny of rusts on sugarcane, and new reports of rusts from South Africa and the Pacific Northwest. Several new molecular protocols and techniques have been developed exclusively for working with rust fungi and their relatives. Rust-specific primers have been developed and tested for the fungal barcode region (ITS); other loci have been tested for the international Barcode for Fungi effort. Twenty-five new single-copy protein genes have been screened for their applicability at different phylogenetic levels; specific primers have been created for three of these and three excellent candidate genes have been identified and further tested. Significant improvements to conducting large-scale DNA extractions and RNA extractions on Pucciniomycotina have been made. Specimen collecting, molecular data collection, and multiple-gene analyses have all contributed to the resolution and the family and ordinal level of several previously miss-classified or incertae sedis pathogens and related environmental yeasts isolated from Louisiana, resulting in a national meeting presentation and publication. Protocols developed in our laboratory have been requested and are now used by graduate students and pathogen diagnosticians in our department, researchers at other universities,for example Clark University, Massachusetts. The findings are intended to provide early and improved identification of the causal agents of fungal disease agents to aid in developing and providing more effective control measures.

Publications

  • Bruckart WL, Eskandari FM, Berner DK, Aime MC. 2010. Life cycle of Puccinia acroptili on Rhaponticum (= Acroptilon) repens. Mycologia 102(1): 62-68.
  • Dixon LJ, Castlebury LA, Aime MC, Glynn NC, Comstock JC. 2010. Phylogenetic relationships of sugarcane rust fungi. Mycological Progress 9:459-468.
  • Henkel TW, Aime MC, Largent DL, Baroni TJ. 2010. The Entolomataceae of the Pakaraima Mountains of Guyana III: New species of Rhodocybe. Mycoscience 51(1): 23-27.
  • Henkel TW, Smith ME, Aime MC. 2010. Guyanagaster, a new wood-decaying sequestrate genus of Agaricales from the Guiana Shield. American Journal of Botany 97:1474-1484.
  • Holcomb GE, Aime MC. 2010. First report of Plumeria spp. rust caused by Coleosporium plumeriae in Louisiana and Malaysia and Catheranthus roseus, a new host of this rust. Plant Disease 94(2):272.
  • Kaur R, Knott C, Aime MC. 2010. First report of rust disease caused by Puccinia sparganioides on Spartina alterniflora in Louisiana. Plant Disease 94:636.
  • Mostert L, Bester W, Jensen T, Coertze S, van Hoorn A, Le Roux J, Retief E, Wood A, Aime MC. 2010. First report of leaf rust of blueberry caused by Thekopsora minima on Vaccinium corymbosum in the Western Cape, South Africa. Plant Disease 94:478.
  • Padamsee M, and Aime MC. 2010. Placing orphan anamorphic smut genera in good homes: a phylogenetic reevaluation of Tilletiopsis and Malassezia. Inoculum 61:67.
  • Rush TA, Aime MC. 2010. Placement of the yeast genus Moniliella in the Ustilaginomycotina and description of a new species. Inoculum 61:72.
  • Sampangi R, Aime MC, Mohan K, Shock C. 2010. New and re-emerging rust diseases from Idaho and Oregon. Phytopathology 100:S113.
  • Sampangi RK, Aime MC, Mohan SK. 2010. First report of rust caused by Puccinia similis on Artemisia tridentate in Idaho and Oregon. Plant Disease 94:380.
  • Schlub, R.L., Mersha, Z., Aime, C.M., Badilles, A., Cannon, P.G., Marx, P.G. , McConnell, J., Moore, A., Nandwani, D., Nelson,S.C., Pinyopusarerk, K., Schlub, K.A., Smith, J.A., and Spaine, P.O. 2010. Guam Ironwood (Casuarina equisetifolia) Tree Decline Conference and Followup. In Proc. 4 th International Casuarina Workshop, March 22-25, Haikou, China
  • Scholler M, Abbasi M, Aime MC. 2010. The genus Tranzschelia: taxonomy, phylogeny and Tranzschels law. International Mycological Congress, Edinburgh Scotland. (Abstract number U8O3)
  • Smith M, Henkel TW, Aime MC, Miller S, Castellano M, Vilgalys R. 2010. Preliminary observations on the sequestrate ectomycorrhizal fungi from Dicymbe-dominated forests of the Guiana Shield. Inoculum 61:76.
  • Vega FE, Simpkins A, Aime MC, Posada F, Peterson SW, Rehner SA, Infante F, Castillo A, Arnold AE. 2010. Fungal endophyte diversity in coffee plants from Colombia, Hawaii, Mexico and Puerto Rico. Fungal Diversity 3:122-138.
  • Wilson AW, Aime MC, Henkel TW, Mueller GM. 2010. Systematics and biogeography of Dicymbe-associated Cantharellaceae from the Guiana Shield. Inoculum 61:84.
  • Aime MC, Largent DL, Henkel TW, Baroni TJ. 2010. The Entolomataceae of the Pakaraima Mountains of Guyana IV: new species of Calliderma, Paraeccilia and Trichopilus. Mycologia 102: 633-649.
  • Aime MC. 2010. Basal rusts and the origins of heteroecism. International Mycological Congress, Edinburgh Scotland. (Abstract number U8I1)


Progress 01/01/09 to 12/31/09

Outputs
OUTPUTS: This project has contributed to the support of several activities, including the training of two undergraduates engaged in independent research and ongoing surveys of rust-infected hosts throughout the state of Louisiana that are conducted by all members of the laboratory (in addition to undergraduates, two graduate students and a post doctoral researcher). This project provides laboratory material and lecture data for the annual courses taught by the PI (Introductory Mycology and Forest Insects & Diseases) that reach upper-level undergraduates and graduate students in four departments (Renewable Natural Resources, Entomology, Biological Sciences, and Plant Pathology). Supported events include attendance at the Southern Division of the American Phytopathological Society Annual Meeting, American Phytopathological Society, National Soybean Rust Symposium, and Basic Animal and Plant Biology ACE meeting, in each case to give an invited presentation on data generated by this project. Services include invited mycologist (as speaker and to accompany participants on forays) for two amateur groups in Missouri and Lafayette. Consulting activities include fungal identification for the Plant Disease Diagnostic Clinic at LSU, the Forensic Anthropology and Computer Enhancement Services Laboratory at LSU, and dozens of scientists and citizens in Louisiana, other U.S. states, and internationally (e.g., Nigeria, Guam, Ecuador, South Africa). Products include the development of a database for the recording of all rust fungi reported or collected in the state of Louisiana, including host data, geographic data, voucher details, and literature/herbarium citations has been created and all available historic (literature and herbarium) data have been collected and entered and the addition of data and herbarium vouchers from nearly 100 new rust collections from Louisiana. PARTICIPANTS: Dr. Mary Catherine Aime, Assistant Professor (PI) provided project direction, data collection and analyses, and database development. Dr. Ramandeep Kaur, Research Associate, provided bench work (data collection) and laboratory maintenance. Dr. Maj Padamsee, Postdoctoral Associate, provided molecular protocol testing. Mr. Tomas Rush and Mr. Youwen Gong, graduate students, received training on microscopy, culturing, molecular biology, and Mr. Rush collected field data. Training and molecular laboratory facilities were supplied to several other graduate students within our department including Ms. Nicole Ward and Ms. Rebecca Sweany. Three graduate students from other departments received training on fungal culturing and molecular biology supported by this project: Ms. Wenting Xie (Statistics), Ms. JeJee Chuaboon (summer intern from Thailand), and Ms. Pheonah Nabukalu (Coastal Sciences).Field collection, culturing, and molecular training was also provided to undergraduate students Ms. Katie Stephenson, Mr. Andrew Rodriguez, Ms. Whitney Pilcher, Mr. Rohan Hebbar, and Ms. Aislinn Smith. TARGET AUDIENCES: Target audiences for this project are other researchers and students in mycology, plant pathology, and systematics as well as plant breeders, diagnosticians, and the amateur mycological community. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.

Impacts
Support of this project has contributed to significant changes in knowledge. Historical searches have revealed records of 163 previously recorded species of rust in Louisiana; this is a considerable increase over the 56 species currently accepted. An additional five species have thus far been collected and identified in Louisiana for which no prior record exists; three of these have already been published or submitted for publication. Several new molecular protocols and techniques have been developed exclusively for working with rust fungi and their relatives. Twenty-five new single-copy protein genes have been screened for their applicability at different phylogenetic levels; specific primers have been created for three of these and three excellent candidate genes have been identified and further tested. Significant improvements to conducting large-scale DNA extractions and RNA extractions on Pucciniomycotina have been made. Specimen collecting, molecular data collection, and multiple-gene analyses have all contributed to the resolution and the family and ordinal level of several previously miss-classified or incertae sedis pathogens and related environmental yeasts isolated from Louisiana, resulting in a national meeting presentation and publication. Protocols developed in our laboratory have been requested and are now used by graduate students and pathogen diagnosticians in our department, researchers at other universities (e.g., Clark University, Massachusetts). The findings are intended to provide early and improved identification of the causal agents of fungal disease agents to aid in developing and providing more effective control measures.

Publications

  • Baroni TJ, Lodge DJ, Lindner DL, Aime MC, Ginns J, Ryvarden L, Minnis AM. 2009. Doyle's Delight, the Maya Mountains in Belize -- yet another four new genera identified. Inoculum 60:10.
  • Blomquist CL, McKemy JM, Aime MC, Orsburn RW, Kinnee SA. 2009. First report of bamboo rust caused by Kweilingia divina on Bambusa domestica in Los Angeles County, California. Plant Disease 93:201.
  • Matheny PB, Aime MC, Bougher N, Buyck B, Desjardin D, Horak E, Kropp B, Lodge DJ, Soytong K, Trappe JM, Hibbett DS. 2009. Out of the Paleotropics Historical biogeography and diversification of the cosmopolitan ectomycorrhizal mushroom family Inocybaceae. Journal of Biogeography 36:577-592.
  • Moral J, Perez M, Arquero O, Kaiser WJ, Aime MC, Trapero-Casas A. 2009. Etiology and life cycle of cedar-quince rust in southern Spain. Phytopathology 99:S88.
  • Padamsee M, Pilcher WR, Aime MC. 2009. Investigating red yeast diversity from phyto- and mycospheres in Louisiana. Inoculum 60:33.
  • Singh R, Ferrin DM, Aime MC. 2009. First report of powdery mildew caused by Podosphaera xanthii on Sechium edule in the United States. Plant Disease 93(12):1348.
  • Ward NA, Schneider RW, Aime MC. 2009. Characterization of a co-inhabitant of uredinia of Asian soybean rust. Phytopathology 99:S138.
  • Ward N, Schneider R, Aime MC. 2009. Uredinia of Asian soybean rust as a unique niche for other fungi. Phytopathology 99:S201.
  • Aime MC, Vila J, Moreau P-A. 2009. Crepidotus subfulviceps comb. nov. a stipitate Crepidotus from temperate North America and Europe. Mycotaxon 110:283-287.
  • Aime MC. 2009. Preface. Pp.5-6. In: Consiglio G, Setti L (Auths.). Il Genere Crepidotus in Europa.A.M.B. Fondazione Centro Studi Micologici (Vicenza, Italy). 344pp.
  • Aime MC. 2009. Recent advances in systematics, taxonomy, and evolution of rust fungi (Pucciniales) and their relatives. Phytopathology 99:S196.


Progress 05/01/08 to 12/31/08

Outputs
OUTPUTS: Support of this projected has generated four published abstracts for the 2008 Annual Meetings of the Mycological Society of America and the American Phytopathological Society. Results of the ongoing project were presented during 2008 by invitation to three professional meetings: The American Phytopathological Society Centennial Meeting, the NCERA 2008 Soybean Rust working group annual meeting, and the Taller de Ojo de Gallo Workshop hosted by CICAFE in San Jose, Costa Rica. Results were also shared with amateur mycologists at the Gulf States Mycological Society during an invited lecture at their annual summer foray, to colleagues at a departmental seminar given to the School of Renewable Natural Resources at LSU, and to graduate and undergraduate students via courses in Introductory Mycology and Forest Pathology taught by the PI. PARTICIPANTS: Dr. Mary Catherine Aime, Assistant Professor (PI)provided project direction and data analyses. Dr. Ramandeep Kaur, Research Associate (Sept-Dec 2008) provided bench work (data collection) and laboratory maintenance. Training in field collection and molecular laboratory techniques provided by PI to: Dr. Ramandeep Kaur, Research Associate; Amnat Eak (M.S. student and summer intern from Thailand, May-Aug 2008); Emily (high school student, May-Aug 2008); Jennifer Koseman (undergraduate exchange student from University of Tennessee, May 2008); Tomas Rush (undergraduate student, LSU, May-Dec 2008). TARGET AUDIENCES: Target audiences for this project are other researchers in mycology, phytopathology, and systematics as well as students and the amateur mycological community. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.

Impacts
Sixty-nine collections of rust fungi and their relatives were made from Louisiana and neighboring areas on a variety of host plants, expanding the number of rusts known to occur in this state. Experiments to develop primers and protocols with better specificity for rust fungi resulted in a streamlined nested PCR technique and primers that successfully amplify rust from heterogeneous DNA extractions in 85% of cases. Primer testing is underway to screen 25 loci for applicability within Pucciniomycotina.

Publications

  • Aime MC. 2008. The Basidiomycota. Phytopathology 98(6):S184.
  • Aime MC, Henkel TW. 2008. Polyporoid fungi of Guyana: diversity, new species, and ecological roles. Inoculum 59(2):5.
  • Baroni TJ, Lodge DJ, Aime MC. 2008. Doyle's Delight, the highest peak in the Maya Mountains of Belize, revisited. Inoculum 59(4):19.
  • Henk DA, Aime MC. 2008. Evolution of mating pheromone and receptor genes in Pucciniomycotina. Inoculum 59(2):19.
  • Largent D, Aime MC, Henkel T, Baroni T. 2008. The Entolomataceae of the Pakaraima Mountains of Guyana II: Inocephalus dragonsoporus comb. nov. Mycotaxon 105:185-190.
  • Largent D, Henkel T, Aime MC, Baroni T. 2008. The Entolomataceae of the Pakaraima Mountains of Guyana I: four new species of Entoloma s. str. Mycologia 100 (1): 132-140.
  • Lodge DJ, Laessoe T, Aime MC, Henkel TW. 2008. Wet montane and cloud forest specialists among neotropical Xylaria species. North American Fungi 3:193-213.
  • Lodge DJ, Laessoe T, Aime MC, Henkel T. 2008. Meta-analysis of rare neotropical Xylariaceous fungi to detect cloud forest specialists endangered by climate change. Inoculum 59(4):42.
  • Matheny PB, Aime MC, Buyck B, Desjardin DE, Horak E, Lodge DJ. 2008. The evolution of tropical species of Inocybaceae (Agaricales). Inoculum 59(2):28.
  • Meinhardt, LW, Rincones J, Bailey BA, Aime, MC, Griffith GW, Pereira GAG. 2008. Moniliophthora perniciosa, the causal agent of witches' broom disease of cacao: What's new from this old foe Molecular Plant Pathology 9(5):577-588.
  • Thomas SE, Crozier J, Aime MC, Evans HC, Holmes KA. 2008. Molecular characterisation of fungal endophytic morphospecies associated with the indigenous forest tree, Theobroma gileri in Ecuador. Mycological Research 112:852-860.
  • Vega FE, Posada FJ, Aime MC, Pava-Ripoll M, Infante F, Rehner SA. 2008. Entomopathogenic fungal endophytes. Biological Control 46:72-82.
  • Vega FE, Posada F, Aime MC, Peterson SW, Rehner SA. 2008. Fungal endophytes in green coffee seeds. Mycosystema 27(1):75-84.