Source: OCEANIC INSTITUTE MAKAPUU POINT submitted to
SHRIMP AQUACULTURE PROJECT - AZ, HI, LA, MA, MS, SC, TX
Sponsoring Institution
National Institute of Food and Agriculture
Project Status
TERMINATED
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
0214034
Grant No.
2008-38808-19163
Project No.
HAWR-2008-03245
Proposal No.
2008-03245
Multistate No.
(N/A)
Program Code
UK
Project Start Date
Aug 1, 2008
Project End Date
Jul 31, 2010
Grant Year
2008
Project Director
Ostrowski, A. C.
Recipient Organization
OCEANIC INSTITUTE MAKAPUU POINT
41-202 KALANIANAOLE HWY
WAIMANALO,HI 96795
Performing Department
(N/A)
Non Technical Summary
The US marine shrimp farming industry has for the last four years been subject to the effects of increased worldwide shrimp production. This has resulted in lower domestic prices for shrimp, forcing many domestic farmers to opt out of shrimp farming or move to other species until better economic climates arise. The year 2007 saw a continuing drop in stocked acreage and production expectations. As a result, harvests are estimated at 6.0 million pounds, about a 50% drop in production from peak levels reached just four years ago. Significantly though, as some farms reduce production or drop out of shrimp farming altogether in traditional farming states (Texas, South Carolina, Arizona), new investors and business scenarios are emerging in others (Florida, Arkansas, Alabama) in response to changing market conditions. While exceptions do exist, the trend emerging is for declining production in scenarios based on coastal, mostly brackish water, semi-intensive pond systems that stock at low or medium densities and which market as individuals to commodity buyers. The scenarios that are advancing are medium to high stocking densities in intensive systems that focus on niche market development. Farms in the former, which are fighting for survival, are now focusing on direct, niche marketing efforts and searching for new technologies to reduce production costs and enhance pond productivity. The case is quite different for the broodstock sector of the domestic industry. The worldwide switch in recent years from production of P. mondon to L. vannamei has sparked a great demand for domestically produced SPF and SPR broodstock animals. As of 2007, it can be calculated that nearly 70% of world production was L. vannamei. In 2001, this figure was about 10%. As a result, the trend in the US broodstock sector has been for increased production and an increased share of the US shrimp farming industry. It can be further calculated that with increasing world production demand, demand for SPF L. vannamei broodstock alone could reach over $50 million. Several US companies have or are establishing contract farming relationships with broodstock multiplication centers, or other relationships overseas to capture this large, potential market. A dichotomy currently exists between US shrimp production for food and production for brood and seedstock. But, the playing field internationally appears to be leveling as production overseas now focuses on biosecure and sustainable methods, and shrimp buyers worldwide are now demanding production fall under such standards. The US industry has been the model for the rest of the world, but it has resulted in increased production costs for domestic farmers. Producers in other countries will also feel that burden in addition to existing anti-dumping tariffs. More opportunities may open up for domestic shrimp food producers, particularly if advantages such as freshness, market proximity, and even live production are exploited. The move toward intensive, raceway culture will also provide advantage to domestic producers, as these technologies will likely not be economically feasible in countries were labor is inexpensive.
Animal Health Component
40%
Research Effort Categories
Basic
20%
Applied
40%
Developmental
40%
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
3033721108032%
3073721101010%
3073721106013%
3113721110010%
3113721110115%
3113721116010%
3113721117010%
Goals / Objectives
The US Marine Shrimp Farming Program (USMSFP) was formed in 1984 to undertake research, development and transfer to the industry of technologies, products and services required for domestic shrimp farmers to become competitive in world markets. From the start, it has been clear that to be internationally competitive, US producers must rely on advanced technologies, systems and products to offset other cost advantages enjoyed by foreign producers. Foreign producers enjoy lower costs for land and labor, and most certainly, environmental protection. Production methods, however, are proving to be environmentally and economically unsustainable. Massive disease problems are directly associated with deteriorating water quality and poor quality shrimp broodstock and seed. Beginning in 1988, the USMSFP elected to pattern its efforts after those used in successful US agricultural industries, particularly poultry, swine, salmon and rice. In doing so, the Consortium stated its position that culture practices employed in most countries would not be environmentally or socially acceptable in the United States, and that shrimp farming development in the US must be based upon advanced technologies and environmentally sound production systems. The USMSFP has provided US producers with direct access to reliable captive supplies of high health and genetically improved shrimp stocks, and advanced disease diagnostic and treatment methods. The Oceanic Institute has principal responsibility for genetic improvement of shrimp stocks, including resistance to disease. Tufts University has the lead in quantitative genetics, gene markers and microsatellites. The University of Arizona and Gulf Coast Research Lab are the principal disease research, diagnostic, and treatment centers. Waddell Mariculture Center and Texas AgriLife Research work in tandem on the resolution of problems being confronted by commercial shrimp farmers. Nicholls State University focuses on waste remediation in pond and raceway culture systems. Domestic concerns over the past several years have included the effect of shrimp farming on the environment and centered on the impact of effluent on receiving waters. Having fostered advances in high health and genetically improved shrimp stocks and disease diagnosis, prevention and treatment, and biosecurity, the Consortium has now moved into the areas of superintensive (400 shrimp/m2) and low salinity production methods, which promise to add new dimensions to the growing US marine shrimp farming industry. The technologies, products and services under development by the USMSFP are directed toward reducing risks to aquaculture associated with dependence on common property wild stocks and water supplies, while generating new, second-generation technologies for industry growth. This second-generation technology and product package could result in the US becoming a significant domestic supplier of cultured shrimp, a world supplier of high health and genetically improved shrimp stocks as well as disease diagnostics, prevention and treatment packages. It is suggested that a zero- or minimal-discharge technology is likely key to successful biosecurity.
Project Methods
The US Marine Shrimp Farming Program FY08 Implementation Plan supports research and development efforts that address the problems that constrain the US shrimp farming industry. The Plan targets three major objectives: Stock Improvement, Disease Control, and Sustainable Culture Technology. Stock improvement efforts include maintaining backups of all genetic stocks. Quarantine facilities are maintained to protect genetic materials already collected and improved upon to date. In FY08, the selective breeding program will continue to merge rapid growth into the TSV-R line, and develop the Growth line specifically for superintensive production systems. TSV-R animals will also be challenged with isolates of IMNV, WSSV, PvNV, and NHP to identify potentially resistant families. Ongoing efforts to develop the linkage map of SPF L. vannamei from EST-SSRs for QTL analysis will continue and be used to refine the ShrimpTest24 marker kit. Consortium institutions will also continue commitments to disease diagnostics and surveillance. Work will continue to further develop molecular probes, PCR, and serologic diagnostic tests, and identification of reservoirs, vectors, and transmission mechanisms of important shrimp pathogens. NHP and Vibrio spp. will receive increased attention, including efforts to develop appropriate challenge models, more sophisticated methods for identification and investigation of geographic strains, and expansion of efforts to identify reservoir hosts and carriers. Risk to the industry through commodity imports will also continue to be assessed, including transfer of diseases currently only associated with P. monodon. The value of purported shrimp immunostimulants currently on the market will be tested and scrutinized. Development of biosecure, superintensive growout systems will continue to have focused attention, with large-scale runs and refinement of the technology at multiple sites, system floc and microbial community management, sludge bioremediation, and validation of bioeconomic modeling, including partial harvest scenarios. The technology is at the point of commercial application and demonstration. Nutrition research will examine nutrient density needs, macro-mineral digestibility at low and high salinity, and HUFA manipulation in finishing diets for product quality. Finally, efforts will be continued to develop SPF (F2 generation) stocks of L. setiferus and F. duorarum in response to industry requests to explore the potential of bait shrimp production in the US.

Progress 08/01/08 to 07/31/10

Outputs
OUTPUTS: An important goal of the U.S. Marine Shrimp Farming Program (USMSFP) is to provide products, technologies, and services to the U.S. shrimp farming industry. Most of the tasks detailed in the FY08 Implementation Plan under the Stock Improvement Objective were completed during the FY08 award period. However during the FY08 No Cost Extension (NCE) period, the USMSFP distributed about 8,000 Kona Reference Line shrimp to the University of Arizona for research. This was in addition to the 223,831 SPF shrimp that the USMSFP distributed to U.S. industry stakeholders and research/education organizations during the FY08 award period. Most of the tasks detailed in the FY08 Implementation Plan under the Disease Control Objective were completed during the FY08 award period. However, some FY08 NCE funds were used to evaluate the efficacy of a commercial prebiotic product. The USMSFP continued to conduct feed and feed additive trials for U.S. companies to evaluate their products under rigorous scientific conditions and with the appropriate standards and controls. Most of the tasks detailed in the FY08 Implementation Plan under the Sustainable Culture Technology Objective were completed during the FY08 award period. However, some FY08 NCE funds were used to refine Recirculating Aquaculture System (RAS) management strategies. The USMSFP's commitment to information dissemination to U.S. stakeholders was reflected in its publications and workshops. PARTICIPANTS: The U.S. Marine Shrimp Farming Consortium was formed in 1984 to identify and solve problems that constrain the profitability and expansion of the U.S. marine shrimp farming industry. The Consortium oversees the USDA/CSREES-sponsored U.S. Marine Shrimp Farming Program (USMSFP). This program allows leading investigators and their institutions, working in partnership with industry, to engage in focused, results-oriented projects directed at developing profitable and environmentally sustainable shrimp farming in the U.S. Member institutions and Principle Investigators include: Dr. Jeff Lotz from the University of Southern Mississippi, Gulf Coast Research Laboratory (GCRL); Dr. Shaun Moss from Oceanic Institute (OI); Dr. Acacia Alcivar-Warren from Tufts University (Tufts); Dr. John Leffler from the South Carolina Department of Natural Resources, Waddell Mariculture Center (WMC); Drs. Addison Lawrence and Tzachi Samocha from Texas AgriLife Research, Texas A&M System (TALR); Dr. Donald Lightner from the University of Arizona (UAZ); and Drs. Raj Boopathy and Quenton Fontenot from Nicholls State University (NSU). Dr. Anthony Ostrowski (OI) was the project director, with responsibility for coordination of research activities and planning, and overall technical and financial oversight of the Consortium. The USMSFP, through work of the seven Consortium institutions, has provided U.S. stakeholders with direct access to high health, genetically improved shrimp, as well as advanced disease diagnostic and treatment methods. OI had primary responsibility for shrimp genetic improvement, including selection for fast growth and TSV resistance. Tufts conducted work on molecular genetics, including microsatellites marker development. UAZ and GCRL were involved primarily in disease research, including developing diagnostic tools and providing disease diagnostic services. WMC and TALR worked on a variety of issues directly relevant to commercial shrimp farmers, such as production system management and feeds development, and NSU focused on solid waste disposal issues for emerging shrimp production systems. The Principal Investigators are all recognized world leaders in their respective fields and have numerous peer-reviewed publications. In addition, Dr. Donald Lightner has taken a leadership role in his service to the world community as a member of the Aquatic Animals Health Standards Commission, Office des International Epizootics (OIE), of Paris, France. Support for and maintenance of the OIE reference lab at UAZ has been crucial to meeting global needs in terms of the management of existing and emerging pathogens. Opportunities for training and professional development included the UAZ Shrimp Pathology Workshop and the training of graduate students from member universities. During the reporting period, a total of six Masters and three Ph.D. degrees were awarded among the various institutions supported by the grant. TARGET AUDIENCES: Traditionally, the USMSFP has focused its research efforts on the U.S. shrimp farmer as the primary target audience. However, due to the globalization of shrimp aquaculture, it has become necessary to expand the list of stakeholders to include feed manufacturers, U.S. grain producers, aquaculture equipment suppliers, broodstock suppliers, U.S. investors in foreign shrimp farms, and the U.S. seafood industry. The U.S. consumer also has benefited from the global shrimp market. This global view has encompassed and fostered the development of a U.S. shrimp broodstock industry where the primary business is to export broodstock shrimp to foreign hatcheries. The USMSFP has supported the U.S. shrimp broodstock industry by providing SPF, selectively bred shrimp to relevant U.S. stakeholders. Importantly, the USMSFP has continued to develop shrimp families which perform well in biosecure, recirculating aquaculture systems. It was also recognized that the dissemination of information, publications, and other outputs of the program also reach a global market, and it is not practical to limit the flow of information, technologies, and products to the U.S. alone. Nevertheless, information dissemination is to the U.S. industry first, prior to publication, through workshops, and through special sessions conducted yearly at the Aquaculture America conference. The approach has been a challenge in maintaining the interests of the various stakeholders, which often conflict with each other. For instance, domestic producers lament that domestic broodstock suppliers sell germplasm developed under the program to overseas U.S. competitors. This has necessitated the enhanced education of stakeholders, often via one-on-one conversations. While many have understood the approach of the program to service a wide range of stakeholders, there are still others who have not agreed. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.

Impacts
The USMSFP focused on three major objectives: Stock Improvement, Disease Control, and Sustainable Culture Technology. Most of the tasks detailed in the FY08 Implementation Plan under the Stock Improvement Objective were completed during the FY08 award period. However, some FY08 NCE funds were used to care and maintain SPF Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, from the USMSFP's breeding program. These shrimp comprised both the TSV-resistant line and the Growth line. In addition, FY08 NCE funds were used to standardize a method for the intracellular staining of shrimp hemocytes which will set the stage for further characterization of shrimp hemocytes using monoclonal antibodies. Most of the tasks detailed in the FY08 Implementation Plan under the Disease Control Objective were completed during the FY08 award period. However, some FY08 NCE funds were used to evaluate the efficacy of a commercial prebiotic product. The USMSFP conducted a feeding trial to compare the performance of shrimp fed varying doses of the prebiotic with the performance of shrimp fed a base diet without the prebiotic. Results indicated that there were no significant differences in shrimp growth and survival among treatments. However, shrimp fed the base diet had a different microbial community than shrimp fed the prebiotic. Most of the tasks detailed in the FY08 Implementation Plan under the Sustainable Culture Technology Objective were completed during the FY08 award period. However, some FY08 NCE funds were used to refine management strategies for Recirculating Aquaculture Systems (RAS) used for super-intensive shrimp production. Specifically, a denitrification system was evaluated to decrease nitrate concentrations and increase alkalinity in RAS. In addition, research was conducted to assess the effects of "seeding" RAS, with various amounts of floc from mature culture tanks, on shrimp performance. FY08 NCE funds were used to support a growout trial in four 40-m3 raceways and to assess how different carbon and nitrogen ratios (C:N ratio) affected the performance of sequencing batch reactors. Maximum removal of ammonia, nitrite, and nitrate was attained using a C:N ratio of 10:1.

Publications

  • dams L. Master of Science. 2007. Effect of salinity on apparent amino acid digestibility of selected feed ingredients by Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Texas
  • Alcivar-Warren and IMSEGI collaborators. 2009. IMSEGI: Progress update and future perspectives-working towards the ONE HEALTH concept. Book of Abstracts, Aquaculture America meeting, Seattle WA Feb 15-19, 2009.
  • Alcivar-Warren A, W. B. Warren. 2009. Sex, Retrotransposons and Disease Tolerance. A review of the Genetics and Genomics of Shrimp. To be presented at the World Aquaculture Society meeting, Veracruz, Mexico, May 27-30, 2009.
  • Alcivar-Warren A., J. Heim, D. Meehan-Meola, P. Das, B. Booth. 2009. Allele diversity of a new Mexican stock of SPF Litopenaeus vannamei acquired to increase germplasm diversity in the USMSFP breeding program. Book of Abstracts, Aquaculture America meeting, Seattle WA Feb 15-19, 2009.
  • Alcivar-Warren A., L. Granda, R. Henry, A. Lara, F. Aveiga, L. Maranda, M. Alcivar, C. Mejia Ochoa, J. Alcivar, K. Astrofsky. 2008. Metales pesados y diversidad genetica en camarones (Litopenaeus vannamei) de Ecuador. Revista de Resumenes, XXXII Jornadas Nacionales de Biologia, November 20-22, Loja, Ecuador.
  • Andrade TPD, Lightner DV. 2009. New hybrid assay can detect IMNV in resource-poor settings. Global Aquaculture Alliance 12(4):68-69.
  • Boopathy R. and Lyles C. 2008. Shrimp Production and Biological Treatment of Shrimp Wastewater in the United States. Pages 235-252 in A. Pandey editor New Horizons in Biotechnology. Asia Tech Publishers, New Delhi, India.
  • Andrade TPD. 2009. Development and application of novel quantitative and qualitative molecular techniques for detection of infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV) in Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. PhD dissertation, Department of Veterinary Science and Microbiology, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona.
  • Aranguren F, Lightner DV. 2009. Reverse Gavage: A new standardized technique for infecting shrimp suitable for challenge studies. Aquaculture America 2009. February 15-18, 2009, Seattle, Washington, USA.
  • Boopathy R, Lyles C, Fontenot Q, and Kilgen M. 2008. Biological treatment of shrimp aquaculture wastewater. 12th International Symposium on Microbial Ecology. Cairns, Australia, August 17-22, 2008.
  • Boopathy R. 2008. Shrimp wastewater treatment using bacterial system. International Conference on Bioprocessing in Food Industries. Hyderabad, India. Nov. 6-8, 2008.
  • Burger, Josh. Master of Science. 2007. Use of molasses as a source of carbon in nursery and grow-out of the Pacific White Shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, in limited discharge systems. Texas
  • Calzada, R.J. de la. 2008. The relative virulence of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in the penaeid shrimps Litopenaeus vannamei and Farfantepenaeus duorarum. Thesis. University of Southern Mississippi. Hattiesburg, MS, USA.
  • Cote I, Lightner DV. 2009 (Submitted). Hyperthermia does not protect Kona stock Penaeus vannamei against infection by a Taura syndrome virus isolate from Belize. Dis Aquat Org
  • Cote I, Lightner DV. 2009. Development and characterization of a monoclonal antibody against Taura syndrome virus. J Fish Dis. E-journal prepublication.
  • Cote I, Navarro SA, Tank KFJ, Nobel BL, Lightner DV. 2008. Taura syndrome virus from Venezuela is a new genetic variant. Aquaculture. 284:62-67.
  • Das P., D. Meehan-Meola, J Heim, M. Delaney, A.K. Dhar, V. Breland, J. Lotz, W. Warren, A. Alcivar, A. Alcivar-Warren. 2009. Characterization of EST-SSR markers isolated from Pacific whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, challenged per os with Taura Syndrome Virus-their utility for linkage mapping, genetic diversity & parental testing in breeding programs. Book of Abstracts, Aquaculture America meeting, Seattle WA Feb 15-19, 2009.
  • de la Vega E., O'Leary N.A., Shockey J.E., Robalino J., Payne C., Browdy C.L., Warr G.W., Gross, P.S. 2008. Anti-lipopolysaccharide factor in Litopenaeus vannamei (LvALF): A broad spectrum antimicrobial peptide essential for shrimp immunity against bacterial and fungal infection. Molecular Immunology 45: 1916-1925.
  • Delaney M., W. B. Warren, A. Alcivar, A. Alcivar-Warren. 2009. Cadmium levels in wild and cultured penaeid shrimp - differential gene exression in cultured Litopenaeus vannamei postlarvae stage 42 exposed to 1 ppm of cadmium for 24 hours. Book of Abstracts, Aquaculture America meeting, Seattle WA Feb 15-19, 2009.
  • Fox JM, AL Lawrence. 2009. Evaluation of in vitro apparent protein digestibility by shrimp using gut enzyme extracts. Journal of World Aquaculture Society 40 (3): 325-336
  • Gong H, AL Lawrence, F Alig, D Jiang. 2008. Performance of two different lines of Penaeus vannamei in response to different dietary protein sources and levels. Book of Abstracts (CD-ROM), p. 201, World Aquaculture Society Annual Conference, May 17-24, 2008, Busan, Korea.
  • Guarin M. and A. Alcivar-Warren. 2009. Genetic diversity of the giant tiger prawn, Penaeus monodon, of the Philippines using genomic and expressed (EST-SSRs) microsatellites in 3% agarose gels. Book of Abstracts, Aquaculture America meeting, Seattle WA Feb 15-19, 2009.
  • Forster IP, WG Dominy, ZY Ju, AL Lawrence, S Patnaik. 2009. Optimization of shrimp diets using mixture model methodology. Book of Abstracts (CD-ROM), p.107, World Aquaculture Society Annual Conference, February 15-18, 2009, Seattle, Washington, USA.
  • Browdy C.L., Venero J.A., Stokes A.D., Leffler J.W. 2009.(In Press). Superintensive Biofloc Production Systems Technologies for Marine Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei: Technical Challenges and Opportunities. 2009. In G. Burnell and G. Allan (eds.), New Technologies in Aquaculture, Woodhead Publishing, Cambridge, UK. Browdy C.L., Venero J.A., Stokes A.D., Leffler J.W. 2009. Enhancing competitiveness of U.S. shrimp aquaculture through innovative scientific research. National Shellfisheries Annual Meeting, Savannah, GA. March 22-26, 2009.
  • Browdy CL, G Seaborn, DA Davis, RA Bullis, TM Samocha, and JW Leffler. 2007. Alternative approaches for removing fish meal and oils from farmed shrimp diets using plant and poultry meals and marine algal products. United States Department of Agriculture, National Organic Standards Board, Organic Aquaculture Symposium. Washington, DC November 27, 2007. Published electronically.
  • Andrade TPD, Lightner DV. 2009 (In press). Development of a method for the detection of infectious myonecrosis virus by reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification and nucleic acid lateral flow hybrid assay. J Fish Dis.
  • Andrade TPD, Redman RM, Lightner DV. 2008. Evaluation of the preservation of shrimp samples with Davidson's AFA fixative for infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV) in situ hybridization. Aquaculture 278:179-183.
  • Andrade TPD, Tang KFJ, Lightner DV. 2009. RT-LAMP-Immunochromatography (ICT) for detection of infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV) in resource-poor diagnostic settings. Aquaculture America 2009. February 15-18, 2009, Seattle, Washington, USA.
  • Fox JM, AL Lawrence, E Li-Chan. 2009. Tail muscle free amino acid concentration of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, feed diets containing protein-bound versus crystalline amino acids. Journal of World Aquaculture Society 40 (2): 171-181
  • Haveman J., Venero J.A., Lewis B.L., Lawson A., Shuler A., Browdy C.L., Leffler J.W. 2009. Effect of photoautotrophic and heterotrophic biofloc communities on productivity of pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei fed a plant-based diet in superintensive, zero-water exchange systems. National Shellfisheries Annual Meeting, Savannah, GA. March 22-26, 2009.
  • Holl C.M., C.J. Tallamy, and S.M. Moss. 2007. Microbial community nitrogen cycling in recirculating aquaculture. ASLO 2007. American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, Santa Fe, New Mexico.
  • Kent M.R., Browdy C.L., Venero J., Shuler A., Seaborn G., Battey C., Leffler J.W. 2009. Isolating key contributors of microbial biofloc to Litopenaeus vannamei growth: how do biofloc taxonomic groups affect growth when provided as dietary supplements National Shellfisheries Annual Meeting, Savannah, GA. March 22-26, 2009.
  • Kent M.R., Browdy C.L., Venero J., Shuler A., Seaborn G., Battey C., Leffler J.W. 2009 Relative contribution of taxonomic groups within microbial biofloc communities to the growth of Litopenaeus vannamei when provided as dietary supplements. Hollings Marine Laboratory Symposium, Charleston, SC. June 12, 2009.
  • Kent M.R., Browdy C.L., Venero J., Shuler A., Seaborn G., Battey C., Leffler J.W. 2009. Relative contribution of taxonomic groups within microbial biofloc communities to the growth of Litopenaeus vannamei when provided as dietary supplements. World Aquaculture Society 2009, Vera Cruz, Mexico. September 25-29, 2009.
  • Lawson A.D., Haveman J., Leffler J.W., Lewis B.L., Venero J.A., Stokes A., Browdy C.L. 2009. Establishing SPF stocks of bait shrimp Litopenaeus setiferus and demonstration of low cost maturation and larval systems necessary for commercialization of u.s. bait shrimp production. National Shellfisheries Annual Meeting, Savannah, GA. March 22-26, 2009.
  • Lawson A.D., Haveman J., Leffler J.W., Thomas B.L., Venero J., Browdy C.L. 2009. Development of SPF stocks of bait shrimp Litopenaeus setiferus and demonstration of low cost maturation and larval systems. Aquaculture America 2009 Meeting, Seattle, WA. February 15-19, 2009.
  • Leffler, J.W. 2008. Research opportunities with SCDNR sustainable seafood mariculture programs. College of Charleston Masters in Marine Biology Program Seminar. October 16, 2008. Leffler, J.W. 2009. Status of shrimp research at the Waddell Mariculture Center and the Marine Resources Research Institute. Technical Committee of the U.S. Marine Shrimp Farming Program Consortium Annual Meeting, Las Vegas, NV. August 31-September 1, 2009.
  • Leffler J.W., Browdy C.L. 2008. Status of shrimp research at the Waddell Mariculture Center and the Marine Resources Research Institute. Technical Committee of the U.S. Marine Shrimp Farming Program Consortium Annual Meeting, Atlanta, GA. August 12-14, 2008.
  • Klim BC, AL Lawrence, S Patnaik, JM Fox, BR Dunsford, DA McKee. 2009. The effect of a prebiotic short chain fructooligosaccharide (scFOS) on the growth, survival and immune response of adult Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, under conditions of primary productivity. Book of Abstracts (CD-ROM), p. 172, World Aquaculture Society Annual Conference, February 15-18, 2009, Seattle, Washington, USA.
  • Kuhn DD, GD Boardman, AL Lawrence, L Marsh, GJ Flick. 2009.(in press) Microbial floc generated in bioreactors is a superior replacement ingredient for fish meal or soybean meal in shrimp feed. Aquaculture. Lawrence AL, S Patnaik, WG Dominy, IP Forster, T Zeigler, T Markey. 2009. Commercial standard practical research feed for the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Book of Abstracts (CD-ROM), p. 182, World Aquaculture Society Annual Conference, February 15-18, 2009, Seattle, Washington, USA.
  • Lawrence AL. 2009. Microbials, Prebiotics, Acids, Other Feed Additives, Synbiotics in Aquaculture. Book of Abstracts, p. 21, 16th Discover Conference on Food Animal Agriculture: Direct Fed Microbials/Prebiotics of Animals: Science and Mechanisms of Action, April 19-22, 2009, Nashville, Indiana, USA.
  • Leffler J.W., Lawson A., Ray A., Seaborn G., Shuler A., Thomas B., Venero J., Vinatea L., Browdy C.L. 2009. Monitoring tools for characterizing and managing microbial biofloc communities in superintensive zero-exchange shrimp culture systems. Aquaculture America 2009 Meeting, Seattle, WA. February 15-19, 2009.
  • Holl C.M., C.J. Tallamy, and S.M. Moss. 2008. Microbial community ammonium uptake and oxidation in recirculating marine aquaculture. ASM 2008. American Society of Microbiology, Boston, Massachusetts.
  • Holl C.M., C.J. Tallamy, and S.M. Moss. 2009. Microbial ecology of recirculating aquaculture: flocs and films. HAA 2009. Hawaii Aquaculture Association, Honolulu, Hawaii.
  • Holl C.M., C.J. Tallamy, and S.M. Moss. 2008. Stable Isotopes as Tracers of N and C Cycling in Recirculating Aquaculture. IsoEcol 2008. Applications of Stable Isotopes to Ecological Studies, Honolulu, Hawaii, p. 86.
  • Houghton RL, Chen J, Pantoja C, Poulos BT, Lightner DV. 2009. Rapid test detects NHP in penaeid shrimp. Global Aquaculture Alliance 12(4):66.
  • Johnson C.N., S. Barnes, J. Ogle, D.J. Grimes, Y. J. Chang, A. Peacock, and L. Kline. 2008. Microbial community analysis of water, foregut, and hindgut during growth of pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei in closed-system aquaculture. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 39: 251-258.
  • Ju ZY, IP Forster, AL Lawrence, WG Dominy. 2009. Classification and quantification of phospholipids and dietary effect on their composition in shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). Book of Abstracts (CD-ROM), p. 166, World Aquaculture Society Annual Conference, February 15-18, 2009, Seattle, Washington, USA.
  • Juarez L.M., S.M. Moss, and E. Figueras. 2009 (in press). Maturation and larval rearing of the Pacific white shrimp, Penaeus vannamei. In: The Shrimp Book, Ed. V. Alday-Sanz, Nottingham University Press.
  • Kent, M. 2009. Can Litopenaeus vannamei consume and digest microbes representative of photoautotrophic microbial biofloc College of Charleston Graduate Program in Marine Biology Colloquium, Charleston, SC. February 6-7, 2009.
  • Leffler J.W., Ray A.J., Lewis B.L., Venero J.A., Vinatea L., Shuler A., Browdy C.L. 2009. Effects of an organic certifiable plant-based diet in conjunction with solids removal on the production of shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei in minimal exchange superintensive biofloc systems. World Aquaculture Society 2009, Vera Cruz, Mexico. September 25-29, 2009.
  • Leffler J.W., Venero J.A., Ray A.J., Lewis B.L., Lawson A., Haveman J., Browdy C.L. 2009. Development of sustainable, commercially viable (organic) shrimp production by integrating plant-based feeds with microbial biofloc community structure. National Shellfisheries Annual Meeting, Savannah, GA. March 22-26, 2009.
  • Lightner D.V., R.M. Redman RM, S.M. Arce, and S.M. Moss. 2009. Specific pathogen free shrimp stocks in shrimp farming facilities as a novel method for disease control in crustaceans. In: Shellfish Safety and Quality, pp 384-424, Eds. S.E. Shumway and G.E. Rodrick, CRC Press, Woodhead Publishing Limited, Cambridge, England.
  • Lightner DV, Pantoja CR, Redman RM, Hasson KW, Menon JP. 2009 (In press). Case report of melamine-induced pathology in penaeid shrimp fed adulterated feeds. Dis Aquat Org.
  • Lightner DV, Pantoja CR, Redman RM, Noble BL, Schofield PJ, Tang KFJ. 2008. White tail diseases in shrimp mimics infectious myonecrosis. Global Aquaculture Alliance 11(3):44-45.
  • Lightner DV, Pantoja CR, Redman RM. 2008. Feed-related Melamine Risk minimal to shrimp, humans. Global Aquaculture Alliance 11(3):30-31.
  • Lightner DV, Redman RM, Pantoja CR, Navarro SA, Tang-Nelson KFJ, Noble BL, Nunan LM. 2009. Emerging non-viral infectious and non-infectious diseases of farmed penaeid shrimp and other crustaceans. pp. 31-37. In: CL Browdy and DE Jory (eds.) The Rising Tide, Proceedings of the Special Session on Shrimp Farming, World Aquaculture 2009, World Aquaculture Society, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA.
  • Lightner DV. 2009. Specific pathogen free (SPF) and specific pathogen resistant (SPR) stocks for shrimp aquaculture. pp. 33-36. In INDAQUA 2009 Souvenir. Exposition on aquaculture to highlight the development and advancement of aquaculture in India. January 21-23 2009 Bhubaneswar, Orissa, India.
  • Lyles C, Boopathy R, Fontenot Q, and Kilgen M. 2008. Biological treatment of shrimp aquaculture wastewater using a sequencing batch reactor. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology 151: 474-479.
  • Ma H. 2008. Yellow head virus : transmission and genome analyses. Dissertation. University of Southern Mississippi. Hattiesburg, MS, USA.
  • Ma H., R.M. Overstreet, and J.A. Jovonovich. 2008. Stable yellowhead virus (YHV) RNA detection by qRT-PCR during six-day storage. Aquaculture 278: 10-13.
  • Ma H., R.M. Overstreet, and J.A. Jovonovich. 2009. Daggerblade grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio): A reservoir host for yellow-head virus(YHV). Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 101: 112-118.
  • Mishra JK, TM Samocha, S Patnaik, M Speed, RL Gandy, and AM Ali. 2008. Performance of an intensive nursery system for the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, under limited discharge condition. Aquacultural Engineering 38(1):2-15.
  • Morris TC, TM Samocha, D Honious. 2008. Continuous monitoring of dissolved oxygen in super-intensive shrimp grow-out in greenhouse-enclosed raceways using a software integrated monitoring system. An abstract of a paper presented at the Aquaculture America 2008, February 9-12, 2008. Orlando, FL. p. 251.
  • Moss S.M. and D.R. Moss DR. 2009. Selective breeding of penaeid shrimp In: Shellfish Safety and Quality, pp 425-452, Eds. S.E. Shumway and G.E. Rodrick, CRC Press, Woodhead Publishing Limited, Cambridge, England.
  • Moss D.R., S.A. Arce, C.A. Otoshi, R.W. Doyle, and S.M. Moss. 2007. Effects of inbreeding on survival and growth of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Aquaculture, 27S1:S30-S37.
  • Moss D.R., S.M. Arce, C.A. Otoshi, and S.M. Moss. 2008. Inbreeding effects on hatchery and growout performance of Pacific white shrimp, Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 39(4):467-476.
  • Moss D.R., S.M. Moss, and J.M. Lotz. 2009. Relationship between viral load and survival of Pacific white shrimp, Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei, infected with Taura syndrome virus. The 10th International Symposium on Genetics in Aquaculture, Bangkok, Thailand, p. 30.
  • Lewis B.L., Browdy C.L., Ray A.J., Lawson A., Shuler A., Venero J.A., Vinatea L., Leffler J.W. 2009. Management of microbial biofloc communities using settling tank clarifiers in superintensive, zero-exchange shrimp production systems. National Shellfisheries Annual Meeting, Savannah, GA. March 22-26, 2009.
  • Li P, X Wang, S Murthy, DM Gatlin, FL Castille, AL Lawrence. 2009. Effect of dietary supplementation of brewers yeast and Grobiotics-A on growth, immune response and low-salinity tolerance of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, cultured in recirculating systems. Journal of Applied Aquaculture: 21: 110-119
  • Lightner DV. 2009. Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases. 6th Edition. Office International des Epizooties (OIE) Paris: Disinfection of Crustacean Farms, Section C of Methods for Disinfection of Aquaculture Establishments. Chapter 1.13 General Introduction OIE Manual, Chapter 2.00 Diseases of Crustaceans, General Information, Chapter 2.3.00 Infectious Hypodermal and Hematopoietic Necrosis, Chapter 2.3.02 Infectious Myonecrosis Virus, Chapter 2.3.03 Spherical Baculovirus (Penaeus monodon-type baculovirus), Chapter 2.3.04 Taura Syndrome, Chapter 2.3.05 Tetrahedral Baculovirus (Baculvirus penaei), Chapter 2.3.06
  • Lightner DV. 2009. Aquatic Animal Health Code. 12th Edition. Office International des Epizooties (OIE) Paris: Infectious Hypodermal and Hematopoietic Necrosis, Chapter 9.2 Infectious Myonecrosis, Chapter 9.3 Taura syndrome, Chapter 9.4 White spot disease, Chapter 9.5 White tail disease, Chapter 9.6 Yellow head disease, Chapter 9.7
  • Lightner DV, Pantoja CR, Redman, RM, Poulos BT, Nguyen HD, Do TH, Nguyen TC. 2008. Collaboration on milky disease of net-pen reared spiny lobsters in Vietnam. Bulletin Animal Welfare OIE 2008-2:46-47.
  • Lightner DV, Redman RM, Arce S, Moss SM. 2009. Chapter 16: Specific pathogen-free shrimp stocks in shrimp farming facilities as a novel method for disease control in crustaceans. pp. 384-424 in Shellfish Safety and Quality. SE Shumway and GE Rodrick (eds.) Woodhead Publishing Limited, CRC press Boca Raton, FL, USA.
  • Moss S.M, D.R. Moss, S.M. Arce, C.A. Otoshi, and C.M. Holl. 2009. Shrimp research activities at Oceanic Institute. Abstract Aquaculture America 2009. World Aquaculture Society, Seattle, Washington, p. 233.
  • Moss, S.M. 2007. Advances in shrimp health and breeding. Global Outlook for Aquaculture Leadership 2007, Madrid, Spain.
  • Moss, S.M. 2007. Science based practical aquatic animal breeding programs. American Association for the Advancement of Science, San Francisco, CA.
  • Moss S.M., D.R. Moss, S.M. Arce, and C.A. Otoshi. 2008. Obstacles and opportunities: selective breeding of penaeid shrimp. Global Aquaculture Advocate, 11(6),73-74.
  • Moss S.M., D.R. Moss, S.M. Arce, and C.A. Otoshi. 2008. Selective breeding of Pacific white shrimp. Aquaculture Asia Pacific, 4(6):8-9.
  • Nunan LM, Pantoja C, Lightner DV. 2008. Improvement of a PCR method for the detection of necrotizing hepatopancreatitits in shrimp. Dis Aquat Org 80:69-73.
  • Otoshi C.A., D.R. Moss, and S.M. Moss. 2009 (submitted). Growth enhancing effect of pond water on four size classes of the Pacific white shrimp Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society.
  • Otoshi C.A., F.C. Falesch, E.A. McCrorey, and S.M. Moss. 2008. Super-intensive production of Pacific white shrimp, Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei, in biosecure, recirculating aquaculture systems: efforts toward commercialization. Program: the 7th International Conference on Recirculating Aquaculture. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia, p 36.
  • Otoshi C.A., S.S. Naguwa, F.C. Falesch, and S.M. Moss. 2007. Commercial-scale RAS trial yields record shrimp production for Oceanic Institute. Global Aquaculture Advocate, 10 (6): 74-76.
  • Otoshi C.A., S.S. Naguwa, F.C. Falesch, E.A. McCrorey, T.R. Hanson, and S.M. Moss. 2008. Commercial-scale production of Pacific white shrimp Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei in a biosecure, super-intensive, recirculating aquaculture system. Aquaculture 2008. World Aquaculture Society, Orlando, Florida.
  • Otoshi C.O., L.R. Tang D.R. Moss, S.M. Arce, C.M. Holl, and S.M. Moss. 2009. Performance of Pacific white shrimp, Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei, cultured in biosecure, super-intensive, recirculating aquaculture systems. In: The Rising Tide, Proceedings of the Special Session on Sustainable Shrimp Farming, pp 165-175, Eds. C.L. Browdy and D.E. Jory, The World Aquaculture Society, Baton Rouge Louisiana, USA.
  • Pantoja CR, Lightner DV. 2008. Enfermedades causadas por hongos pp. 159-168. In: V Morales and Cuellar-Anjel (eds.) Guia Tecnica-Patologia e Inmunologia de Camarones Penaeidos. Programa CYTED Red II-D vannamei, Panama, Rep. De Panama. 270 pp.
  • Pantoja CR, Lightner DV. 2008. Enfermedades virales pp. 55-114. In: V Morales and Cuellar-Anjel (eds.) Guia Tecnica-Patologia e Inmunologia de Camarones Penaeidos. Programa CYTED Red II-D vannamei, Panama, Rep. De Panama. 270 pp.
  • Patnaik S, AL Lawrence, B Klim, FL Castille. 2009. Effect of stocking density and feed rate on survival and growth of Litopenaeus vannamei in an outdoor flow-through tank system. 2009. Book of Abstracts (CD-ROM), p. 265, World Aquaculture Society Annual Conference, February 15-18, 2009, Seattle, Washington, USA.
  • Patnaik S. and TM Samocha. 2009. Improved feed management strategy for Litopenaeus vannamei in limited exchange culture systems. World Aquaculture 40(1):57-59.
  • Poulos BT, Nobel BW, Lightner DV. 2008 Comparison of detection methods for TSV during a time-course study of chronic phase infection in Penaeus vannamei. Dis Aquat Org 82:179-185.
  • Ray A.J., Browdy C.L., Lewis B.L., Venero J.A., Vinatea L., Shuler A., Leffler J.W. 2009. Differences in shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei production and microbial dynamics as they relate to dietary protein source and solids management in minimal exchange superintensive culture systems. National Shellfisheries Annual Meeting, Savannah, GA. March 22-26, 2009.
  • Moss S.M., S.M. Arce, D.R. Moss, and C.A. Otoshi. 2008. Growth and maturation of a global shrimp farming industry: opportunities and challenges. Abstract Book World Aquaculture 2008. World Aquaculture Society, Busan, Korea.
  • Moss, S.M.. 2007. Growth and maturation of the Asian shrimp farming industry: opportunities and challenges. Royal Golden Jubilee-Ph.D. Congress VIII, The Thailand Research Fund, Pattaya, Thailand, p. 63.
  • Muller IC, Andrade TPD, Tang-Nelson KFJ, Marques MRF, Lightner DV. 2009(In press). Genotyping of WSSV geographical isolates from Brazil and comparison to other isolates from the Americas. Dis Aquat Org.
  • Murthy Hs, P Li, AL Lawrence, DM Gatlin III. 2009. Dietary B-glucan and nucleotide effects on growth, survival and immune responses of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Journal of Applied Aquaculture: 21: 160-168.
  • Moss, S.M. 2008. Genetic improvement of farmed shrimp: opportunities and obstacles. Royal Golden Jubilee-Ph.D. Congress IX, The Thailand Research Fund, Pattaya, Thailand, p. 61.
  • Moss, S.M. 2009. An integrated approach to sustainable shrimp aquaculture in the U.S. Clean, Green, Sustainable Recirculating Aquaculture Summit. Food and Water Watch, Washington, D.C.
  • Ray A.J., Lewis B.L., Browdy C.L., Leffler J.W. 2009.(Submitted). The use of solids management to improve shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) production and a comparison of fish-based versus plant-based feeds in minimal exchange superintensive culture systems. Aquaculture.
  • Ray A.J., Shuler A.J., Browdy C.L., Leffler J.W. 2009. Microbial ecology and biofloc management of minimal exchange superintensive shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei culture systems. World Aquaculture Society 2009, Vera Cruz, Mexico.
  • Ray A.J., Shuler A.J., Leffler J.W., Browdy C.L. 2009. (In Press). Microbial ecology and management of biofloc systems. In Browdy, C.L., Jory, D.E., editors. The Rising Tide, Proceedings of the Special Session on Sustainable Shrimp Farming, Aquaculture 2009. The World Aquaculture Society, Baton Rouge Louisiana, USA.
  • Ray A.J., Venero J.A., Leffler J.W. 2009. An evaluation of shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei stocking practices for minimal exchange superintensive biofloc culture systems. World Aquaculture Society 2009, Vera Cruz, Mexico. September 25-29, 2009.
  • Roman, Eduardo. Master of Science. 2007. The culture of Pacific White Shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, under limited water exchange using two commercial test diets with 25% and 35% crude protein levels. Texas
  • Roy D and Boopathy R. 2009. Nitrogen removal in shrimp aquaculture wastewater using sequencing batch reactor. 83rd Annual Meeting of the Louisiana Academy of Sciences. Hammond, LA. Feb. 27. 2009.
  • Samocha TM. 2009. Advances in shrimp nursery technologies. Pages: 171-184 In: The Rising Tide Proceedings of the Special Session on Sustainable Shrimp Farming. Browdy CL, DE Jorry (Eds). World Aquaculture Society, Baton Rouge, LA, USA. September 25-29, 2009
  • Simmons, Ashlie D'Ann. Master of Science. 2007. Apparent dry matter digestibility of selected minerals from common feed ingredients offered to marine penaeid shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Texas
  • Stokes A.D., Leffler J.W., Venero J.A., Browdy C.L. 2009. Developing, designing, and operating a zero exchange bio-floc based shrimp production system. National Shellfisheries Annual Meeting, Savannah, GA. March 22-26, 2009.
  • Tang J, Ochoa WF, Sinkovits RS, Poulos BT, Ghabrial SA, Lightner DV, Baker TS, Nibert ML. 2008. Infectious myonecrosis virus has a totivirus-like 120-subunit capsis, but with fiber complexes at the fivefold axes. Proceeding of the National Academy of Science 105 (45):17525-17531.
  • Tang KFJ, Ambrose BG, Kudera MK, Hernandez-Acosta M, Nelson SG. 2009. Dietary Magnesium and growth of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei in low-salinity water. Aquaculture America 2009. February 15-18, 2009, Seattle, Washington, USA.
  • Tang KFJ, Pantoja CR, Lightner DV. 2008. Genetic diversity of HPV parvovirus. Global Aquaculture Alliance 11(4):79-80.
  • Tang KFJ, Pantoja CR, lightner DV. 2008. Nucleotide sequence of a Madagascar hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV) and comparison of genetic variation among geographical isolates. Dis Aquat Org 80:105-112.
  • Tremonte, J.M.W. 2008. The effects of temperature on Taura syndrome virus (TSV) infections in Litopenaeus vannamei. Thesis. University of Southern Mississippi. Hattiesburg, MS, USA.
  • Venero J.A., Browdy C.L., Haveman J., Lawson A., Lewis B.L., Ray A.J., Leffler J.W. 2009. Evaluation of the effect of a plant based diet on growth performance and FCR of pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei raised either in a photoautotrophic or a heterotrophic hyper-intensive zero-exchange biofloc system. World Aquaculture Society 2009, Vera Cruz, Mexico. September 25-29, 2009.
  • Tang KFJ, Wertheim JO, Navarro SA, Lightner DV. 2009. Molecular diversity and evolution of Taura syndrome virus (TSV). Aquaculture America 2009. February 15-18, 2009, Seattle, Washington, USA.
  • Thomas B., Leffler J.W., Ray A., Atwood H., Lawson A., McAbee B., Shuler A., Venero J., Browdy C.L. 2009. Use of Settling Tank Clarifiers to Manage the Microbial Biofloc Community in Superintensive, Zero-Exchange Shrimp Production Systems. Aquaculture America 2009 Meeting, Seattle, WA. February 15-19, 2009.
  • Venero J.A., Leffler J.W., Galvez A.O., Haveman J., Lawson A. Shuler A., Thomas B., Vinatea L., Browdy C.L. 2009. Supplemental nutrition provided to pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei by natural productivity from either a photoautotrophic or a heterotrophic hyper-intensive zero-exchange biofloc system. Aquaculture America 2009 Meeting, Seattle, WA. February 15-19, 2009.
  • Venero J.A., McAbee B., Lawson A., Thomas B., Stokes A.D., Leffler J.W., Browdy C.L. 2009. Greenhouse-enclosed superintensive shrimp production: alternative to traditional ponds in U.S. Global Aquaculture Advocate 12(1): 61-64.
  • Vinatea L, Galvez AO, Browdy CL, Stokes,A, Venero J, Haveman, J, Lewis B.L., Lawson, A., Shuler, A., Ray, A., Leffler, J.W. 2009. (submitted). Photosynthesis, water respiration and growth performance of Litopenaeus vannamei in a super-intensive raceway culture with zero water exchange: Interaction of water quality variables. Aquacultural Engineering.
  • Ray A.J., Leffler J.W., Seaborn G., Venero J.A., Browdy C.L. 2009. Effects of fishmeal versus soybean-based feeds and solids removal by settling tanks and tilapia on high-density shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei production in biofloc culture systems. Aquaculture America 2009 Meeting, Seattle, WA. February 15-19, 2009.
  • Roy D and Boopathy R. 2009. Organic carbon and nitrogen removal from garfish aquaculture using sequencing batch reactor. Aquaculture America 2009 Conference Seattle, WA. Feb 15-18, 2009.
  • Samocha TM, JS Kim, S Patnaik, AM Ali, TC Morris. 2008. Production, water quality, nutrient budget and preliminary cost analysis of a super-intensive grow-out system for the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei operated with no water exchange. An abstract of a paper presented at the World Aquaculture 2008, May 19-23, 2008. Busan, Korea. p. 635.
  • Samocha TM, JS Kim, TC Morris, S Patnaik. 2008. Intensive grow-out of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, in greenhouse-enclosed raceways with limited water discharge. An abstract of a paper presented at the Aquaculture America 2008, February 9-12, 2008. Orlando, FL. p. 339.
  • Samocha TM, RL Gandy, TC Morris, S Patnaik, JS Kim, DA Davis, JR Richardson, CL Browdy. 2008. Development of viral pathogen free broodstock populations of the Atlantic pink Farfantepenaeus duorarum and the Atlantic white shrimp Litopenaeus setiferus. An abstract of a paper presented at the Aquaculture America 2008, February 9-12, 2008. Orlando, FL. p. 340.
  • Samocha TM. 2008. Design and Production Performance of a super intensive grow-out system for the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei operated with no water exchange. An abstract of a paper presented at the International Workshop on Healthy Aquaculture 2008. May 25-27, 2008. Ocean University of China, Qingdao, China.
  • Vinatea L, Galvez AO, Venero J, Leffler J, Browdy C. 2009 (in press). Oxygen consumption of Litopenaeus vannamei juvenile in heterotrophic media and zero water exchange. Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasileira.
  • Vincent A.G. and J.M. Lotz. 2007. Advances in research of necrotizing hepatopancreatitis bacterium (NHPB) affecting penaeid shrimp aquaculture. Reviews in Fisheries Science 15: 63-73.
  • Vincent A.G. and J.M. Lotz. 2007. Effect of salinity on transmission of necrotizing hepatopancreatitis bacterium (NHPB) to Kona stock Litopenaeus vannamei. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 75: 265-268.
  • Walker SJ, WH Neill, AL Lawrence, DM Gatlin III. 2009 (in press). Effect of body weight and salinity on ecophysiological performance of the Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology.
  • Yan D, Tang KFJ, Lightner DV. 2009 (In press. Review of IMN, infectious myonecrosis in penaeid shrimp. (In Chinese) Chinese Journal of Marine Sciences.
  • Yan D, Tang KFJ, Lightner DV. 2009. (submitted) A generic real-time PCR for detection of hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV) of penaeid shrimp. Vet Micro.
  • Walker SJ. 2009. Doctor of Philosophy. Daily digestible protein and energy requirements for growth and maintenance of sub-adult Pacific white shrimp. Texas.
  • Wertheim JO, Tang KFJ, Navarro SA, Lightner DV. 2009. A quick fuse and the emergences of Taura syndrome virus. Virology 390(2):324-329.
  • Wilson-Humes, Melisa. Master of Science. 2008. The use of methionine supplements in development of environmentally-sustainable feeds for marine penaeid shrimp. Texas
  • Yan D, Tang KFJ, Lightner DV. 2009 (In press). Development of a real-time PCR assay for detection of monodon baculovirus (MBV) in penaeid shrimp. J of Invert Pathol.


Progress 08/01/08 to 07/31/09

Outputs
OUTPUTS: An important goal of the U.S. Marine Shrimp Farming Program (USMSFP) is to provide products, technologies, and services to the U.S. shrimp farming industry. During the reporting period, the USMSFP distributed 223,831 Specific Pathogen Free (SPF) Pacific white shrimp, Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei, to U.S. industry stakeholders, as well as to research and educational organizations in the U.S. These shrimp consisted of postlarvae, juveniles, and broodstock from the TSV-Resistant and Kona Reference lines. Shrimp from the TSV-Resistant line have been selectively bred for high survival after exposure to different isolates of Taura syndrome virus (TSV) in per os, laboratory challenge tests. Shrimp from the Kona line have been domesticated for about 20 generations but have not undergone selection and; thus, represent important tools for research. Of the shrimp that were distributed, 112,665 went to the U.S. shrimp farming industry, including two broodstock producers and five shrimp farms, whereas 111,166 shrimp went to research and educational organizations, including two USMSFP members. A USMSFP scientist participated in the development of codes and policies about shrimp health and disease for the World Organization for Animal Health (formerly OIE) and drafted chapters for the Aquatic Animal Health Code for newly listed shrimp diseases. A USMSFP disease diagnostic lab was nominated and approved as the Reference Laboratory for Infectious myonecrosis (IMN) disease. During the reporting period, this USMSFP diagnostic lab processed 308 disease diagnostic cases from domestic and foreign clients. A total of 7,603 individual shrimp specimens were examined using histology and 6,932 individual assays were performed using PCR/RT-PCR methods. Because this lab has been designated as an OIE Reference Laboratory and as an APHIS designated laboratory for crustacean pathogens, scientists from the lab have been implementing "Ring tests" since 2003. During the reporting period, 33 labs from six countries participated in two "Ring tests" and most exhibited high proficiency in diagnosing shrimp diseases. During the reporting period, 17 participants from eight countries enrolled in the annual Shrimp Pathology Short Course, including one individual from the USMSFP. The USMSFP also provided disease-challenge services to several U.S. broodstock producers in an effort to improve selectively bred lines for disease resistance. The USMSFP continued to develop a standard practical diet to use in feed- and nutrition-related research. During the reporting period, several diets were evaluated and all supported excellent shrimp growth and survival. These diets have "open" formulations and will be provided to any U.S. feed company pro bono. The USMSFP's commitment to information dissemination to U.S. stakeholders was reflected in its publications, workshops, training, and coursework, and in the program's newsletter, Industry Briefs. The USMSFP also maintained contact with the industry through its website (www.usmsfp.org) and through a special session conducted at the Aquaculture America conference through the World Aquaculture Society. PARTICIPANTS: The U.S. Marine Shrimp Farming Consortium was formed in 1984 to identify and solve problems that constrain the profitability and expansion of the U.S. marine shrimp farming industry. The Consortium oversees the USDA/CSREES-sponsored U.S. Marine Shrimp Farming Program (USMSFP). This program allows leading investigators and their institutions, working in partnership with industry, to engage in focused, results-oriented projects directed at developing profitable and environmentally sustainable shrimp farming in the U.S. Member institutions and Principle Investigators include: Dr. Jeff Lotz from the University of Southern Mississippi, Gulf Coast Research Laboratory (GCRL); Dr. Shaun Moss from Oceanic Institute (OI); Dr. Acacia Alcivar-Warren from Tufts University (Tufts); Dr. John Leffler from the South Carolina Department of Natural Resources, Waddell Mariculture Center (WMC); Drs. Addison Lawrence and Tzachi Samocha from Texas AgriLife Research, Texas A&M System (TALR); Dr. Donald Lightner from the University of Arizona (UAZ); and Drs. Raj Boopathy and Quenton Fontenot from Nicholls State University (NSU). Dr. Anthony Ostrowski (OI) was the project director, with responsibility for coordination of research activities and planning, and overall technical and financial oversight of the Consortium. The USMSFP, through work of the seven Consortium institutions, has provided U.S. stakeholders with direct access to high health, genetically improved shrimp, as well as advanced disease diagnostic and treatment methods. OI had primary responsibility for shrimp genetic improvement, including selection for fast growth and TSV resistance. Tufts conducted work on molecular genetics, including microsatellites marker development. UAZ and GCRL were involved primarily in disease research, including developing diagnostic tools and providing disease diagnostic services. WMC and TALR worked on a variety of issues directly relevant to commercial shrimp farmers, such as production system management and feeds development, and NSU focused on solid waste disposal issues for emerging shrimp production systems. The Principal Investigators are all recognized world leaders in their respective fields and have numerous peer-reviewed publications. In addition, Dr. Donald Lightner has taken a leadership role in his service to the world community as a member of the Aquatic Animals Health Standards Commission, Office des International Epizootics (OIE), of Paris, France. Support for and maintenance of the OIE reference lab at UAZ has been crucial to meeting global needs in terms of the management of existing and emerging pathogens. Opportunities for training and professional development included the UAZ Shrimp Pathology Workshop and the training of graduate students from member universities. During the reporting period, a total of six Masters and three Ph.D. degrees were awarded among the various institutions supported by the grant. TARGET AUDIENCES: Traditionally, the USMSFP has focused its research efforts on the U.S. shrimp farmer as the primary target audience. However, due to the globalization of shrimp aquaculture, it has become necessary to expand the list of stakeholders to include feed manufacturers, U.S. grain producers, aquaculture equipment suppliers, broodstock suppliers, U.S. investors in foreign shrimp farms, and the U.S. seafood industry. The U.S. consumer also has benefited from the global shrimp market. This global view has encompassed and fostered the development of a U.S. shrimp broodstock industry where the primary business is to export broodstock shrimp to foreign hatcheries. The USMSFP has supported the U.S. shrimp broodstock industry by providing SPF, selectively bred shrimp to relevant U.S. stakeholders. Importantly, the USMSFP has continued to develop shrimp families which perform well in biosecure, recirculating aquaculture systems. It was also recognized that the dissemination of information, publications, and other outputs of the program also reach a global market, and it is not practical to limit the flow of information, technologies, and products to the U.S. alone. Nevertheless, information dissemination is to the U.S. industry first, prior to publication, through workshops, and through special sessions conducted yearly at the Aquaculture America conference. The approach has been a challenge in maintaining the interests of the various stakeholders, which often conflict with each other. For instance, domestic producers lament that domestic broodstock suppliers sell germplasm developed under the program to overseas U.S. competitors. This has necessitated the enhanced education of stakeholders, often via one on one conversations. While many have understood the approach of the program to service a wide range of stakeholders, there are still others who have not agreed. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.

Impacts
The USMSFP focused on three major objectives: Stock Improvement, Disease Control, and Sustainable Culture Technologies. During the reporting period, the USMSFP produced 134 families of SPF Pacific white shrimp, Penaeus vannamei. Of these, 90 families were from the TSV-Resistant line, whereas 44 were from the Growth line. TSV-Resistant shrimp were selectively bred for high survival after TSV exposure, as well as for rapid growth. The USMSFP now has shrimp families that exhibit > 95% survival after TSV exposure and growth rates > 1.5 g/wk, and these shrimp have been distributed to U.S. industry stakeholders. Growth line shrimp experienced high selection intensity for rapid growth in recirculating aquaculture systems. The USMSFP now has shrimp families that exhibit growth rates > 2.0 g/wk when stocked at > 400 shrimp per square meter. Significant progress was made in developing disease diagnostic tools for the shrimp farming industry. The USMSFP developed a new monoclonal antibody which reacts with the TSV isolate from Belize, constructed a recombinant baculovirus containing the IHHNV capsid protein gene for use in developing a polyclonal antibody for IHHNV detection, and developed a PCR diagnostic assay specific for a Rickettsia-like bacterium. Research continued on emerging bacterial and viral diseases, including Milky Hemolymph Disease and Idiopathic Hyaline Granulomatous Syndrome. In addition, a unique histological signature for melamine toxicity was described. The USMSFP investigated the in vivo role of a broad spectrum, antimicrobial peptide which may be used for the development of novel disease prevention strategies. To better understand reservoirs and vectors for viral pathogens, the USMSFP explored whether crustaceans indigenous to the U.S. can serve as vectors and continued to monitor frozen commodity shrimp which pose a significant risk for pathogen introduction into the U.S. The USMSFP continued to develop epidemiological models which incorporate viral load and viral transmission data, and explored the dynamics of TSV infection within individual shrimp. The USMSFP also investigated the transcriptome of TSV resistant and susceptible shrimp and identified eight candidate genes worthy of further screening. These results could lead to the identification of specific markers for TSV resistance and the emergence of marker-assisted selection. Research on sustainable culture technologies focused on further refinement of super-intensive, recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS). The USMSFP assessed the impact of solids management and determined that shrimp performance improved when solids were removed from the system using settling chambers or foam fractionators. The USMSFP also refined operational protocols for treating solid wastes from RAS using a Sequencing Batch Reactor and observed > 99% nitrite and 94% nitrate removal by the reactor. The USMSFP evaluated plant-based diets and determined there were no significant feed effects on shrimp performance when these diets were compared with fishmeal/fish oil-based diets. Identification of fishmeal replacements is of critical importance to the sustainability of the shrimp farming industry.

Publications

  • Wilson-Humes, Melisa. Master of Science. 2008. The use of methionine supplements in development of environmentally-sustainable feeds for marine penaeid shrimp. Texas
  • Stokes A.D., Leffler J.W., Venero J.A., Browdy C.L. 2009. Developing, designing, and operating a zero exchange bio-floc based shrimp production system. National Shellfisheries Annual Meeting, Savannah, GA.
  • Tang J, Ochoa WF, Sinkovits RS, Poulos BT, Ghabrial SA, Lightner DV, Baker TS, Nibert ML. 2008. Infectious myonecrosis virus has a totivirus-like 120-subunit capsis, but with fiber complexes at the fivefold axes. Proceeding of the National Academy of Science 105 (45):17525-17531.
  • Tang KFJ, Ambrose BG, Kudera MK, Hernandez-Acosta M, Nelson SG. 2009. Dietary Magnesium and growth of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei in low-salinity water. Aquaculture America 2009, Seattle, Washington, USA.
  • Tang KFJ, Pantoja CR, Lightner DV. 2008. Genetic diversity of HPV parvovirus. Global Aquaculture Alliance 11(4):79-80.
  • Walker, Scott. Doctor of Philosophy. 2009. Daily digestible protein and energy requirements for growth and maintenance of sub-adult Pacific white shrimp. Texas
  • Wertheim JO, Tang KFJ, Navarro SA, Lightner DV. 2009. A quick fuse and the emergences of Taura syndrome virus. Virology 390(2):324-329.
  • Yan D, Tang KFJ, Lightner DV. 2009 (In press). Development of a real-time PCR assay for detection of monodon baculovirus (MBV) in penaeid shrimp. J of Invert Pathol.
  • Yan D, Tang KFJ, Lightner DV. 2009 (In press). Review of IMN, infectious myonecrosis in penaeid shrimp. (In Chinese) Chinese Journal of Marine Sciences.
  • Yan D, Tang KFJ, Lightner DV. 2009 (Submitted). A generic real-time PCR for detection of hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV) of penaeid shrimp. Vet Micro.
  • Tang KFJ, Pantoja CR, lightner DV. 2008. Nucleotide sequence of a Madagascar hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV) and comparison of genetic variation among geographical isolates. Dis Aquat Org 80:105-112.
  • Tang KFJ, Wertheim JO, Navarro SA, Lightner DV. 2009. Molecular diversity and evolution of Taura syndrome virus (TSV). Aquaculture America 2009, Seattle, Washington, USA.
  • Thomas B., Leffler J.W., Ray A., Atwood H., Lawson A., McAbee B., Shuler A., Venero J., Browdy C.L. 2009. Use of Settling Tank Clarifiers to Manage the Microbial Biofloc Community in Superintensive, Zero-Exchange Shrimp Production Systems. Aquaculture America 2009 Meeting, Seattle, WA.
  • Tremonte, J.M.W. 2008. The effects of temperature on Taura syndrome virus (TSV) infections in Litopenaeus vannamei. Thesis. University of Southern Mississippi. Hattiesburg, MS, USA.
  • Venero J.A., Browdy C.L., Haveman J., Lawson A., Lewis B.L., Ray A.J., Leffler J.W. 2009. Evaluation of the effect of a plant based diet on growth performance and FCR of pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei raised either in a photoautotrophic or a heterotrophic hyper-intensive zero-exchange biofloc system. World Aquaculture Society 2009, Vera Cruz, Mexico.
  • Venero J.A., Leffler J.W., Galvez A.O., Haveman J., Lawson A. Shuler A., Thomas B., Vinatea L., Browdy C.L. 2009. Supplemental nutrition provided to pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei by natural productivity from either a photoautotrophic or a heterotrophic hyper-intensive zero-exchange biofloc system. Aquaculture America 2009 Meeting, Seattle, WA.
  • Venero J.A., McAbee B., Lawson A., Thomas B., Stokes A.D., Leffler J.W., Browdy C.L. 2009. Greenhouse-enclosed superintensive shrimp production: alternative to traditional ponds in U.S. Global Aquaculture Advocate 12(1): 61-64.
  • Vinatea L, Galvez AO, Browdy CL, Stokes,A, Venero J, Haveman, J, Lewis B.L., Lawson, A., Shuler, A., Ray, A., Leffler, J.W. 2009. Photosynthesis, water respiration and growth performance of Litopenaeus vannamei in a super-intensive raceway culture with zero water exchange: Interaction of water quality variables. Aquacultural Engineering. (Submitted)
  • Vinatea L., Galvez A.O., Venero J., Leffler J., Browdy C. 2009 (in press). Oxygen consumption of Litopenaeus vannamei juvenile in heterotrophic media and zero water exchange. Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasileira.
  • Vincent A.G. and J.M. Lotz. 2007. Advances in research of necrotizing hepatopancreatitis bacterium (NHPB) affecting penaeid shrimp aquaculture. Reviews in Fisheries Science 15: 63-73.
  • Vincent A.G. and J.M. Lotz. 2007. Effect of salinity on transmission of necrotizing hepatopancreatitis bacterium (NHPB) to Kona stock Litopenaeus vannamei. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 75: 265-268.
  • Walker SJ, WH Neill, AL Lawrence, DM Gatlin III. 2009 (in press). Effect of body weight and salinity on ecophysiological performance of the Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology.
  • Adams, L. 2007. Effect of salinity on apparent amino acid digestibility of selected feed ingredients by Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Master of Science. Texas.
  • Alcivar-Warren and IMSEGI collaborators. 2009. IMSEGI: Progress update and future perspectives working towards the ONE HEALTH concept. Book of Abstracts, Aquaculture America meeting, Seattle WA.
  • Alcivar-Warren A, W. B. Warren. 2009. Sex, Retrotransposons and Disease Tolerance. A review of the Genetics and Genomics of Shrimp. To be presented at the World Aquaculture Society meeting, Veracruz, Mexico.
  • Alcivar-Warren A., J. Heim, D. Meehan-Meola, P. Das, B. Booth. 2009. Allele diversity of a new Mexican stock of SPF Litopenaeus vannamei acquired to increase germplasm diversity in the USMSFP breeding program. Book of Abstracts, Aquaculture America, Seattle WA.
  • Alcivar-Warren A., L. Granda, R. Henry, A. Lara, F. Aveiga, L. Maranda, M. Alcivar, C. Mejia Ochoa, J. Alcivar, K. Astrofsky. 2008. Metales pesados y diversidad genetica en camarones (Litopenaeus vannamei) de Ecuador. Revista de Resumenes, XXXII Jornadas Nacionales de Biologia, Loja, Ecuador.
  • Andrade TPD, Lightner DV. 2009. New hybrid assay can detect IMNV in resource-poor settings. Global Aquaculture Alliance 12(4):68-69.
  • Andrade TPD, Lightner DV. 2009 (in press). Development of a method for the detection of infectious myonecrosis virus by reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification and nucleic acid lateral flow hybrid assay. J Fish Dis.
  • Andrade TPD, Redman RM, Lightner DV. 2008. Evaluation of the preservation of shrimp samples with Davidsons AFA fixative for infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV) in situ hybridization. Aquaculture 278:179-183.
  • Andrade TPD, Tang KFJ, Lightner DV. 2009. RT-LAMP-Immunochromatography (ICT) for detection of infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV) in resource-poor diagnostic settings. Aquaculture America 2009, Seattle, Washington, USA.
  • Andrade TPD. 2009. Development and application of novel quantitative and qualitative molecular techniques for detection of infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV) in Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. PhD dissertation, Dept. of Vet. Sci. and Micro., University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona.
  • Aranguren F, Lightner DV. 2009. Reverse Gavage: A new standardized technique for infecting shrimp suitable for challenge studies. Aquaculture America 2009. Seattle, Washington, USA.
  • Boopathy R, Lyles C, Fontenot Q, and Kilgen M. 2008. Biological treatment of shrimp aquaculture wastewater. 12th International Symposium on Microbial Ecology. Cairns, Australia.
  • Boopathy R. 2008. Shrimp wastewater treatment using bacterial system. International Conference on Bioprocessing in Food Industries. Hyderabad, India.
  • Poulos BT, Nobel BW, Lightner DV. 2008 Comparison of detection methods for TSV during a time-course study of chronic phase infection in Penaeus vannamei. Dis Aquat Org 82:179-185.
  • Boopathy R. and Lyles C. 2008. Shrimp Production and Biological Treatment of Shrimp Wastewater in the United States. Pages 235-252 in A. Pandey editor New Horizons in Biotechnology. Asia Tech Publishers, New Delhi, India.
  • Browdy C.L., Venero J.A., Stokes A.D., Leffler J.W. 2009. Superintensive Biofloc Production Systems Technologies for Marine Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei: Technical Challenges and Opportunities. 2009. In G. Burnell and G. Allan (eds.), New Technologies in Aquaculture, Woodhead Publishing, Cambridge, UK.(In Press)
  • Browdy C.L., Venero J.A., Stokes A.D., Leffler J.W. 2009. Enhancing competitiveness of U.S. shrimp aquaculture through innovative scientific research. National Shellfisheries Annual Meeting, Savannah, GA.
  • Browdy CL, G Seaborn, DA Davis, RA Bullis, TM Samocha, and JW Leffler. 2007. Alternative approaches for removing fish meal and oils from farmed shrimp diets using plant and poultry meals and marine algal products. United States Department of Agriculture, National Organic Standards Board, Organic Aquaculture Symposium. Washington, DC.
  • Burger, J. 2007. Use of molasses as a source of carbon in nursery and grow-out of the Pacific White Shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, in limited discharge systems. Master of Science, Texas
  • Calzada, R.J. de la. 2008. The relative virulence of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in the penaeid shrimps Litopenaeus vannamei and Farfantepenaeus duorarum. Thesis. University of Southern Mississippi. Hattiesburg, MS, USA.
  • Cote I, Lightner DV. 2009 (Submitted. Hyperthermia does not protect Kona stock Penaeus vannamei against infection by a Taura syndrome virus isolate from Belize. Dis Aquat Org
  • Cote I, Lightner DV. 2009. Development and characterization of a monoclonal antibody against Taura syndrome virus. J Fish Dis. E journal prepublication.
  • Cote I, Navarro SA, Tank KFJ, Nobel BL, Lightner DV. 2008. Taura syndrome virus from Venezuela is a new genetic variant. Aquaculture. 284:62-67.
  • Das P, D Meehan-Meola, J Heim, M Delaney, AK Dhar, V Breland, J Lotz, W Warren, A Alcivar, A Alcivar-Warren. 2009. Characterization of EST-SSR markers isolated from Pacific whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, challenged per os with Taura Syndrome Virus, their utility for linkage mapping, genetic diversity & parental testing in breeding programs. Book of Abstracts, Aquaculture America, Seattle WA.
  • de la Vega E., O'Leary N.A., Shockey J.E., Robalino J., Payne C., Browdy C.L., Warr G.W., Gross, P.S. 2008. Anti-lipopolysaccharide factor in Litopenaeus vannamei (LvALF): A broad spectrum antimicrobial peptide essential for shrimp immunity against bacterial and fungal infection. Molecular Immunology 45: 1916-1925.
  • Delaney M., W. B. Warren, A. Alcivar, A. Alcivar-Warren. 2009. Cadmium levels in wild and cultured penaeid shrimp, differential gene exression in cultured Litopenaeus vannamei postlarvae stage 42 exposed to 1 ppm of cadmium for 24 hours. Book of Abstracts, Aquaculture America meeting, Seattle WA.
  • Forster IP, WG Dominy, ZY Ju, AL Lawrence, S Patnaik. 2009. Optimization of shrimp diets using mixture model methodology. Book of Abstracts (CD ROM), p.107, World Aquaculture Society Annual Conference, Seattle, Washington, USA.
  • Fox JM, AL Lawrence, E Li Chan. 2009. Tail muscle free amino acid concentration of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, feed diets containing protein-bound versus crystalline amino acids. Journal of World Aquaculture Society 40(2): 171-181
  • Fox JM, AL Lawrence. 2009. Evaluation of in vitro apparent protein digestibility by shrimp using gut enzyme extracts. Journal of World Aquaculture Society 40(3): 325-336
  • Gong H, AL Lawrence, F Alig, D Jiang. 2008. Performance of two different lines of Penaeus vannamei in response to different dietary protein sources and levels. Book of Abstracts (CD-ROM), p. 201, World Aquaculture Society Annual Conference, Busan, Korea.
  • Guarin M. and A. Alcivar-Warren. 2009. Genetic diversity of the giant tiger prawn, Penaeus monodon, of the Philippines using genomic and expressed (EST-SSRs) microsatellites in 3% agarose gels. Book of Abstracts, Aquaculture America meeting, Seattle WA.
  • Haveman J., Venero J.A., Lewis B.L., Lawson A., Shuler A., Browdy C.L., Leffler J.W. 2009. Effect of photoautotrophic and heterotrophic biofloc communities on productivity of pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei fed a plant-based diet in superintensive, zero-water exchange systems. National Shellfisheries Annual Meeting, Savannah, GA.
  • Holl C.M., C.J. Tallamy, and S.M. Moss. 2007. Microbial community nitrogen cycling in recirculating aquaculture. ASLO 2007. American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, Santa Fe, New Mexico.
  • Holl C.M., C.J. Tallamy, and S.M. Moss. 2008. Microbial community ammonium uptake and oxidation in recirculating marine aquaculture. ASM 2008. American Society of Microbiology, Boston, Massachusetts.
  • Holl C.M., C.J. Tallamy, and S.M. Moss. 2009. Microbial ecology of recirculating aquaculture: flocs and films. HAA 2009. Hawaii Aquaculture Association, Honolulu, Hawaii.
  • Holl C.M., C.J. Tallamy, and S.M. Moss. 2008. Stable Isotopes as Tracers of N and C Cycling in Recirculating Aquaculture. IsoEcol 2008. Applications of Stable Isotopes to Ecological Studies, Honolulu, Hawaii, p. 86.
  • Houghton RL, Chen J, Pantoja C, Poulos BT, Lightner DV. 2009. Rapid test detects NHP in penaeid shrimp. Global Aquaculture Alliance 12(4):66.
  • Johnson C.N., S. Barnes, J. Ogle, D.J. Grimes, Y. J. Chang, A. Peacock, and L. Kline. 2008. Microbial community analysis of water, foregut, and hindgut during growth of pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei in closed-system aquaculture. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 39: 251-258.
  • Ju ZY, IP Forster, AL Lawrence, WG Dominy. 2009. Classification and quantification of phospholipids and dietary effect on their composition in shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). Book of Abstracts (CD-ROM), p. 166, World Aquaculture Society Annual Conference, Seattle, Washington, USA.
  • Juarez L.M., S.M. Moss, and E. Figueras. 2009 (in press). Maturation and larval rearing of the Pacific white shrimp, Penaeus vannamei. In: The Shrimp Book, Ed. V. Alday-Sanz, Nottingham University Press.
  • Moss S.M. and D.R. Moss DR. 2009. Selective breeding of penaeid shrimp In: Shellfish Safety and Quality, pp 425-452, Eds. S.E. Shumway and G.E. Rodrick, CRC Press, Woodhead Publishing Limited, Cambridge, England.
  • Lightner DV. 2009. Aquatic Animal Health Code. 12th Edition. Office International des Epizooties (OIE) Paris. Infectious Hypodermal and Hematopoietic Necrosis-Chapter 9.2, Infectious Myonecrosis-Chapter 9.3, Taura syndrome-Chapter 9.4, White spot disease-Chapter 9.5, White tail disease-Chapter 9.6, Yellow head disease-Chapter 9.7.
  • Lightner D.V., R.M. Redman RM, S.M. Arce, and S.M. Moss. 2009. Specific pathogen free shrimp stocks in shrimp farming facilities as a novel method for disease control in crustaceans. In: Shellfish Safety and Quality, pp 384-424, Eds. S.E. Shumway and G.E. Rodrick, CRC Press, Woodhead Publishing Limited, Cambridge, England.
  • Moss D.R., S.A. Arce, C.A. Otoshi, R.W. Doyle, and S.M. Moss. 2007. Effects of inbreeding on survival and growth of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Aquaculture, 27S1:S30-S37.
  • Moss D.R., S.M. Arce, C.A. Otoshi, and S.M. Moss. 2008. Inbreeding effects on hatchery and growout performance of Pacific white shrimp, Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 39(4):467-476.
  • Moss D.R., S.M. Moss, and J.M. Lotz. 2009. Relationship between viral load and survival of Pacific white shrimp, Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei, infected with Taura syndrome virus. The 10th International Symposium on Genetics in Aquaculture, Bangkok, Thailand, p. 30.
  • Moss S.M, D.R. Moss, S.M. Arce, C.A. Otoshi, and C.M. Holl. 2009. Shrimp research activities at Oceanic Institute. Abstract Aquaculture America 2009. World Aquaculture Society, Seattle, Washington, p. 233.
  • Moss, S.M. 2007. Advances in shrimp health and breeding. Global Outlook for Aquaculture Leadership 2007, Madrid, Spain.
  • Moss, S.M. 2007. Science based practical aquatic animal breeding programs. American Association for the Advancement of Science, San Francisco, CA.
  • Moss, S.M. 2008. Genetic improvement of farmed shrimp: opportunities and obstacles. Royal Golden Jubilee-Ph.D. Congress IX, The Thailand Research Fund, Pattaya, Thailand, p. 61.
  • Moss, S.M. 2009. An integrated approach to sustainable shrimp aquaculture in the U.S. Clean, Green, Sustainable Recirculating Aquaculture Summit. Food and Water Watch, Washington, D.C.
  • Moss S.M., D.R. Moss, S.M. Arce, and C.A. Otoshi. 2008. Obstacles and opportunities: selective breeding of penaeid shrimp. Global Aquaculture Advocate, 11(6),73-74.
  • Moss S.M., D.R. Moss, S.M. Arce, and C.A. Otoshi. 2008. Selective breeding of Pacific white shrimp. Aquaculture Asia Pacific,4(6):8-9.
  • Moss S.M., S.M. Arce, D.R. Moss, and C.A. Otoshi. 2008. Growth and maturation of a global shrimp farming industry: opportunities and challenges. Abstract Book World Aquaculture 2008. World Aquaculture Society, Busan, Korea.
  • Otoshi C.A., F.C. Falesch, E.A. McCrorey, and S.M. Moss. 2008. Super-intensive production of Pacific white shrimp, Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei, in biosecure, recirculating aquaculture systems: efforts toward commercialization. Program: the 7th International Conference on Recirculating Aquaculture. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia, p 36.
  • Otoshi C.A., S.S. Naguwa, F.C. Falesch, and S.M. Moss. 2007. Commercial-scale RAS trial yields record shrimp production for Oceanic Institute. Global Aquaculture Advocate, 10 (6): 74-76.
  • Otoshi C.A., S.S. Naguwa, F.C. Falesch, E.A. McCrorey, T.R. Hanson, and S.M. Moss. 2008. Commercial-scale production of Pacific white shrimp Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei in a biosecure, super-intensive, recirculating aquaculture system. Aquaculture 2008. World Aquaculture Society, Orlando, Florida.
  • Otoshi C.O., L.R. Tang D.R. Moss, S.M. Arce, C.M. Holl, and S.M. Moss. 2009. Performance of Pacific white shrimp, Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei, cultured in biosecure, super-intensive, recirculating aquaculture systems. In: The Rising Tide, Proceedings of the Special Session on Sustainable Shrimp Farming, pp 165-175, Eds. C.L. Browdy and D.E. Jory, The World Aquaculture Society, Baton Rouge Louisiana, USA.
  • Pantoja CR, Lightner DV. 2008. Enfermedades causadas por hongos pp. 159-168. In: V Morales and Cuellar-Anjel (eds.) Guia Tecnica-Patologia e Inmunologia de Camarones Penaeidos. Programa CYTED Red II-D vannamei, Panama, Rep. De Panama. 270 pp.
  • Pantoja CR, Lightner DV. 2008. Enfermedades virales pp. 55-114. In: V Morales and Cuellar-Anjel (eds.) Guia Tecnica-Patologia e Inmunologia de Camarones Penaeidos. Programa CYTED Red II-D vannamei, Panama, Rep. De Panama. 270 pp.
  • Patnaik S, AL Lawrence, B Klim, FL Castille. 2009. Effect of stocking density and feed rate on survival and growth of Litopenaeus vannamei in an outdoor flow-through tank system. 2009. Book of Abstracts (CD-ROM), p. 265, World Aquaculture Society Annual Conference, Seattle, Washington, USA.
  • Patnaik S. and TM Samocha. 2009. Improved feed management strategy for Litopenaeus vannamei in limited exchange culture systems. World Aquaculture 40(1):57-59.
  • Ray A.J., Browdy C.L., Lewis B.L., Venero J.A., Vinatea L., Shuler A., Leffler J.W. 2009. Differences in shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei production and microbial dynamics as they relate to dietary protein source and solids management in minimal exchange superintensive culture systems. National Shellfisheries Annual Meeting, Savannah, GA.
  • Ray A.J., Leffler J.W., Seaborn G., Venero J.A., Browdy C.L. 2009. Effects of fishmeal versus soybean-based feeds and solids removal by settling tanks and tilapia on high-density shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei production in biofloc culture systems. Aquaculture America 2009 Meeting, Seattle, WA.
  • Ray A.J., Lewis B.L., Browdy C.L., Leffler J.W. 2009. The use of solids management to improve shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) production and a comparison of fish-based versus plant-based feeds in minimal exchange superintensive culture systems. Aquaculture.(Submitted)
  • Ray A.J., Shuler A.J., Browdy C.L., Leffler J.W. 2009. Microbial ecology and biofloc management of minimal exchange superintensive shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei culture systems. World Aquaculture Society 2009, Vera Cruz, Mexico.
  • Ray A.J., Shuler A.J., Leffler J.W., Browdy C.L. 2009. Microbial ecology and management of biofloc systems. In Browdy, C.L., Jory, D.E., editors. The Rising Tide, Proceedings of the Special Session on Sustainable Shrimp Farming, Aquaculture 2009. The World Aquaculture Society, Baton Rouge Louisiana, USA.(In Press)
  • Ray A.J., Venero J.A., Leffler J.W. 2009. An evaluation of shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei stocking practices for minimal exchange superintensive biofloc culture systems. World Aquaculture Society 2009, Vera Cruz, Mexico.
  • Roman, Eduardo. Master of Science. 2007. The culture of Pacific White Shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, under limited water exchange using two commercial test diets with 25% and 35% crude protein levels. Texas
  • Roy D and Boopathy R. 2009. Nitrogen removal in shrimp aquaculture wastewater using sequencing batch reactor. 83rd Annual Meeting of the Louisiana Academy of Sciences. Hammond, LA.
  • Roy D and Boopathy R. 2009. Organic carbon and nitrogen removal from garfish aquaculture using sequencing batch reactor. Aquaculture America 2009 Conference Seattle, WA.
  • Samocha TM, JS Kim, S Patnaik, AM Ali, TC Morris. 2008. Production, water quality, nutrient budget and preliminary cost analysis of a super-intensive grow-out system for the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei operated with no water exchange. An abstract of a paper presented at the World Aquaculture 2008, Busan, Korea. p. 635.
  • Samocha TM, JS Kim, TC Morris, S Patnaik. 2008. Intensive grow-out of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, in greenhouse-enclosed raceways with limited water discharge. An abstract of a paper presented at the Aquaculture America 2008, Orlando, FL. p. 339.
  • Samocha TM, RL Gandy, TC Morris, S Patnaik, JS Kim, DA Davis, JR Richardson, CL Browdy. 2008. Development of viral pathogen free broodstock populations of the Atlantic pink Farfantepenaeus duorarum and the Atlantic white shrimp Litopenaeus setiferus. An abstract of a paper presented at the Aquaculture America 2008, Orlando, FL. p. 340.
  • Samocha TM. 2008. Design and Production Performance of a super intensive grow-out system for the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei operated with no water exchange. An abstract of a paper presented at the International Workshop on Healthy Aquaculture 2008, Ocean University of China, Qingdao, China.
  • Samocha TM. 2009. Advances in shrimp nursery technologies. Pages: 171-184 In: The Rising Tide Proceedings of the Special Session on Sustainable Shrimp Farming. Browdy CL, DE Jorry (Eds). World Aquaculture Society, Baton Rouge, LA, USA.
  • Simmons, Ashlie D Ann. Master of Science. 2007. Apparent dry matter digestibility of selected minerals from common feed ingredients offered to marine penaeid shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Texas.
  • Kent, M. 2009. Can Litopenaeus vannamei consume and digest microbes representative of photoautotrophic microbial biofloc College of Charleston Graduate Program in Marine Biology Colloquium, Charleston, SC.
  • Kent M.R., Browdy C.L., Venero J., Shuler A., Seaborn G., Battey C., Leffler J.W. 2009. Isolating key contributors of microbial biofloc to Litopenaeus vannamei growth: how do biofloc taxonomic groups affect growth when provided as dietary supplements National Shellfisheries Annual Meeting, Savannah, GA.
  • Kent M.R., Browdy C.L., Venero J., Shuler A., Seaborn G., Battey C., Leffler J.W. 2009. Relative contribution of taxonomic groups within microbial biofloc communities to the growth of Litopenaeus vannamei when provided as dietary supplements. Hollings Marine Laboratory Symposium, Charleston, SC.
  • Kent M.R., Browdy C.L., Venero J., Shuler A., Seaborn G., Battey C., Leffler J.W. 2009. Relative contribution of taxonomic groups within microbial biofloc communities to the growth of Litopenaeus vannamei when provided as dietary supplements. World Aquaculture Society 2009, Vera Cruz, Mexico.
  • Lawrence AL. 2009. Microbials, Prebiotics, Acids, Other Feed Additives, Synbiotics in Aquaculture. Book of Abstracts, p. 21, 16th Discover Conference on Food Animal Agriculture: Direct Fed Microbials/Prebiotics of Animals: Science and Mechanisms of Action, Nashville, Indiana, USA.
  • Lawson A.D., Haveman J., Leffler J.W., Lewis B.L., Venero J.A., Stokes A., Browdy C.L. 2009. Establishing SPF stocks of bait shrimp Litopenaeus setiferus and demonstration of low cost maturation and larval systems necessary for commercialization of u.s. bait shrimp production. National Shellfisheries Annual Meeting, Savannah, GA.
  • Lawson A.D., Haveman J., Leffler J.W., Thomas B.L., Venero J., Browdy C.L. 2009. Development of SPF stocks of bait shrimp Litopenaeus setiferus and demonstration of low cost maturation and larval systems. Aquaculture America 2009 Meeting, Seattle, WA.
  • Leffler, J.W. 2008. Research opportunities with SCDNR sustainable seafood mariculture programs. College of Charleston Masters in Marine Biology Program Seminar.
  • Leffler, J.W. 2009. Status of shrimp research at the Waddell Mariculture Center and the Marine Resources Research Institute. Technical Committee of the U.S. Marine Shrimp Farming Program Consortium Annual Meeting, Las Vegas, NV.
  • Leffler J.W., Browdy C.L. 2008. Status of shrimp research at the Waddell Mariculture Center and the Marine Resources Research Institute. Technical Committee of the U.S. Marine Shrimp Farming Program Consortium Annual Meeting, Atlanta, GA.
  • Leffler J.W., Lawson A., Ray A., Seaborn G., Shuler A., Thomas B., Venero J., Vinatea L., Browdy C.L. 2009. Monitoring tools for characterizing and managing microbial biofloc communities in superintensive zero-exchange shrimp culture systems. Aquaculture America 2009 Meeting, Seattle, WA.
  • Leffler J.W., Ray A.J., Lewis B.L., Venero J.A., Vinatea L., Shuler A., Browdy C.L. 2009. Effects of an organic certifiable plant-based diet in conjunction with solids removal on the production of shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei in minimal exchange superintensive biofloc systems. World Aquaculture Society 2009, Vera Cruz, Mexico.
  • Leffler J.W., Venero J.A., Ray A.J., Lewis B.L., Lawson A., Haveman J., Browdy C.L. 2009. Development of sustainable, commercially viable organic shrimp production by integrating plant-based feeds with microbial biofloc community structure. National Shellfisheries Annual Meeting, Savannah, GA.
  • Lewis B.L., Browdy C.L., Ray A.J., Lawson A., Shuler A., Venero J.A., Vinatea L., Leffler J.W. 2009. Management of microbial biofloc communities using settling tank clarifiers in superintensive, zero-exchange shrimp production systems. National Shellfisheries Annual Meeting, Savannah, GA.
  • Li P, X Wang, S Murthy, DM Gatlin, FL Castille, AL Lawrence. 2009. Effect of dietary supplementation of brewers yeast and Grobiotics-A on growth, immune response and low-salinity tolerance of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, cultured in recirculating systems. Journal of Applied Aquaculture: 21: 110-119
  • Lightner DV. 2009. Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases. 6th Edition. OIE, Paris. Disinfection of Crustacean Farms, Section C of Methods for Disinfection of Aquaculture Establishments. Chapter 1.13 General Introduction OIE Manual-Chapter 2.00, Diseases of Crustaceans, General Information-Chapter 2.3.00, IHHN-Chapter 2.3.02, IMNV-Chapter 2.3.03, Spherical Baculovirus (Penaeus monodon-type baculovirus)-Chapter 2.3.04, Taura Syndrome-Chapter 2.3.05, Tetrahedral Baculovirus (Baculvirus penaei)-Chapter 2.3.06.
  • Lightner DV, Pantoja CR, Redman RM, Hasson KW, Menon JP. 2009 (In press). Case report of melamine-induced pathology in penaeid shrimp fed adulterated feeds. Dis Aquat Org.
  • Lightner DV, Pantoja CR, Redman RM, Noble BL, Schofield PJ, Tang KFJ. 2008. White tail diseases in shrimp mimics infectious myonecrosis. Global Aquaculture Alliance 11(3):44-45.
  • Lightner DV, Pantoja CR, Redman RM. 2008. Feed-related Melamine Risk minimal to shrimp, humans. Global Aquaculture Alliance 11(3):30-31.
  • Lightner DV, Pantoja CR, Redman, RM, Poulos BT, Nguyen HD, Do TH, Nguyen TC. 2008. Collaboration on milky disease of net-pen reared spiny lobsters in Vietnam. Bulletin Animal Welfare OIE 2008-2:46-47.
  • Lightner DV, Redman RM, Arce S, Moss SM. 2009. Chapter 16: Specific pathogen-free shrimp stocks in shrimp farming facilities as a novel method for disease control in crustaceans. pp. 384-424 in Shellfish Safety and Quality. SE Shumway and GE Rodrick (eds.) Woodhead Publishing Limited, CRC press Boca Raton, FL, USA.
  • Lightner DV, Redman RM, Pantoja CR, Navarro SA, Tang-Nelson KFJ, Noble BL, Nunan LM. 2009. Emerging non-viral infectious and non-infectious diseases of farmed penaeid shrimp and other crustaceans. pp. 31-37. In: CL Browdy and DE Jory (eds.) The Rising Tide, Proceedings of the Special Session on Shrimp Farming, World Aquaculture 2009, World Aquaculture Society, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA.
  • Lightner DV. 2009. Specific pathogen free (SPF) and specific pathogen resistant (SPR) stocks for shrimp aquaculture. pp. 33-36. In INDAQUA 2009 Souvenir. Exposition on aquaculture to highlight the development and advancement of aquaculture in India, Bhubaneswar, Orissa, India.
  • Lyles C, Boopathy R, Fontenot Q, and Kilgen M. 2008. Biological treatment of shrimp aquaculture wastewater using a sequencing batch reactor. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology 151: 474-479.
  • Ma H. 2008. Yellow head virus : transmission and genome analyses. Dissertation. University of Southern Mississippi. Hattiesburg, MS, USA.
  • Ma H., R.M. Overstreet, and J.A. Jovonovich. 2008. Stable yellowhead virus (YHV) RNA detection by qRT-PCR during six-day storage. Aquaculture 278: 10-13.
  • Ma H., R.M. Overstreet, and J.A. Jovonovich. 2009. Daggerblade grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio): A reservoir host for yellow-head virus(YHV). Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 101: 112-118.
  • Mishra JK, TM Samocha, S Patnaik, M Speed, RL Gandy, and AM Ali. 2008. Performance of an intensive nursery system for the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, under limited discharge condition. Aquacultural Engineering 38(1):2-15.
  • Morris TC, TM Samocha, D Honious. 2008. Continuous monitoring of dissolved oxygen in super-intensive shrimp grow-out in greenhouse-enclosed raceways using a software integrated monitoring system. An abstract of a paper presented at the Aquaculture America 2008, Orlando, FL. p. 251.
  • Moss, S.M.. 2007. Growth and maturation of the Asian shrimp farming industry: opportunities and challenges. Royal Golden Jubilee-Ph.D. Congress VIII, The Thailand Research Fund, Pattaya, Thailand, p. 63.
  • Muller IC, Andrade TPD, Tang-Nelson KFJ, Marques MRF, Lightner DV. 2009 (In press). Genotyping of WSSV geographical isolates from Brazil and comparison to other isolates from the Americas. Dis Aquat Org.
  • Murthy Hs, P Li, AL Lawrence, DM Gatlin III. 2009. Dietary B-glucan and nucleotide effects on growth, survival and immune responses of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Journal of Applied Aquaculture: 21: 160-168.
  • Nunan LM, Pantoja C, Lightner DV. 2008. Improvement of a PCR method for the detection of necrotizing hepatopancreatitits in shrimp. Dis Aquat Org 80:69-73.
  • Otoshi C.A., D.R. Moss, and S.M. Moss. 2009 (submitted). Growth enhancing effect of pond water on four size classes of the Pacific white shrimp Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society.
  • Klim BC, AL Lawrence, S Patnaik, JM Fox, BR Dunsford, DA McKee. 2009. The effect of a prebiotic short chain fructooligosaccharide (scFOS) on the growth, survival and immune response of adult Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, under conditions of primary productivity. Book of Abstracts (CD-ROM), p. 172, World Aquaculture Society Annual Conference, Seattle, Washington, USA.
  • Kuhn DD, GD Boardman, AL Lawrence, L Marsh, GJ Flick. 2009. Microbial floc generated in bioreactors is a superior replacement ingredient for fish meal or soybean meal in shrimp feed. Aquaculture. (in press)
  • Lawrence AL, S Patnaik, WG Dominy, IP Forster, T Zeigler, T Markey. 2009. Commercial standard practical research feed for the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Book of Abstracts (CD-ROM), p. 182, World Aquaculture Society Annual Conference, Seattle, Washington, USA.