Source: UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA submitted to
DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF AGROFORESTRY SYSTEMS
Sponsoring Institution
National Institute of Food and Agriculture
Project Status
TERMINATED
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
0209874
Grant No.
(N/A)
Project No.
FLA-FOR-04606
Proposal No.
(N/A)
Multistate No.
(N/A)
Program Code
(N/A)
Project Start Date
Dec 1, 2006
Project End Date
Sep 30, 2012
Grant Year
(N/A)
Project Director
Nair, R. P.
Recipient Organization
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
G022 MCCARTY HALL
GAINESVILLE,FL 32611
Performing Department
FOREST RESOURCES & CONSERVATION
Non Technical Summary
Agroforestry practices such as silvopasture has particular relevance to Florida because Florida's agroecosystems and the people inhabiting them are challenged as never before with natural resource management problems that require an integrated approach. 1. To support agroforestry research of a basic nature and universal application and linking it up with on-going work in this area internationally; and 2. To continue research to apply such knowledge to solve specific problems of Florida.
Animal Health Component
60%
Research Effort Categories
Basic
20%
Applied
60%
Developmental
20%
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
1020199107010%
1250199107030%
1250699107020%
1250799107020%
1310699107010%
1310799107010%
Goals / Objectives
Agroforestry, the deliberate growing of trees or shrubs on agricultural lands, is receiving much attention in the United States. Agroforestry systems are regarded as an alternative resource-management strategy with potential to mediate some of the problems associated with current agricultural development and practices, for example, soil erosion, environmental contamination, economic deterioration of family farms, and loss of forest resources and wildlife habitat. Research undertaken by the Center for Subtropical Agroforestry (CSTAF) (http://cstaf.ifas.ufl.edu) at the UF/IFAS School of Forest Resources and Conservation (SFRC) has contributed to a growing body of knowledge on silvopasture and other agroforestry practices and an increasing awareness about its potential as an ecologically and economically sustainable land management approach. Silvopasture, broadly defined as the practice of integrating trees with forage and livestock production, could be a particularly relevant approach to enhancing water quality and carbon sequestration, and a best management practice option for ranchers. Other agroforestry research undertaken by UF/IFAS at overseas locations during the past several years has also contributed to the rapidly growing body of knowledge on the science and practice of agroforestry worldwide. Agroforestry practices such as silvopasture has particular relevance to Florida. Beginning in the mid-20th century, agricultural development has caused significant changes in the land use, land cover, and socioeconomic settings in the state. Today, ranching that covers over 6 million acres and involves1.8 million cattle is an important agricultural enterprise with more than $ 330 million annual turnover. In South Florida, where the majority of cattle and cropland are located, environmental threats to water quality due to nutrient loading and sediment toxicity are a major concern. Only very few studies have specifically addressed the impacts of these agroecosystem changes at landscape scales, and strategies that could address the problem. Recognizing the importance of agroforestry research, an FAES/CRIS project was initiated in 1993: Development of Integrated Agroforestry Systems Involving New and Underexploited Tree Crops; FLA-FOR-03188. That project ended its six-year term in September 1999. A subsequent FAES/CRIS project was then approved: Design and Evaluation of Agroforestry Systems; FLA-FOR-03812. That project ended in September 2005. A related CRIS project, FLA-FOR-03900, which is specific to the Center for Subtropical Agroforestry (CSTAF) under USDA/CSREES/ IFAFS grant was also conducted during the same time period (2000 to 2005) with the same PI. The project proposed here is a continuation of these two just-ended projects. The goal of this project is two-fold: A. To support agroforestry research of a basic nature and universal application and linking it up with on-going work in this area internationally; and B. To continue research to apply such knowledge to solve specific problems of Florida.
Project Methods
Research envisaged will fall under two broad categories: empirical and conceptual. The former will cover investigations on biophysical and socioeconomic factors influencing the establishment and management of agroforestry systems in different parts of the world, while the latter will include synthesis of available knowledge and conceptualization of new ideas and activities. The on-going biophysical and socioeconomic studies include the following, each involving a Ph D student:  Silvopastoral systems and environmental quality o Reducing nutrient losses from pasturelands (Florida). o Soil carbon pools in silvopastoral systems (Florida) o Nutrient dynamics of intensive silvopasture (northern Spain)  Carbon Sequestration potential of sub-Saharan agroforestry systems  Genetic tools for biodiversity conservation in agroforestry systems  Ecology of silvopastoral systems in Panama  Stakeholder involvement in protected-area management in Botswana. In the category of synthesis and conceptualization, a series of publications is planned under the book series called Advances in Agroforestry, of which the PI is the series editor. The titles under the series are: 1. New Vistas in Agroforestry, Nair, Rao, and Beck (eds), 2004. 2. Valuation of Agroforestry Systems, Alavalapati and Mercer (eds), 2004. FORTHCOMING volumes include 1. Homegarden Agroforestry, Kumar and Nair (eds), 2006. 2. Ecological Interactions in Agroforestry, Jose and Gordon (eds), 2006. 3. Agroforestry in Europe, Mosquera-Losada et al. (eds), 2006/2007. LITERATURE Publications from the just-concluded CSTAF project (FLA-FOR-03900) were organized as a CD and a hard-copy binder consisting of peer-reviewed journal articles (28), books (2), book chapters (6), abstracts of M. S. theses and technical reports (7) and Ph D dissertations (5), Fact Sheets (6), Newsletters (7), and other literature (19). Additional publications from the other CRIS project (FLA-FOR-03812) are also available. There is a large body of other literature as well. All of this literature is not directly cited in this document; but they are relevant to the project, given the stated objectives.

Progress 12/01/06 to 09/30/12

Outputs
OUTPUTS: The major focus of the project was on carbon (C) sequestration in soils under agroforestry systems. The underlying premise is that compared with treeless agricultural systems, agroforestry systems will help store more C in soil especially in deeper soil layers due to presence of deep-rooted trees, and thus help reduce the build-up of atmospheric carbon dioxide while maintaining productivity of multiple outputs. The study included different agroforestry systems in various ecological regions in five countries: 1. Silvopastoral systems involving slash pine (Pinus elliotti) and bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum) in coarse-textured soils in four counties of Florida; 2. Indigenous and improved agroforestry systems in the impoverished semiarid Mali in the West African Sahel; 3. Homegardens (multispecies plant associations around homesteads) and other common land-use systems in the humid tropical region of Kerala, southern India; 4. Cacao (Theobroma cacao) stands under planted or natural stands of trees in high rainfall tropical regions in southern Bahia, Brazil; 5. The dehesa system (traditional grazing system under extensive stands of oaks, Quercus suber, in northwestern Spain); and 6. Silvopastoral systems of Brachiaria spp. (grass) under Eucalyptus spp. plantations in Minas Gerais, Brazil. The results show that, overall, 1. Tree-based agricultural systems, compared to treeless systems, store significantly more C in deeper layers of soils under comparable conditions; 2. Higher SOC content is associated with higher species richness and tree density, especially in the upper 50 cm soil and in the <53 um soil fraction; 3. Soil near the tree, compared to away from the tree, stores more C; and 4. C3 plants (trees) contribute to more C in the silt- + clay-sized (<53 um) fractions than C4 plants in deeper soil profile. During the reporting period (2007 to 2012), six visiting scientists from overseas were hosted for periods exceeding six months, and eight PhD dissertations were completed. Peer-reviewed publications included two new books, 13 book chapters, and 27 journal articles. Additionally, five new books were published in the series "Advances in Agroforestry" (Springer Science) of which the project PI is the series editor. The project PI made a total of 37 invited lectures and keynote addresses at different international gatherings in 10 countries, and helped organize major international conferences in South Korea and Kenya. Presentations were also made at a number of national and international professional conferences including the annual international meetings of the tri-societies of Am. Soc. Agron., Crop Sci. Soc. Am., and Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Under a project supported by USDA-CSREES Higher Education Challenge Grant to the University of Florida, an Agroforestry Distance Education course (Agroforestry in the Southeastern U.S.) has been developed and offered annually beginning spring 2005. PARTICIPANTS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period. TARGET AUDIENCES: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.

Impacts
Impact Agroforestry is a recognized approach to fulfilling the UN Millennium Development goals and other development agendas in the developing nations and environmental amelioration in the industrialized world. Therefore, the demand for developing sustainable agroforestry systems is increasing the world over. The project accomplishments, especially in the area of carbon sequestration in soils under agroforestry systems, will solidify the scientific foundations for developing such systems.

Publications

  • Nair, P. K. R. and Garrity, D. P. (eds). 2012. Agroforestry: The Way Forward. Springer, The Netherlands. ISBN: 541 p. ISBN 978-94-007-4675-6
  • Nair, P. K. R. 2012. Climate-change mitigation and adaptation: A low hanging fruit of agroforestry, pp. 31-67.
  • In: Nair, P. K. R. and Garrity, D. P. (eds). Agroforestry: The Way Forward. Springer, The Netherlands.
  • Nair, P. K. R. and Garrity D. P. (2012). Agroforestry research and development - The way forward.
  • In Nair, P. K. R. and Garrity D. P. (eds), Agroforestry: The future of global land use, pp 515-531. Springer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.
  • Nair, P. K. R. 2012. Carbon sequestration studies in agroforestry systems: a reality-check. Agroforestry Systems 86: 243-253.
  • Howlett, D. S., Marcose, M. G., Mosquera-Losada M.-R., Nair, P. K. R., and Nair, V. D. 2011. Soil carbon storage as influenced by tree cover in the Dehesa cork oak silvopasture of central-western Spain. J. Environ. Monitoring 13: 1897-1904.
  • Howlett, D. S., Mosquera-Losada M.-R., Nair, P. K. R., Nair, V. D., and Rigueiro-Rodriguez, A. 2011. Soil carbon storage in silvopastoral systems and a treeless pasture in northwestern Spain. J. Environ. Qual. 40: 825-832.
  • Nair, P. K. R. 2011. Agroforestry systems and environmental quality: Introduction. J. Environ. Qual. 40: 784-790.
  • Takimoto, A., Nair, P. K. R., and Nair, V. D. 2008. Carbon stock and sequestration potential of traditional and improved agroforestry systems in the West African Sahel. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 125: 159-166.
  • Takimoto, A., Nair, P. K. R., and Alavalapati, J. R. R. 2008. Socioeconomic potential of carbon sequestration through agroforestry in the West African Sahel. Mitigation and Adaptation of Strategies for Global Change 13: 745-761.
  • Cole, D. M., T. L. White, and P. K. R. Nair. 2007. Maintaining genetic resources of peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth): the role of seed migration and swidden-fallow management in northeastern Peru. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 54: 189-204.
  • Michel G.A., Nair V.D., Nair P.K.R. 2007. Silvopasture for reducing phosphorus loss from subtropical sandy soils. Plant and Soil. 297: 267-276.
  • Nair V.D., Haile, S.G., Michel G-A. Nair P.K.R. 2007. Environmental quality improvement of agricultural lands through silvopasture in southeastern United States. Scientia Agricola 64: 513-517.
  • Zamora, D. S., Jose S., and Nair, P. K. R. 2007. Interspecific competition in a pecan-cotton alleycropping system in the southern United States: production physiology. Can J Bot 84: 1686-694.
  • Zamora, D. S., Jose, S., and Nair, P. K. R. 2007. Morphological plasticity of cotton roots in response to interspecific competition with pecan in an alleycropping system in the southern United States. Agroforestry Systems. 69: 107-116.
  • Jose, S., Allen, S.C., and Nair, P.K.R. 2007. Tree-crop interactions: Lessons from temperate alleycropping systems. In: Batish D.R., Kohli, R.K., Jose, S., and Singh H.P. (eds.), Ecological Basis of Agroforestry, pp. 15-36. CRC Press/Taylor&Francis.
  • Nair, P. K. R., Saha, S. K., Nair, V. D., and Haile, S. G. 2011. Potential for greenhouse gas emissions from soil carbon stock following biofuel cultivation on degraded land. Land Degradation and Development 22:395-409.
  • Tonucci, R. G., Nair, P. K. R., Nair, V. D., Garcia, R., and Bernardino, F. S. 2011. Soil carbon storage in silvopasture and related land-use systems in the Brazilian Cerrado. J. Environ. Qual. 40: 833-841.
  • In: Kumar, B. M. and Nair, P. K. R. (eds). Carbon Sequestration in Agroforestry Systems. Springer, The Netherlands.
  • Nair, P. K. R. 2011. Methodological challenges in estimating carbon sequestration potential of agroforestry systems. pp 3-16.
  • In: Kumar, B. M. and Nair, P. K. R. (eds). Carbon Sequestration in Agroforestry Systems. Springer, The Netherlands.
  • Nair, P. K. R., Tonucci, R. G., Garcia, R., and Nair, V. D. 2011. Silvopasture and carbon sequestration with special reference to the Brazilian Savanna (Cerrado). pp 145-162.
  • Kumar, B. M. and Nair, P. K. R. (eds). 2011. Carbon Sequestration in Agroforestry Systems. Springer, The Netherlands. 307 p. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-1630-8 ISBN: 978-94-007-1629-2
  • Gama-Rodrigues, E. F., Gama-Rodrigues, A. C., and Nair, P. K. R. 2011. Soil carbon sequestration in cacao agroforestry systems: a case study from Bahia, Brazil. pp 85-99.
  • In: Kumar, B. M. and Nair, P. K. R. (eds). Carbon Sequestration in Agroforestry Systems. Springer, The Netherlands.
  • Saha, S. K., Stein, T. V., and Nair, P. K. R. 2011. The socioeconomic context of carbon sequestration in agroforestry: A case study from the homegardens of Kerala, India. pp. 281-298.
  • In: Kumar, B. M. and Nair, P. K. R. (eds). Carbon Sequestration in Agroforestry Systems. Springer, The Netherlands.
  • Nair, P. K. R., Nair, V. D., Kumar, B. M., and Showalter, J. M. 2010. Carbon sequestration in agroforestry systems. Advances in Agronomy 108: 237-307.
  • Saha, S. K., Nair, P. K. R., Nair, V. D., and Kumar, B. M. 2010. Carbon storage in relation to soil size-fractions under some tropical tree-based land-use systems. Plant and Soil 328: 433-446.
  • Gama-Rodrigues, E. F., Nair, P. K. R., Nair, V. D., Gama-Rodrigues, A. C., Baligar, V. C., and Machado, R. C. R. 2010. Carbon Storage in Soil-Size Fractions under cacao agroforestry systems in Bahia, Brazil. Environmental Management 45: 274-283.
  • Haile, S. G., Nair, V. D., and Nair, P. K. R. 2010. Contribution of trees to soil carbon sequestration in silvopastoral systems of Florida. Global Change Biology 16: 427-438.
  • Nair, P. K. R., Nair, V. D., Kumar, B. M., and Haile, S. G. 2009. Soil carbon sequestration in tropical agroforestry systems: A feasibility appraisal. Environmental Science and Policy 12: 1099-1111.
  • Saha, S. K., Nair, P. K. R., Nair, V. D., and Kumar, B. M. 2009. Soil carbon stock in relation to plant diversity of homegarden systems in Kerala, India. Agrofor. Syst 76: 53-65.
  • Takimoto, A., Nair, V. D., and Nair, P. K. R. 2009. Soil carbon sequestration potential of agroforestry practices in the West African Sahel. Agrofor Syst 76: 11-25.
  • Nair, P. K. R., Kumar, B. M., and Nair, V. D. 2009. Agroforestry as a strategy for carbon sequestration. J. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition 172: 10-23.
  • Gordon, A. M., Thevathasan, N., and Nair, P. K. R. 2009. An agroecological foundation for temperate agroforestry. In: Garrett H.E. and Fisher R.F. (eds). Temperate Agroforestry: Science and Practice. 2nd Edition, pp. 25-44. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, WI.
  • Nair, P. K. R., Gordon, A. M., and Mosquera-Losada, M.-R. 2008. Agroforestry. In: Jorgensen, S. E. and Fath B. D. (eds), Ecological Engineering, Vol [1] of Encyclopedia of Ecology, 5 vols., pp. 101-110. Elsevier, Oxford, U.K.
  • Bellow, J. G., Nair, P. K. R., and Martin, T. A. 2008. Tree-Crop Interactions in fruit-tree-based agroforestry systems in Western Highlands of Guatemala: Component yields and system performance. In: Jose, S. and Gordon, A. M. (eds), Toward Agroforestry Design: An Ecological Approach, Advances in Agroforestry 4, pp. 111-131. Springer Science, The Netherlands.
  • Zamora, D. S., Jose S., Nair, P. K. R., Jones, J. W., Brecke, B. J., and Ramsey, C. L. 2008. Interspecific competition in a pecan and cotton alleycropping system in the southern United States: Is light the limiting factor In: Jose, S. and Gordon, A. M. (eds) Toward agroforestry design: an ecological approach. Advances in Agroforestry 4, pp. 81- 95. Springer Science, The Netherlands.
  • Nair, P. K. R. and Gordon, A. M. 2008. Agroforestry. 2008. In: Cubbage, F (ed.) Encyclopedia of Forestry: Forests and Forestry in the Americas. Soc Amer Foresters. Wikipedia WikiHome: http://forestryencyclopedia.jot.com/WikiHome
  • Nair, P. K. R. 2008. Agroecosystem management in the 21st century: It is time for a paradigm shift. J. Tropical Agri. 46: 1-12.
  • Mohan, S., P. K. R. Nair, and A. J. Long. 2007. An Assessment of Homegarden Diversity: A Case Study from Kerala State, India. J. Sustainable Agri. 29: 135-153.
  • Nair, P. K. R. 2007. The coming of age of agroforestry. The Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 87: 1613-1619.
  • Nair, P. K. R. 2007. Agroforestry for sustainability of lower-input land-use systems. 2007. J. Crop Improvement 19: 25-47.
  • Nair, V. D., P. K. R. Nair, R. S. Kalmbacher, and I. V. Ezenwa. 2007. Reducing nutrient loss from farms through silvopastoral practices in coarse-textured soils of Florida, USA. Ecological Engineering. 29: 192-199.
  • Haile, S.G., Nair, P. K. R., and Nair, V. D. 2008. Carbon storage of different soil-size fractions in Florida silvopastoral systems. Journal of Environmental Quality 37: 1789-1797.
  • Bellow, J. G., Hudson, R. F., and Nair, P. K. R. 2008. Adoption Potential of fruit-tree-based agroforestry on small farms in the subtropical highlands. Agroforestry Systems 73: 23-36.


Progress 10/01/10 to 09/30/11

Outputs
OUTPUTS: The major focus of the project during the year continued to be on carbon (C) sequestration in soils under agroforestry systems. The underlying premise is that compared with treeless agricultural systems, agroforestry systems will help store more C in soil especially in deeper soil layers due to presence of deep-rooted trees, and thus help reduce the build-up of atmospheric carbon dioxide while maintaining productivity of multiple outputs. The original study included different agroforestry systems in various ecological regions in five countries; five of these were continued. These were: 1. silvopastoral systems involving slash pine (Pinus elliotti) and bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum) in coarse-textured soils in four counties of Florida; 2. homegardens (multispecies plant associations around homesteads) and other common land-use systems in the humid tropical region of Kerala, southern India; 3. cacao (Theobroma cacao) stands under planted or natural stands of trees in high rainfall tropical regions in southern Bahia, Brazil; and 4. the dehesa system (traditional grazing system under extensive stands of oaks, Quercus suber, in northwestern Spain); and 5. silvopastoral systems of Brachiaria spp. (grass) under Eucalyptus spp. plantations in Minas Gerais, Brazil. The results show that, overall, 1. Tree-based agricultural systems, compared to treeless systems, store significantly more C in deeper layers of soils under comparable conditions; 2. Higher SOC content is associated with higher species richness and tree density, especially in the upper 50 cm soil and in the <53 um soil fraction; 3. Soil near the tree, compared to away from the tree, stores more C; and 4. C3 plants (trees) contribute to more C in the silt- + clay-sized (<53 um) fractions than C4 plants in deeper soil profile. Two visiting scientists from overseas were hosted. In the category of conceptualization and synthesis, one new book was completed for publication in the series "Advances in Agroforestry" (Springer Science). Work on another book was initiated and it progressed well; that book is scheduled for publication in mid-2012. During the reporting period, one PhD dissertation was completed. Presentations were made at a number of national and international professional conferences including the annual international meetings of the tri-societies of Am. Soc. Agron., Crop Sci. Soc. Am., and Soil Sci. Soc. Am. The project PI made professional invited presentations at universities in Cotbus, Germany; and Recife, Brazil. He also delivered a keynote lecture at the Brazilian Agroforestry Congress, Belem, Para, Brazil. Under a project supported by USDA-CSREES Higher Education Challenge Grant to the University of Florida, an Agroforestry Distance Education course (Agroforestry in the Southeastern U.S.) has been developed and offered annually beginning spring 2005. PARTICIPANTS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period. TARGET AUDIENCES: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.

Impacts
Impact Agroforestry is a recognized approach to fulfilling the UN Millennium Development goals in the developing nations and environmental amelioration in the industrialized world. Therefore, the demand for developing sustainable agroforestry systems is increasing the world over. The project accomplishments, especially in the area of carbon sequestration in soils under agroforestry systems, will solidify the scientific foundations for developing such systems.

Publications

  • Gama-Rodrigues, E. F., Gama-Rodrigues, A. C., and Nair, P. K. R. 2011. Soil carbon sequestration in cacao agroforestry systems: a case study from Bahia, Brazil. pp 85-99. In: Kumar, B. M. and Nair, P. K. R. (eds). Carbon Sequestration in Agroforestry Systems. Springer, The Netherlands. Nair, P. K. R. 2011. Methodological challenges in estimating carbon sequestration potential of agroforestry systems. pp 3-16. In: Kumar, B. M. and Nair, P. K. R. (eds). Carbon Sequestration in Agroforestry Systems. Springer, The Netherlands.
  • Nair, P. K. R., Tonucci, R. G., Garcia, R., and Nair, V. D. 2011. Silvopasture and carbon sequestration with special reference to the Brazilian Savanna (Cerrado). pp 145-162. In: Kumar, B. M. and Nair, P. K. R. (eds). Carbon Sequestration in Agroforestry Systems. Springer, The Netherlands.
  • Saha, S. K., Stein, T. V., and Nair, P. K. R. 2011. The socioeconomic context of carbon sequestration in agroforestry: A case study from the homegardens of Kerala, India. pp. 281-298. In: Kumar, B. M. and Nair, P. K. R. (eds). Carbon Sequestration in Agroforestry Systems. Springer, The Netherlands.
  • Refereed Journal Articles, 2011
  • Nair, P. K. R. 2011. Carbon sequestration studies in agroforestry systems: a reality-check. Agroforest Syst (in press) DOI 10.1007/s10457-011-9434-z.
  • Howlett, D. S., Marcose, M. G., Mosquera-Losada M.-R., Nair, P. K. R., and Nair, V. D. 2011. Soil carbon storage as influenced by tree cover in the Dehesa cork oak silvopasture of central-western Spain. J. Environ. Monitoring 13: 1897-1904.
  • Howlett, D. S., Mosquera-Losada M.-R., Nair, P. K. R., Nair, V. D., and Rigueiro-Rodriguez, A. 2011. Soil carbon storage in silvopastoral systems and a treeless pasture in northwestern Spain. J. Environ. Qual. 40: 825-832.
  • Nair, P. K. R. 2011. Agroforestry systems and environmental quality: Introduction. J. Environ. Qual. 40: 784-790.
  • Nair, P. K. R., Saha, S. K., Nair, V. D., and Haile, S. G. 2011. Potential for greenhouse gas emissions from soil carbon stock following biofuel cultivation on degraded land. Land Degradation and Development 22:395-409.
  • Tonucci, R. G., Nair, P. K. R., Nair, V. D., Garcia, R., and Bernardino, F. S. 2011. Soil carbon storage in silvopasture and related land-use systems in the Brazilian Cerrado. J. Environ. Qual. 40: 833-841.
  • Abstracts/Presentations, 2011
  • Nair, P. K. R. 2011. Agroforestry Systems and Soil Carbon Storage: Short-term versus long-term management implications. Presentation at the ASA/CSSA/SSSA annual international conference, 16-20 October 2010; San Antonio, TX.
  • Invited International Lectures/Presentations, 2011
  • Nair, P. K. R. 2011. ICRAF (World Agroforestry Center), Nairobi, Kenya, May 2011.
  • Nair, P. K. R. Keynote presentation, International Agroforestry Workshop, Technical University, Cotbus, Germany; June 2011.
  • Nair, P. K. R. Agroforestry Workshop and course; Federal Rural University, Recife, Brazil; November 2011:
  • Nair, P. K. R. 2011. Keynote lecture, VIII Brazilian Agroforestry Congress, Belem, Para, Brazil; November 2011.
  • Books, Edited, 2011
  • Kumar, B. M. and Nair, P. K. R. (eds). 2011. Carbon Sequestration in Agroforestry Systems. Springer, The Netherlands. 307 p. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-1630-8 ISBN: 978-94-007-1629-2
  • Books, Contributor of Chapters, peer-reviewed Nair, P. K. R. 2012. Climate-change mitigation and adaptation: A low hanging fruit of agroforestry. In: Nair, P. K. R. and Garrity, D. P. (eds). Agroforestry: The Way Forward. Springer, The Netherlands (in press).


Progress 10/01/09 to 09/30/10

Outputs
OUTPUTS: Progress Report The major focus of the project during the year continued to be on carbon (C) sequestration in soils under agroforestry systems. The underlying premise is that compared with treeless agricultural systems, agroforestry systems will help store more C in soil especially in deeper soil layers due to presence of deep-rooted trees, and thus help reduce the build-up of atmospheric carbon dioxide while maintaining productivity of multiple outputs. The original study included different agroforestry systems in various ecological regions in five countries; five of these were continued. These were: 1. silvopastoral systems involving slash pine (Pinus elliotti) and bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum) in coarse-textured soils in four counties of Florida; 2. homegardens (multispecies plant associations around homesteads) and other common land-use systems in the humid tropical region of Kerala, southern India; 3. cacao (Theobroma cacao) stands under planted or natural stands of trees in high rainfall tropical regions in southern Bahia, Brazil; and 4. the dehesa system (traditional grazing system under extensive stands of oaks, Quercus suber, in northwestern Spain); and 5. silvopastoral systems of Brachiaria spp. (grass) under Eucalyptus spp. plantations in Minas Gerais, Brazil. The results show that, overall, 1. Tree-based agricultural systems, compared to treeless systems, store significantly more C in deeper layers of soils under comparable conditions; 2. Higher SOC content is associated with higher species richness and tree density, especially in the upper 50 cm soil and in the <53 um soil fraction; 3. Soil near the tree, compared to away from the tree, store more C; and 4. C3 plants (trees) contribute to more C in the silt- + clay-sized (<53 um) fractions than C4 plants in deeper soil profile. Two visiting scientists from overseas were hosted. In the category of conceptualization and synthesis, one new book was almost completed for publication in the series Advances in Agroforestry (Springer Science). In addition, during the reporting period, presentations were made at a number of national and international professional conferences including the annual international meetings of the tri-societies of Am. Soc. Agron., Crop Sci. Soc. Am., and Soil Sci. Soc. Am. The project PI was the organizer of one subplenary session and one technical session on Agroforestry at at the XXIII IUFRO World Forestry Congress in Seoul, South Korea, 22 - 28 August 2010, which was attended by more than 3000 participants from all over the world. Under a project supported by USDA-CSREES Higher Education Challenge Grant to the University of Florida, an Agroforestry Distance Education course (Agroforestry in the Southeastern U.S.) has been developed and offered annually beginning spring 2005. Graduate Student Years: 5 PARTICIPANTS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period. TARGET AUDIENCES: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.

Impacts
Agroforestry is a recognized approach to fulfilling the UN Millennium Development goals in the developing nations and environmental amelioration in the industrialized world. Therefore, the demand for developing sustainable agroforestry systems is increasing the world over. The project accomplishments, especially in the area of carbon sequestration in soils under agroforestry systems, will solidify the scientific foundations for developing such systems.

Publications

  • Haile, S. G., Nair, V. D., and Nair, P. K. R. 2010. Contribution of trees to soil carbon sequestration in silvopastoral systems of Florida. Global Change Biology 16: 427-438.
  • Nair, P. K. R. 2010. XXIII IUFRO World Forestry Congress, 22-28 August, Seoul, South Korea: Organized the Sub-Plenary session SP 7: Agroforestry: The Way Forward and made a presentation: Nair, P. K. R. Agroforestry: The Way Forward-Keeping up with science. Organized the Technical Session C-13: Agroforestry, and made a presentation in that session:
  • Nair, V.D., and P.K.R. Nair. 2010. Aggregate formation and soil carbon sequestration under tree-based systems in various agroecological regions. XXIIII IUFRO World Congress. 23-28 August 2010, Seoul, Korea.
  • Nair, P. K. R. 2010. Soil Carbon Storage in Agroforestry Systems: Implications for Climate Change Mitigation. ASA/CSSA/SSSA 2010 International Annual Meetings. CD Rom Publication. Showalter, J.M, Nair, V.D., and P.K.R. Nair. 2010. Soil aggregation and recalcitrant carbon in a Florida silvopasture system. ASA/CSSA/SSSA 2010 International Annual Meetings. CD Rom Publication.
  • Nair, P. K. R., Nair, V. D., Kumar, B. M., and Showalter, J. M. 2010. Carbon sequestration in agroforestry systems. Advances in Agronomy 108: 237-307.
  • Nair, P. K. R., Saha, S. K., Nair, V. D., and Haile, S. G. 2010. Potential for greenhouse gas emissions from soil carbon stock following biofuel cultivation on degraded land. Land Degradation and Development. DOI: 10.1002/ldr.1016.
  • Howlett, D. S., Mosquera-Losada M.-R., Nair, P. K. R., Nair, V. D., and Rigueiro-Rodriguez, A. 2011. Soil carbon storage in silvopastoral systems and a treeless pasture in northwestern Spain. Journal of Environmental Quality (in press)
  • Tonucci, R. G., Nair, P. K. R., Nair, V. D., Garcia, R., and Bernardino, F. S. 2011. Soil carbon storage in silvopasture and related land-use systems in the Brazilian Cerrado. Journal of Environmental Quality (in press).
  • Saha, S. K., Nair, P. K. R., Nair, V. D., and Kumar, B. M. 2010. Carbon storage in relation to soil size-fractions under some tropical tree-based land-use systems. Plant and Soil 328: 433-446.
  • Gama-Rodrigues, E. F., Nair, P. K. R., Nair, V. D., Gama-Rodrigues, A. C., Baligar, V. C., and Machado, R. C. R. 2010. Carbon Storage in Soil-Size Fractions under cacao agroforestry systems in Bahia, Brazil. Environmental Management 45: 274-283.
  • Nair, P. K. R. 2010. Soil Carbon Storage in Tree-Based Agricultural Systems: A Climate-Change-Adaptation Strategy. Invited presentation to Regional Climate Change Adaptation Workshop, Agriculture and Agri-Food, Canada; 23-24 March 2010, Ottawa, Canada.
  • Nair, P. K. R. 2010. Plant trees to sequester carbon in soils. Invited presentation to the International Workshop Our Common Future, Mercator Foundation, 4-6 November, Essen Germany
  • Nair, P. K. R. 2010. Agroforestry (silvopasture) and carbon sequestration in the Brazilian Cerrado. Invited presentation to the International Symposium on Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the Brazilian Beef Cattle production, 16-18 November 2010; Campo Grande, MS, Brazil.


Progress 10/01/08 to 09/30/09

Outputs
OUTPUTS: The major focus of the project during the year continued to be on carbon (C) sequestration in soils under agroforestry systems. The underlying premise is that compared with treeless agricultural systems, agroforestry systems will help store more C in soil especially in deeper soil layers due to presence of deep-rooted trees, and thus help reduce the build-up of atmospheric carbon dioxide while maintaining productivity of multiple outputs. The original study included different agroforestry systems in various ecological regions in five countries; four of these were continued. These were: 1. silvopastoral systems involving slash pine (Pinus elliotti) and bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum) in coarse-textured soils in four counties of Florida; 2. homegardens (multispecies plant associations around homesteads) and other common land-use systems in the humid tropical region of Kerala, southern India; 3. cacao (Theobroma cacao) stands under planted or natural stands of trees in high rainfall tropical regions in southern Bahia, Brazil; and 4. the dehesa system (traditional grazing system under extensive stands of oaks, Quercus suber, in northwestern Spain). Additionally, a new study site was included with silvopastoral systems of Brachiaria spp. (grass) under Eucalyptus spp. plantations in Minas Gerais, Brazil. The results show that, overall, 1. Tree-based agricultural systems, compared to treeless systems, store significantly more C in deeper layers of soils under comparable conditions; 2. Higher SOC content is associated with higher species richness and tree density, especially in the upper 50 cm soil and in the <53 um soil fraction; 3. Soil near the tree, compared to away from the tree, store more C; and 4. C3 plants (trees) contribute to more C in the silt- + clay-sized (<53 um) fractions than C4 plants in deeper soil profile. One Ph D dissertation was completed; two are in progress. Two visiting scientists from overseas were hosted. In the category of conceptualization and synthesis, one new book was published in the series Advances in Agroforestry (Springer Science). In addition, during the reporting period, presentations were made at a number of national and international professional conferences including the annual convention of the Society of American Foresters, and the annual international meetings of the tri-societies of Am. Soc. Agron., Crop Sci. Soc. Am., and Soil Sci. Soc. Am. As the Co-Chair of the Global Organizing Committee, the project PI had a significant role in the organization of the second World Congress of Agroforestry held on 23 - 28 August, 2009, in Nairobi, Kenya, which was attended by more than 1200 participants from 96 countries. Under a project supported by USDA-CSREES Higher Education Challenge Grant to the University of Florida, an Agroforestry Distance Education course (Agroforestry in the Southeastern U.S.) has been developed and offered annually beginning spring 2005. PARTICIPANTS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period. TARGET AUDIENCES: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Not relevant to this project.

Impacts
Impact Agroforestry is a recognized approach to fulfilling the UN Millennium Development goals in the developing nations and environmental amelioration in the industrialized world. Therefore, the demand for developing sustainable agroforestry systems is increasing the world over. The project accomplishments, especially in the area of carbon sequestration in soils under agroforestry systems, will solidify the scientific foundations for developing such systems.

Publications

  • Saha, S. K., Nair, P. K. R., Nair, V. D., and Kumar, B. M. 2009. Soil carbon stock in relation to plant diversity of homegarden systems in Kerala, India. Agrofor. Syst 76: 53-65.
  • Takimoto, A., Nair, V. D., and Nair, P. K. R. 2009. Soil carbon sequestration potential of agroforestry practices in the West African Sahel. Agrofor Syst 76: 11-25.
  • Nair, P. K. R., Kumar, B. M., and Nair, V. D. 2009. Agroforestry as a strategy for carbon sequestration. J. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition 172: 10-23.
  • Haile, S. G., Nair, V. D., and Nair, P. K. R. 2010. Contribution of trees to soil carbon sequestration in silvopastoral systems of Florida. Global Change Biology 16: 427-438.
  • Nair, P. K. R., Nair, V. D., Kumar, B. M., and Haile, S. G. 2009. Soil carbon sequestration in tropical agroforestry systems: A feasibility appraisal. Environmental Science and Policy 12: 1099-1111.
  • Nair, P. K. R. 2008. Agroecosystem management in the 21st century: It is time for a paradigm shift. J. Tropical Agri. 46: 1-12.
  • Haile, S.G.*, V.D. Nair, and P.K.R. Nair. 2009. Tree integration into land-use systems as a strategy for soil carbon sequestration. ASA/CSSA/SSSA 2009 International Annual Meetings. CD Rom Publication.
  • Nair, P.K.R., V.D. Nair, S.G. Haile,*, S.K. Saha,*, D.S. Howlett,**., A.N.G. Takimoto, E.F. Gama-Rodrigues, and R.G. Tonucci. Soil carbon sequestration under agroforestry: A multi-location, multi-system study. ASA/CSSA/SSSA 2009 International Annual Meetings. CD Rom Publication.
  • Nair, V.D., and P.K.R. Nair. 2009. Carbon storage in aggregate-size fractions under agroforestry systems. p. 162. Book of Abstracts. 2nd World Congress of Agroforestry, Nairobi, Kenya 23-28 August 2009.
  • Nair, P. K. R., Garrity, D. A., and Hailu, M. (2009). The second world congress of agroforestry, 2009. Poster paper presented at the North American Agroforestry Conference, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO. CD Rom.
  • Gordon, A. M., Thevathasan, N., and Nair, P. K. R. 2009. An agroecological foundation for temperate agroforestry. In: Garrett H.E. and Fisher R.F. (eds.). Temperate Agroforestry: Science and Practice. 2nd Edition, pp. 25-44. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, WI.
  • Saha, S. K., Nair, P. K. R., Nair, V. D., and Kumar, B. M. 2010. Carbon storage in relation to soil size-fractions under some tropical tree-based land-use systems. Plant and Soil (in press).
  • Nair, P.K.R., V.D. Nair, S.K. Saha*, S.G. Haile*, D.S. Howlett**, A.N.G. Takimoto, E.F. Gama-Rodrigues, and R.G. Tonucci. 2009. Climate Change Mitigation through Agroforestry: A Concept in Search of Science. 2nd World Congress of Agroforestry, Nairobi, Kenya. 23-28 August 2009.
  • Nair, V.D. and P.K.R. Nair. 2009. Carbon storage in aggregate-size fractions under agroforestry systems. 2nd World Congress of Agroforestry, Nairobi, Kenya. 23-28 August 2009.


Progress 10/01/07 to 09/30/08

Outputs
OUTPUTS: Progress Report The major focus of the project during the year was studies on carbon (C) sequestration in soils under agroforestry systems. The underlying premise is that compared with treeless agricultural systems, agroforestry systems will help store more C in soil and offer better stability of stored C in deeper soil layers due to presence of deep-rooted trees and thus help reduce the build-up of atmospheric carbon dioxide while maintaining productivity of multiple outputs. Studies were undertaken on five different agroforestry systems in different ecological regions in five countries. These were: 1. Silvopastoral systems involving slash pine (Pinus elliotti) and bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum) in coarse-textured soils in four counties of Florida; 2. Indigenous and improved agroforestry systems in the impoverished semiarid Mali in the West African Sahel; 3. Homegardens (multispecies plant associations around homesteads) and other common land-use systems in the humid tropical region of Kerala, southern India; 4. Cacao (Theobroma cacao) stands under planted or natural stands of trees in high rainfall tropical regions in southern Bahia, Brazil; and 5.The dehesa system (traditional grazing system under extensive stands of oaks, Quercus suber, in northwestern Spain). The results show that, overall, the tree-based systems, in comparison with adjacent treeless systems had: 1. Higher soil organic carbon (SOC) content throughout 1-meter-deep soil profile; 2. The SOC content was directly related to plant diversity and tree density of the systems; and 3. The C3 plants (trees) contributed more C in smallest soil fraction (silt + clay) than C4 plants, particularly in lower soil depths. Another study along similar lines, involving a visiting scientist, has been initiated during the year from a silvopastoral system of Eucalyptus spp. with understory grasses (Panicum spp.) in Minas Gerais state of Brazil. One Ph D dissertation was completed; two are in progress. Additionally, three visiting scientists from overseas were hosted. In the category of conceptualization and synthesis, three new books were published in the series Advances in Agroforestry (Springer Science). The project PI was the principal resource person in the one-week collaborative workshop on research writing in agriculture and natural resources organized at the Kerala Agricultural University, India. In addition, during the reporting period, presentations were made at a number of national and international professional conferences including the annual convention of the Society of American Foresters, and the annual international meetings of the tri-societies of Am. Soc. Agron., Crop Sci. Soc. Am., and Soil Sci. Soc. Am. As the Co-Chair of the Global Organizing Committee, the project PI has a significant role in the organization of the second World Congress of Agro forestry, which will be held during 23 - 28 August, 2009, in Nairobi, Kenya. Under a project supported by USDA-CSREES Higher Education Challenge Grant to the University of Florida, an Agroforestry Distance Education course (Agroforestry in the Southeastern U.S.) has been developed and offered annually beginning spring 2005. PARTICIPANTS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period. TARGET AUDIENCES: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.

Impacts
Impact Agroforestry is a major approach to fulfilling the UN Millennium Development goals in the developing nations and environmental amelioration in the industrialized world. Therefore, the demand for developing sustainable agroforestry systems is increasing the world over. The project accomplishments, especially in the area of carbon sequestration potential in soils under agroforestry systems, will solidify the scientific foundations for developing such systems.

Publications

  • Gama-Rodrigues, E.F.; Nair, P.K.R.; Nair, V.D.; Gama-Rodrigues, A.C.; Baligar, V.C.; Machado, R.C. 2008. Carbon storage in soil aggregate-size classes under cacao agroforestry systems in Bahia, Brazil. Poster paper presented at the ASA/CSSA/SSSA 2008 International Annual Meetings. 5-8 October 2008; Houston, X, USA. CD Rom.
  • Haile, Solomon G., Vimala D. Nair and P. K. R. Nair. 2008. Soil Carbon Sequestration in Silvopastoral Systems: Relative Contribution of Tees and Warm-Season Grasses. Poster paper presented at an International Symposium on Climate Information for Managing Risks: Partnerships and Solutions for Agricultural Resources. 10-13 June 2008, St Pete Beach, USA.
  • Haile, S.G.; Nair, V.D; Nair, P.K.R. 2008. Relative contribution of trees and warm-season grasses to soil carbon sequestration in silvopastoral systems. Poster paper presented at the ASA/CSSA/SSSA 2008 International Annual Meetings. 5-8 October 2008; Houston, X, USA. CD Rom.
  • Howlett, D.; Mosquera-Losada, M-R; Nair, P.K.R.; Rigueiro-Rodriguez, A.; Nair, V.D.; Moreno, G. 2008. Soil carbon sequestration under silvopastoral systems in Spain. Poster paper presented at the ASA/CSSA/SSSA 2008 International Annual Meetings. 5-8 October 2008; Houston, X, USA. CD Rom.
  • Mosquera-Losada, M-R.; Nair, V.D.; Moran, D.; Nair, P.K.R.; Santiago-Freijanes, J.J.; Rigueiro-Rodriguez, A. 2008. Soil phosphorus storage in a poplar + pasture silvopastoral system fertilized with sewage sludge in northwestern Spain. Poster paper presented at the ASA/CSSA/SSSA 2008 International Annual Meetings. 5-8 October 2008; Houston, X, USA. CD Rom.
  • Nair, P. K. R., Garrity, D. A., and Hailu, M. 2008. The second world congress of agroforestry, 2009. Poster paper presented at the ASA/CSSA/SSSA 2008 International Annual Meetings. 5-8 October 2008; Houston, X, USA. CD Rom.
  • Nair, P. K. R., Garrity, D. A., and Hailu, M. 2008. The second world congress of agroforestry. Poster paper presented at the SAF National Convention, Society of American Foresters. 5-9 November 2008; Reno-Tahoe, Nevada, USA.
  • Nair, P. K. R., Gordon, A. M., and Mosquera-Losada, M.-R. 2008. Agroforestry. In: Jorgensen, S. E. and Fath B. D. (eds), Ecological Engineering, Vol [1] of Encyclopedia of Ecology, 5 vols., pp.101-110. Elsevier, Oxford, U.K.
  • Bellow, J. G., Nair, P. K. R., and Martin, T. A. 2008. Tree-crop Interactions in fruit-tree-based agroforestry systems in Western Highlands of Guatemala: Component yields and system performance. In: Jose, S. and Gordon, A. M. (eds), Toward Agroforestry Design: An Ecological Approach, Advances in Agroforestry 4, pp. 111-131. Springer Science, The Netherlands.
  • Zamora, D. S., Jose S., Nair, P. K. R., Jones, J. W., Brecke, B. J., and Ramsey, C. L. 2008. Interspecific competition in a pecan-cotton alleycropping system in the southern United States: Is light the limiting factor In: Jose, S. and Gordon, A. M. (eds) Toward agroforestry design: an ecological approach. Advances in Agroforestry 4, pp. 81-95. Springer Science, The Netherlands.
  • Nair, P. K. R. and Gordon, A. M. 2008. Agroforestry. 2008. In: Cubbage, F (ed.) Encyclopedia of Forestry: Forests and Forestry in the Americas. Soc Amer Foresters. Wikipedia WikiHome: http://forestryencyclopedia.jot.com/WikiHome
  • Nair, P. K. R. 2008. Agroecosystem management in the 21st century: It is time for a paradigm shift. J. Tropical Agri. (in press).
  • Takimoto, A., Nair, V. D., and Nair, P. K. R. 2008. Soil carbon sequestration potential of agroforestry practices in the West African Sahel. Agroforestry Systems (in press)doi: 10.1007/s10457-008-9179-5.
  • Nair, P. K. R., Kumar, B. M., and Nair, V. D. 2008. Agroforestry as a strategy for carbon sequestration. J. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition (in press)(doi: 10.1002/jpln.200800030).
  • Haile, S.G., Nair, P. K. R., and Nair, V. D. 2008. Carbon storage of different soil-size fractions in Florida silvopastoral systems. Journal of Environmental Quality 37: 1789-797.
  • Bellow, J. G., Hudson, R. F., and Nair, P. K. R. 2008. Adoption Potential of fruit-tree-based agroforestry on small farms in the subtropical highlands. Agroforestry Systems 73: 23-36.
  • Takimoto, A., Nair, P. K. R., and Nair, V. D. 2008. Carbon stock and sequestration potential of traditional and improved agroforestry systems in the West African Sahel. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 125: 159-166.
  • Takimoto, A., Nair, P. K. R., and Alavalapati, J. R. R. 2008. Socioeconomic potential of carbon sequestration through agroforestry in the West African Sahel. Mitigation and Adaptation of Strategies for Global Change 13: 745-761 [DOI 10.1007/s 11027-9140-3].


Progress 10/01/06 to 09/30/07

Outputs
The biophysical and socioeconomic factors influencing the establishment and management of agroforestry systems in different parts of the world were studied, mainly through graduate-student research. Four Ph D dissertations were completed; three are in progress. The major focus of the studies is environmental benefits of agroforestry systems, particularly their carbon (C) sequestration potential. The underlying premise is that compared with treeless agricultural systems, agroforestry systems will help store more C in soil and offer better stability of stored C in deeper soil layers due to presence of deep-rooted trees. A study on silvopastoral systems in four counties of Florida on coarse-textured Spodosols and Ultisols showed that soil organic carbon (SOC) content was more in silvopasture than in adjacent treeless pasture, and that C3 plants (slash pine, Pinus elliottii trees) contributed more C in small (silt + clay) soil fraction than C4 plants (bahiagrass, Paspalum notatum), particularly in lower soil depths, at all sites. A similar study in Mali, West Africa, revealed the potential of improved agroforestry practices such as live fences (planting relatively fast-growing trees in very high density around field plots, orchards, or cultivated land to protect them from roaming animals) and fodder banks (planting exotic and/or indigenous species suitable for animal fodder in relatively high density) in sequestering C in the deeper soil layers compared to traditional land-use systems of the region. Similar studies on C sequestration potential of different agroforestry systems are in progress in the homegarden system of Kerala in southern India, and the dehesa (a form of extensive silvopastoralism) system of northern Spain. Another study in Florida showed that in heavily fertilized, coarse-textured soils (Spodosols and Ultisols), phosphorus (P) loss from the soil to groundwater was less in the combined stand of trees and pasture as in silvopasture than in treeless pasture. Scientific evidences on the environmental benefits of agroforestry systems in terms of C sequestration and water-quality enhancement are thus becoming clear. In the category of conceptualization and synthesis, work on two new books in the series Advances in Agroforestry was completed; these will be published by Springer Science in early 2008. Under a project supported by USDA-CSREES Higher Education Challenge Grant to the University of Florida, an Agroforestry Distance Education course (Agroforestry in the Southeastern U.S.) has been developed and offered annually beginning spring 2005. In addition, during the reporting period, presentations were made at a number of national and international professional conferences including at the North Am Agrofor Conf in Quebec, Canada; Chinese Academy of Sciences and research institutes in Hangzhou and Beijing, China; Universities of Bonn, Goettingen, and Cottbus, Germany; the Agri Univ in Gazipur, Bangladesh; and the annual international meetings of the tri-societies of Am. Soc. Agron., Crop Sci. Soc. Am., and Soil Sci. Soc. Am. The project PI and graduate students received national and international recognitions.

Impacts
Agroforestry is a major approach to fulfilling the UN Millennium Development goals in the developing nations. Its potential for environmental amelioration in the industrialized world is recognized too. Thus, the demand for developing sustainable agroforestry systems is increasing the world over. The project accomplishments will solidify the scientific foundations for developing such systems.

Publications

  • Takimoto, A., Nair, P. K. R., and Nair, V. D. 2007. Soil carbon sequestration under agroforestry systems in the West African Sahel. ASA/CSSA/SSSA International Annual Meetings. November 4-8, 2007. New Orleans, Louisiana.
  • Jose, S., Allen, S.C., and Nair, P.K.R. 2007. Tree-crop interactions: Lessons from temperate alleycropping systems. In: Batish D.R., Kohli, R.K., Jose, S., and Singh H.P. (eds.), Ecological Basis of Agroforestry, pp. 15-36. CRC Press/Taylor&Francis.
  • Michel G.A., Nair V.D., Nair P.K.R. 2007. Silvopasture for reducing phosphorus loss from subtropical sandy soils. Plant and Soil. 297: 267-276.
  • Mohan, S., Nair, P. K. R. and Long, A.J. 2007. An Assessment of Homegarden Diversity: A Case Study from Kerala State, India. J. Sustainable Agri. 29: 135-153.
  • Nair, P. K. R. 2007. The coming of age of agroforestry. The Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 87: 1613-1619.
  • Nair, P. K. R. 2007. Agroforestry for sustainability of lower-input land-use systems. 2007. J. Crop Improvement 19: 25-47.
  • Nair, P. K. R., Nair, V.D., Haile, S.G., and Michel, G-A. 2007. Environmental services of agroforestry: Phosphorus reduction and carbon sequestration in Florida soils. 10th North American Agroforestry Conference, 12-14 June 2007. Quebec City, Canada.
  • Nair, V. D., P. K. R. Nair, R. S. Kalmbacher, and I. V. Ezenwa. 2007. Reducing nutrient loss from farms through silvopastoral practices in coarse-textured soils of Florida, USA. Ecological Engineering. 29: 192-199.
  • Nair V.D., Haile, S.G., Michel G-A. Nair P.K.R. 2007. Environmental quality improvement of agricultural lands through silvopasture in southeastern United States. Scientia Agricola 64: 513-517.
  • Zamora, D. S., Jose S., and Nair, P. K. R. 2007. Interspecific competition in a pecan-cotton alleycropping system in the southern United States: production physiology. Can J Bot 84: 1686-694.
  • Zamora, D. S., Jose, S., and Nair, P. K. R. 2007. Morphological plasticity of cotton roots in response to interspecific competition with pecan in an alleycropping system in the southern United States. Agroforestry Systems. 69: 107-116.
  • Daganag, A. B. K. 2007. Establishment of Silvopastoral Systems in Degraded, Grazed Pastures: Tree Seedling Survival and Forage Production under Trees in Panama. Dissertation, University of Florida.
  • Haile, S. G. 2007. Soil Carbon Sequestration and Stabilization in Tree-based Pasture Systems in Florida. Dissertation, University of Florida.
  • Lepetu, J. 2007. Socioeconomic Impact of Stakeholder Preference to Conservation of Forest Resources: A Case study of Kasane Forest Reserve, Botswana. Dissertation, University of Florida.
  • Takimoto, A. 2007. Carbon Sequestration Potential of Agroforestry Systems in the West African Sahel: An Assessment of Biological and Socioeconomic Feasibility. Dissertation, University of Florida.
  • Nair, P. K. R. and Nair, V. D. 2007. Soil Sustainability and Agroforestry Systems. May 2007, Ecological Research Center, Chinese Acad. Sci., Beijing, China.
  • Nair, P. K. R. and Nair, V. D. 2007. Carbon sequestration potential of temperate agroforestry systems. Sino-German Workshop on Study of Eurasian Forest as a Pool of Carbon Dioxide. 20-26 May, 2007, Hangzhou, China..
  • Saha, S., Nair P. K. R., Nair, V. D., and Kumar, B.M. 2007. Carbon sequestration under tropical homegardens and related land-use systems in Kerala, India. ASA/CSSA/SSSA International Annual Meetings. 4-8 November 2007. New Orleans, Louisiana.
  • Cole, D. M., T. L. White, and P. K. R. Nair. 2007. Maintaining genetic resources of peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth): the role of seed migration and swidden-fallow management in northeastern Peru. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 54: 189-204.