Source: KANSAS STATE UNIV submitted to
IMPACTS OF WATER SPRINKLER SYSTEMS ON AIR QUALITY AT CATTLE FEEDLOTS
Sponsoring Institution
National Institute of Food and Agriculture
Project Status
TERMINATED
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
0209232
Grant No.
2007-35112-17853
Project No.
KS600510
Proposal No.
2006-04678
Multistate No.
(N/A)
Program Code
28.0
Project Start Date
Jan 1, 2007
Project End Date
Dec 31, 2010
Grant Year
2007
Project Director
Maghirang, R.
Recipient Organization
KANSAS STATE UNIV
(N/A)
MANHATTAN,KS 66506
Performing Department
Agri Engineering Bio/Ag Engineering
Non Technical Summary
The increasing size and geographic concentration of open-lot animal feeding operations have led to public concern about emissions of particulate matter (PM), ammonia, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and odor. Water application is a potential measure for mitigating PM emissions from open-lot AFOs; however, its effectiveness in reducing different particulate size fractions is largely unknown. A wet corral surface may also solubilize previously particle-bound VOCs thereby making them available for volatilization and transport in the gas phase, and consequently, altering the characteristics of emissions from feedlots. We propose to carry out a series of field measurements, combined with method development, to assess the impact of water application on emissions from cattle feedlots. The approach is to expand upon the existing assessment of sprinkler dust management practice underway at two commercial cattle feedlots: one feedlot is equipped with a water sprinkler system while the other is non-sprinkled. The project will provide a detailed assessment of PM emissions to include total suspended particulates, PM10, and PM2.5. Particle size distributions will also be characterized using spectrometric methods and direct measurements using a cascade impactor. The project will also develop a detailed description of odorous VOCs in both gas and particulate phases. A detailed examination of the physico-chemical and olfactory properties of VOCs present on PM at the source will be used to predict the most persistent odorants likely to be associated with PM at downwind locations.
Animal Health Component
60%
Research Effort Categories
Basic
40%
Applied
60%
Developmental
(N/A)
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
1413399106040%
3063399202060%
Goals / Objectives
Assess the effectiveness of water sprinkler systems in controlling particulate matter emissions from commercial cattle feedlots and its impact on the particle size distribution. Examine the impact of water sprinkler systems on the fate and transport of gases and particulate-phase volatile organic compounds released from cattle feedlots. Develop quantitative sample collection and analysis methods for the determination of major odorants in both gas and particulate phase samples collected in the vicinity of cattle feedlots.
Project Methods
The project will expand upon the existing assessment of sprinkler dust management practices underway at two commercial cattle feedlots: one feedlot is equipped with a sprinkler system and the other feedlot is non-sprinkled. One of the feedlots has been instrumented with tapered element oscillating microbalance (TEOM) and federal reference method (FRM) samplers for PM10 (particulate matter less than 10 micrometer aerodynamic diameter); the other feedlot, on the other hand, is being instrumented with similar samplers. The work will provide a detailed assessment of the particulate emissions to include total suspended particulates (TSP) and PM2.5 (particulate matter less than 2.5 micrometer aerodynamic diameter) upwind and downwind of two feedlots. Federal reference method (FRM) samplers for TSP and PM2.5 will be collocated with the TEOM PM10 and FRM PM10 samplers. Particulate size fractions will also be characterized using spectrometric methods and direct measurements with a cascade impactor. In addition to the PM measurements, the project will provide a detailed description of odorous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in both the gas and particulate phases at the edge of the feedlot corral and at three downwind locations during intensive sampling efforts. VOCs will be determined on samples collected from high-volume PM10 samplers and a high-volume cascade impactor. A detailed examination of the physico-chemical and olfactory properties of VOCs present on particulates at the source will be used to predict the most persistent odorants likely to be associated with particulates at downwind locations.

Progress 01/01/07 to 12/31/10

Outputs
OUTPUTS: Field sampling campaigns were conducted to measure the concentrations of air quality parameters, including PM, VOCs, ammonia, weather conditions, and pen surface water content in two large cattle feedlots in Kansas over a 3-year period. One feedlot was equipped with a water sprinkler system; the other feedlot did not have a sprinkler system but the pens were cleaned more frequently. The mass concentrations of PM were measured gravimetrically with samplers equipped with size-selective inlets. Particle size distributions were measured with an aerodynamic particle sizer (APS) spectrometer, 8-stage cascade impactors, and laser diffraction analyzer. Odors emitted from one of the feedlots were sampled onsite, 250 m downwind and 3.2 km downwind using both sorbent tubes and denuders. Sorbent tubes were analyzed by both GC/MS and GC/MS/O and key odorants determined using both odor activity values (OAV) and GC- Surface Nasal Impact Frequency (SNIF) analysis, while denuders were analyzed by ion chromatography. Results have been presented to stakeholders, including livestock producers, researchers, extension specialists, and students, in a number of group meetings and at national scientific conferences. Two manuscripts were submitted to journals. Research results were presented at various conferences and meetings, including the annual international meetings of the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers (ASABE), briefings with feedlot producers/managers and representatives of the Kansas Livestock Association (KLA), workshop/short course on Advances in Air Quality Science and Technology, and air quality workshop series for producers in Texas and Kansas. Research results were also published in refereed journals. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals who worked on the project (at least one person month) include the following: Dr. Ronaldo Maghirang, Principal Investigator/Project Director (Biological and Agricultural Engineering (BAE) Department, Kansas State University (KSU), Manhattan, KS); Dr. Steven Trabue (USDA-ARS, National Laboratory for Agriculture and the Environment, Ames, IA); Dr. Laura McConnell (USDA-ARS, Beltsville, MD); Dr. Kenwood Scoggins (USDA-ARS, National Laboratory for Agriculture and the Environment, Ames, IA); Edna Razote (research assistant, BAE Department, KSU, Manhattan, KS); Li Guo (graduate research assistant, BAE Department, KSU, Manhattan, KS); Henry Bonifacio (graduate research assistant, BAE Department, KSU, Manhattan, KS); and Howell Gonzales (graduate research assistant, BAE Department, KSU, Manhattan, KS). The project provided a training opportunity on air sampling and measurements for all the above participants. TARGET AUDIENCES: Target audiences include livestock producers, researchers, extension specialists, policy makers, and students. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: There is nothing significant to report during this reporting period.

Impacts
This project generated new knowledge on character and diurnal trends of PM and VOC concentrations at large cattle feedlots in Kansas. Results from field sampling indicate the following: (1) Downwind concentrations of TSP, PM-10, and PM-2.5 decreased exponentially with increasing pen surface water content (due to water sprinkling or to rainfall events); TSP exhibited the largest decrease followed by PM-10. A pen surface water content of at least 20% appears to be a critical threshold of PM control. (2) The equivalent aerodynamic geometric mean diameter (GMD) of PM downwind of feedlots was generally larger than 10 m, indicating that the feedlots generated relatively coarse particles. The laser diffraction analyzer and cascade impactor showed similar GMD values; the APS generally underestimated the GMD of particles. (3) Odorant concentrations had a diurnal pattern with peak concentrations during early morning and late evening periods. Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) were the most abundant of the major odorants. Odorants with concentrations above their odor threshold values at the feedlot included amines, VFAs, phenol compounds, and indole compounds. Key odorants at the feedlot were VFAs and phenol compounds, but their relative importance diminished with downwind distance. Indole compounds, while not the key odorants at the feedlot, increased in relative importance downwind of the feedlot. In general, the odorous compounds identified by GC-SNIF and OAV as having fecal/manure were similar. GC-SNIF was the more sensitive analytical technique; it identified several compounds that may have contributed to the unpleasantness of the cattle feedlot odor, but its throughput was extremely low limiting its usefulness. (4) In identifying key odorants, the GC-O technique had lower analytical sensitivity than Odor Activity Values (OAV). The combination of the two techniques would provide a more comprehensive analysis of odor associated with cattle feedlots.

Publications

  • Gonzales, H. 2010. Cattle feedlot dust Laser diffraction analysis of size distribution and estimation of emissions from unpaved roads and wind erosion. M.S. thesis. Manhattan, Kan.: Kansas State University.
  • Guo, L., R.G. Maghirang, E.B. Razote, S.L. Trabue, and L. McConnell. 2010. Concentration of particulate matter in large cattle feedlots in Kansas. For: Journal of Air & Waste Management (In review).
  • Trabue, S., K. Scoggins, L. McConnell, R.G. Maghirang, and J. Hatfield. 2010. Identifying and tracking key odorants from cattle feedlots. For: Atmospheric Environment (In review).


Progress 01/01/09 to 12/31/09

Outputs
OUTPUTS: Field sampling campaigns were conducted to measure concentrations of air quality parameters, including particulate matter (PM), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ammonia and amines, weather conditions and pen surface moisture content in two cattle feedlots in Kansas. The mass concentrations of various PM size fractions were measured with samplers for TSP (total suspended particulates), PM10 and PM2.5. Particle size distributions were measured with an aerodynamic particle sizer (APS) spectrometer, 8-stage cascade impactor and laser diffraction analyzer. Selected VOCs were monitored using the whole air sampling approach (i.e., evacuated canisters) and pre-concentration approach (i.e., portable gas samplers with sorbent tubes). Gas samplers and evacuated canisters were placed with PM samplers and dispersed throughout the feedlot and downwind. Identification and concentrations of the various VOCs trapped on sorbent tubes and in canisters were performed in the laboratory using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) techniques and key odors determined with GC-olfactometry (GC-O). Ammonia and amines were selectively captured using honeycomb denuders coated with citric acid; denuders were analyzed in laboratory using ion chromatography (IC) with conductivity detector. In addition, open path spectroscopy was used to quantify ammonia over integrated areas. Techniques using thermal extraction with humidified air onto sorbent tubes were developed for speciation of VOCs sorbed onto PM. Identification and concentration of VOCs were determined by GC-MS. The downwind concentrations of air quality parameters varied diurnally and seasonally. The concentrations of PM2.5, PM10 and TSP varied with weather conditions, and generally decreased with increasing pen surface moisture content; a pen surface moisture content of at least 20% appears to be a critical threshold for PM control. The PM2.5/PM10, PM2.5/TSP and PM10/TSP ratios at the downwind sampling location were generally less than those at the upwind location, indicating that the feedlots generate much larger particles compared with upwind areas. The equivalent aerodynamic geometric mean diameter of the PM was generally larger than 10 micrometers. Compared with the cascade impactor and laser diffraction analyzer, the APS spectrometer underestimated the particle size distribution. Odor assessment showed there were a number of compounds contributing to the manure odor, including volatile fatty acids (VFAs), phenol and indole compounds. The importance of VFAs diminished at downwind locations, and at distances of over 2 miles, indole was identified as the most important contributor to manure odor with some contribution from 4-methylphenol and 4-ethylphenol. Comparison of the GC-O technique, GC-SNIF, with odor activity values (OAV) showed that the GC-O technique had lower analytical sensitivity than OAV; however, the combination of the two techniques provides a more comprehensive analysis of odor associated with AFOs. Research results were presented at the USDA CSREES NRI Air Quality Program Project Directors' Meeting; professional conferences (ASABE, AWMA, ACS); and meetings with feedlot managers. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals who worked on the project (at least one person month) include the following: Dr. Ronaldo Maghirang, Principal Investigator/Project Director (Biological and Agricultural Engineering (BAE) Department, Kansas State University (KSU), Manhattan, KS); Dr. Steven Trabue (USDA-ARS, National Laboratory for Agriculture and the Environment, Ames, IA); Dr. Laura McConnell (USDA-ARS, Beltsville, MD); Dr. Kenwood Scoggins (USDA-ARS, National Laboratory for Agriculture and the Environment, Ames, IA); Edna Razote (research assistant, BAE Department, KSU, Manhattan, KS); Li Guo (graduate research assistant, BAE Department, KSU, Manhattan, KS); Henry Bonifacio (graduate research assistant, BAE Department, KSU, Manhattan, KS); and Howell Gonzales (graduate research assistant, BAE Department, KSU, Manhattan, KS). The project provided a training opportunity on air sampling and measurements for all the above participants. TARGET AUDIENCES: Target audiences include livestock producers, researchers, extension specialists, policy makers, and students. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.

Impacts
The methods developed and/or tested in this study (e.g., sampling and analysis of gaseous and particulate-phase VOCs) will be useful for future air emissions measurement and monitoring research for AFOs. The diurnal and seasonal variations in measured concentrations of air quality parameters indicate the need for multiple-day, seasonal sampling. The current focus of many studies only on emission rates of chemicals from AFOs will likely not provide the information necessary to solve downwind nuisance odor problems. The fate of these chemicals once they are released into the atmosphere must be considered and the detection threshold of chemicals relative to their concentrations can be used to prioritize odor reduction efforts and to evaluate the effectiveness of best management practices.

Publications

  • Guo, L., R.G. Maghirang, E.B. Razote, S. Trabue, L. McConnell, and H.F. Bonifacio. 2009. Concentrations and size distribution of particulate matter in large cattle feedlots. ASABE Paper No. 09-0022. St. Joseph, MI: ASABE.
  • Trabue, S.L., L.L. McConnell, and R.G. Maghirang. 2009. Distant odors: Identifying key odors associated with cattle feedlots. Proceedings of Air & Waste Management Association's Annual Conference & Exhibition, Detroit, Michigan, June 16-19, 2009. Paper No. 113.
  • Trabue, S.L., L.L. McConnell, R.G. Maghirang, and T. Sauer. 2009. Identifying key odorants off-site from animal feeding operations. The 238th ACS National Meeting, Washington, D.C., August 16-20, 2009.


Progress 01/01/08 to 12/31/08

Outputs
OUTPUTS: Experiments were conducted to measure air pollutant emissions, including particulate matter, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and ammonia and amines in two commercial cattle feedlots in Kansas. The mass concentrations of various particle size fractions were measured with federal reference method (FRM) samplers for TSP (total suspended particulates), PM10 (particulate matter with equivalent aerodynamic diameter of 10 micrometers or less), and PM2.5 (particulate matter with equivalent aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 micrometers or less). Particle size distributions were measured with an aerodynamic particle sizer (APS) spectrometer, cascade impactors, and a laser diffraction analyzer. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were monitored using whole air sampling approach (evacuated canisters) and pre-concentration approach (portable gas samplers with sorbent tubes). Gas samplers and evaluated canisters were placed with the various PM samplers and dispersed throughout the feedlot and location downwind from the livestock facility. Identification and concentrations of the various VOCs trapped on sorbent tubes and in canisters were performed in the laboratory using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) techniques and key odors determined with GC-olfactometry (GC-O). Ammonia and amines were selectively captured using honeycomb denuders coated with citric acid. Denuders were analyzed in the laboratory using ion chromatography (IC) with a conductivity detector. In addition, open path spectroscopy was used to quantify ammonia over integrated areas. Techniques using thermal extraction with humidified air onto sorbent tubes were developed for speciation of VOCs sorbed onto PM. Identification and concentration of VOCs were determined by GC-MS. Intensive sampling events were conducted on six separate occasions in 2008 for determining key compounds emitted from the feedlots. Other parameters that were measured include weather conditions and manure moisture content. Initial results of the project were presented at the USDA CSREES National Research Initiative Air Quality Program Project Directors' Meeting; the National Conference on Mitigating Air Emissions from Animal Feeding Operations; the U.S. EPA Farm, Ranch and Rural Communities Committee Tour (FRRCC); and, the Kansas Livestock Association Cattle Feeders Council Executive Committee meeting. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals who worked on the project (at least one person month) include the following: Dr. Ronaldo Maghirang, Kansas State University - Principal Investigator/Project Director; Dr. Joseph P. Harner, Professor, Kansas State University, Dr. William Hargrove, Director of KCARE, Kansas State University; Dr. Steven Trabue, USDA-ARS, National Soil Tilth Laboratory, Ames, IA; Dr. Laura McConnell, USDA-ARS, Beltsville, MD; Edna Razote, Research Assistant, Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, Kansas State University; Li Guo, Graduate Research Assistant, Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, Kansas State University; Henry Bonifacio, Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, Kansas State University; and Howell Gonzales, Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, Kansas State University. The project provided a training opportunity on air sampling and measurements for all the above participants. TARGET AUDIENCES: Target audiences include livestock producers, researchers, extension specialists, policy makers, and students. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Not relevant to this project.

Impacts
The project has developed and tested methods for sampling and analysis of VOCs (both gaseous and particulate-phase) and collected data on concentrations of VOCs, particulate matter of various size fractions (TSP, PM10, PM2.5), and particle size distribution. The methods developed and/or tested in this study (e.g., sampling and analysis of gaseous and particulate-phase VOCs) will be useful for future air emissions measurement and monitoring research for AFOs. The downwind concentrations of the air quality parameters of interest varied diurnally and seasonally, indicating the need for multiple-day, seasonal sampling. In general, PM concentrations were greatest during the early evening hours and during the period of May to November. The concentrations of TSP, PM10, and PM2.5 generally decreased with increasing moisture content of the feedlot pen surface. The PM2.5/PM10 and PM2.5/TSP ratios, on the other hand, tended to increase with increasing moisture content of the pen surface, suggesting that water sprinkling and/or precipitation result in more effective removal and/or smaller emission of the larger particles. Measurement of the particle size distribution with micro-orifice uniform deposit impactor showed that the equivalent aerodynamic geometric mean diameter of the PM was generally larger than 10 micrometers. Compared with the cascade impactor, the aerodynamic particle sizer spectrometer tended to underestimate the particle size distribution. Profiles of the VOCs emitted from the cattle feedlots were similar across sampling events. Key compounds determined by thermal desorption included volatile fatty acids (VFAs), carbonyl compounds, phenols, and indole compounds. Air samples collected in the evenings approximately 0.25 miles north of large feed lot had 33 odorous compounds identified by two or more panelist (10 total) of which 26 were described in negative terms and 12 described having manure odor. Air samples collected during the evening 2-4 miles north of major feedlots had 33 odorous compounds described of which 18 were described in negative terms and 8 identified as having manure characteristics. Compounds associated with manure odor included volatile fatty acids, phenol compounds and indole compounds. Concentrations of volatile fatty acids collected from the edge of the feedlot decreased by 85% and 99% of initial concentration 0.25 and 4 miles north of the facility. Concentrations of phenolic compounds decreased by 90% and 96%, respectively, while concentrations of indole compounds decreased by 50% for samples collected at 0.25 and 4 miles north of the feedlot. It is interesting to note that the ratio of indole to 4-methylphenol increases with distance with almost parity occurring at distances longer than 2 miles. In addition, several heterocyclic compounds pyroles, oxzole, pyrazine and imidazol were described as having pungent odor often described as either earthy/musty or as an insect. Compounds detected on the PM samples included many of the same VOCs detected in the vapor phase. In addition, a large number of fatty acids not normally associated with the vapor phase were detected on the PM samples.

Publications

  • No publications reported this period


Progress 01/01/07 to 12/31/07

Outputs
OUTPUTS: Experiments were conducted to measure air pollutant emissions, including particulate matter, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and ammonia and amines in two commercial cattle feedlots in Kansas. The mass concentrations of various particle size fractions were measured with federal reference method (FRM) samplers for TSP (total suspended particulates), PM10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter of 10 micrometers or less), PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 micrometers or less). Particle size distributions were measured with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS), an aerodynamic particle sizer (APS), and cascade impactors. Volatile organic compounds (VOC) were monitored using a whole air sampling approach (evacuated canisters) and pre-concentration approach (portable gas samplers with sorbent tubes). Gas samplers and evaluated canisters were placed with the various PM samplers and dispersed throughout the feedlot and location downwind from the livestock facility. Identification and concentrations of the various organic compounds trapped on sorbent tubes and in canisters were performed in the laboratory using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) techniques. Ammonia and amines were selectively captured using honeycomb denuders coated with citric acid. Denuders were analyzed in the laboratory using ion chromatography (IC) with a conductivity detector. Techniques using thermal extraction with humidified air onto sorbent tubes were developed for speciation of VOC sorbed onto PM. Identification and concentration were determined by GC-MS. Intensive sampling events were conducted on six separate occasions for determining key compounds emitted from feedlots. Other parameters that were measured include weather conditions and manure moisture content. Initial results of this project were presented at the Congressional Assistants' Tour and at the Environmental Engineering Seminar at Kansas State University. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals who worked on the project (at least one person per month) include the following: Dr. Ronaldo Maghirang, Kansas State University - Principal Investigator/Project Director; Dr. Steven Trabue, USDA-ARS, National Soil Tilth Laboratory, Ames, IA; Dr. Laura McConnell, USDA-ARS, Beltsville, MD; Edna Razote, Research Assistant, Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, Kansas State University and; Li Guo, Graduate Research Assistant, Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, Kansas State University. The project provided a training opportunity on air sampling and measurements for all the above participants. TARGET AUDIENCES: Target audiences include livestock producers, researchers, extension specialists, policy makers, and students.

Impacts
Field measurements showed that the concentrations of TSP, PM10, and PM2.5 varied considerably with time. In general, concentrations were greatest during the early evening hours when there was marked increase in the observable cattle activity and more stable atmospheric conditions, particularly in the summer months. Increasing moisture content of the pen surfaces either due to sprinkler water application or rainfall significantly reduced the PM concentrations. Profiles of the VOC emitted from cattle feedlots were similar across sampling dates. Key compounds determined by thermal desorption included volatile fatty acids, carbonyl compounds, phenols, and indole compounds. In canisters, the VOC profile was different compared to sorbent tubes. Canister sampling tended to capture alcohols. During the summer, concentrations of VOCs in air tended to decrease during the warmest periods of the day and increased during stable atmospheric conditions.

Publications

  • No publications reported this period