Source: UNIVERSITY OF NEBRASKA submitted to
GENETIC IMPROVEMENT OF DRY EDIBLE BEANS (PHASEOLUS VULGARIS L.)
Sponsoring Institution
National Institute of Food and Agriculture
Project Status
TERMINATED
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
0209049
Grant No.
(N/A)
Project No.
NEB-43-103
Proposal No.
(N/A)
Multistate No.
(N/A)
Program Code
(N/A)
Project Start Date
Nov 1, 2006
Project End Date
Oct 31, 2011
Grant Year
(N/A)
Project Director
Urrea, C. A.
Recipient Organization
UNIVERSITY OF NEBRASKA
(N/A)
LINCOLN,NE 68583
Performing Department
PANHANDLE RES & EXTENSION CNTR
Non Technical Summary
Nebraska is third in US dry edible bean production, accounting for 14.0% of the U.S. crop during 2005 (USDA, 2005). A total of 175,000 acres were planted to dry edible beans in Nebraska in 2005. In 2005, the University of Nebraska Lincoln (UNL) dry bean breeding position was moved from Lincoln to the Panhandle Research and Extension Center, Scottsbluff, as the Nebraska Dry Bean Industry and the Nebraska Growers Association requested. The reason was that dry bean production is located in western Nebraska, though scattered across 26 counties, with 11 counties in the North Platte River Valley of the Panhandle accounting for the largest share of the crop (USDA, 2005). The UNL dry bean breeding program has been very active in the past, providing germplasm and cultivars to the private and public bean industry. The development of improved varieties and germplasm with high yield potential, disease resistance, efficiency under low soil-water conditions, and seed quality has to be continued in order to maintain market competitiveness for the Nebraska bean industry. This project is unique since Nebraska multiple disease resistance (common bacterial blight and rust) germplasm previously handled by Dr. Dermont Coyne (deceased) will be used in combination with germplasm from exotic tropical and different USA breeding programs. This project will improve yield, disease resistance, and drought tolerance in dry beans using conventional breeding as well as marker assisted selection through molecular DNA markers.
Animal Health Component
50%
Research Effort Categories
Basic
50%
Applied
50%
Developmental
(N/A)
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
2011410108060%
2021410108010%
2031410108010%
2121410108010%
2161410108010%
Goals / Objectives
The objectives are: 1) Develop improved high-yielding great northern and pinto bean cultivars/germplasm for western Nebraska with multiple disease resistance to rust, common bacterial blight, bean common mosaic virus, and white mold; with upright plant architecture type, less than 95 days from planting to harvesting, and high-quality seed; 2) Use marker assisted selection to identify lines with resistance to the most limiting dry bean diseases in western Nebraska, such as common bacterial blight, bean common mosaic virus, rust, and white mold, and develop of new DNA markers linked to the genes that provide resistance to these diseases; and 3) Screen and identify elite exotic tropical dry bean lines for drought tolerance and introgression into the Nebraska elite germplasm; and identify QTLs for drought tolerance in dry beans using molecular DNA markers.
Project Methods
The pedigree and modified bulk breeding method will be used in multiple and single cross, respectively. In year 1 (2005-2006), elite adapted Nebraska great northern and pinto lines will be crossed to several sources of germplasm possessing disease resistance and good agronomic traits identified in 2005. The F1 will be advanced to F2 in 2006 at the PHREC-Scottsbluff greenhouse. Individual plant selection will be done considering plant architecture, disease resistance, earliness, seed quality, and plant appearance in case of multiple crosses. The selected F2:3 lines from individual F2 plant selections will be planted in an off-season winter nursery. In year 2 (2007), the selected F2:4 lines individual plant selections from multiple crosses will be bulked individually for further testing in early replicated trials in at least two locations at the PHREC-Scottsbluff and Mitchell, and tested to CBB at North Platte, NE. In year 3 (2008), twenty four to thirty plants from each of the F4:5 lines will be grown in plant-to-progeny rows, and uniformity for agronomics and disease resistance will be evaluated. The most uniform rows for the above traits within each line will be bulked in 2008 and used as the breeder seed for further testing. The individual plants will be tested in the greenhouse for the most limiting Nebraska diseases before bulking. The lines will be increased in an off-season winter nursery. In year 4 (2009), the elite lines will be increased for further evaluation in regional (Mid-West Regional Performance Nursery, Western Regional Bean Trial), and national (Cooperative Dry Bean Nursery) yield trials. Processing and canning qualities will be assessed before release as new cultivars. In year 5 (2010), the seed of the elite lines will be passed to the University of Nebraska Foundation Seed. Plant variety protection for each cultivar or germplasm will be sought. Molecular DNA markers will be used to incorporate and pyramid disease resistance into the commercial great northern and pinto beans through all breeding generations. For the drought component, exotic tropical germplasm from CIAT, 151 Phaseolus acutifolius accessions from the National Plant Germplasm System, and drought tolerant germplasm from different USA dry breeding programs will be evaluated under irrigated, limited irrigation, and non-irrigated conditions. Soil water content will be measured using neutron activation on a weekly basis and daily rainfall during the growing season to determine evapotranspiration for different soil moisture regimes. In addition to seed yield, data will be recorded for 100-seed weight, and number of days to flowering and maturity. Drought intensity index, drought susceptibility index, and geometric mean will be calculated. Tropical germplasm being identified in Scottsbluff, NE during 2006 will be crossed to elite USA breeding lines, and a mapping population will be developed. Recombinant Inbred Lines will be developed through single seed descent and evaluated in replicated trials. A marker system will be used to evaluate extreme segregates in bulks in order to try to identify some markers.

Progress 11/01/06 to 10/31/11

Outputs
OUTPUTS: Seven advanced great northern and 5 pinto lines were planted in ten growers' fields in a Mother and baby trial scheme. About 755 lines within different market classes were compared to current cultivars grown in Nebraska in replicated trials at Mitchell and Scottsbluff, NE in 2011. Ninety three tropical germplasm from the International center for tropical Agriculture (CIAT) were evaluated in observation nurseries under terminal drought conditions. Exotic tropical germplasm from CIAT and from a shuttle breeding program between Puerto Rico and Nebraska were introgressed into elite Nebraska lines. Ninety-one populations (great northern, pinto, light red kidney, cranberry, small red, and black) were advanced from F1 to F2. About 2,500 individual F2:3 plant selections were made. About 345 early generation lines from the shuttle breeding between Puerto Rico and Nebraska were tested under terminal drought. About 345 RILs from Buster/SER22 were tested under non-irrigated and irrigated plots at Mitchell, NE. Irrigation was stopped at flowering stage. I participated in the Bean-CAP trials. Lines from the Middle America, Andean, and Durango/Jalisco were tested in replicated trials under normal conditions. A set of 100 BeanCAP lines of the gene pools mentioned before were tested under terminal drought stress. Elite lines were fingerprinted to several SCAR markers for multiple disease resistance. I participated in the Mid-west Regional Performance Nursery (MRPN), Western Regional Bean Trial (WRBT-coordinator), and the Cooperative Dry Bean Nursery (CDBN) trials. Results of 2010 research findings were published in local newspaper articles and the Nebraska Bean Bag. Results were also discussed during the Nebraska Dry Bean Growers Association bean days on January and on August 2011. The dry bean web-page http://panhandle.unl.edu/web/panhandleerec/drybeans is being updated. Dry bean annual reports are posted in the breeding section. PARTICIPANTS: James R. Steadman, Pamela Pena (graduate student) and Serena McCoy from the University Of Nebraska-Lincoln; and Robert M. Harveson, John Smith, C. dean Yonts, James Schild, and John Thomas from the UNL Panhandle Research and extension Center, Scottsbluff, NE participated in the project. Phil N. Miklas, Shree P. Singh, Juan M. Osorno, Mark brick, and James Kelly participated in the project through sharing their germplasm in the regional bean trials (2011 MRPN and WRBT). Marcial A. Pastor Corrales tested the advanced and intermediate great northern and pinto lines for bean common rust at Beltsville, MD. Timothy Porch shared drought tolerant germplasm through the shuttle breeding between Puerto Rico and Nebraska Steve Beebe from CIAT shared germplasm with high iron content and drought tolerance. Daniel Debouck from CIAT shared the CIAT's dry bean collection. Jeremy Davison, Seeds Down Under at New Zealand and Ed Baumgartner, 3rd Millenium Genetics at Santa Isabel, PR for helping with the winter nurseries. TARGET AUDIENCES: Dry bean producers in eastern Colorado and western Nebraska and across the USA would have bean varieties with multiple disease resistance and access to drought/heat to reduce production costs and increase net income. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period. The molecular DNA work of the drought mapping population will be completed in the next period.

Impacts
Newly released great northern variety 'Coyne' performed well in 2011. Growers commented that Coyne had significantly less bacterial diseases, no bean common rust, larger and better seed quality, and ripened uniformly. Seed increase of `Coyne' is under way in Idaho with projected expansion of Coyne acres in 2012. Coyne generated a gross income of 2.3 million dollars in 2011. Royalty fees will come back to the UNL bean breeding program. There was a direct cost of savings of $450,000 to growers because of reduced use of chemicals. New UNL lines showed bean common rust and common bacterial blight resistance. The use of chemical will be minimized favoring the environment and reducing costs of production. Several exotic tropical germplasm showing good performance under drought conditions are helping to broaden the genetic base of Nebraska germplasm through hybridization. Early generation individual plant selections are showing excellent seed quality as well as good agronomics (plant architecture, earliness, and multiple disease resistance). The chance of selecting superior genotypes is being increased. Use of markers Assisted Selection has enhanced the efficiency of the breeding program in saving time and resources. The shuttle breeding program between Puerto Rico and Nebraska has expedited selection for multiple stress tolerance (drought/heat) and multiple disease resistance (common blight and rhizoctonia root rot). Two lines were released as germplasm in 2011 and will benefit the Nebraska and USA bean breeding programs. Nebraska bean growers are exposed to the elite lines and facilitate the adoption of new lines. The web-page, local newspapers and the Bean Bag are a good source of communication with the Nebraska bean industry.

Publications

  • Pastor-Corrales, M.A., J.R. Steadman, C.A. Urrea, M.W. Blair, and J.P. Venegas. 2011. The domesticated tepary bean accession G40022 has broader resistance to the highly variable bean Annu. Rept. Bean Improv. Coop. 54: 154-155.
  • Schlegel, V., C. Urrea, S. German, and R. Zbasnik. 2011. Cooking and storage effects on the antioxidant components in whole and split great northern beans. The Bean Bag. 29(3): 16.
  • Urrea, C.A. 2011. UNL dry bean breeding program. The Bean Bag. 29(4): 2.
  • Franzen-Castle, L., and C.A. Urrea. 2011. Dry beans: not musical, not a fruit, but nearly a magic fruit. The StarHerald, Scottsbluff, NE. Page 1. January 12, 2011.
  • Harveson, R.M., and C.A. Urrea. 2011. A two-year survey to determine the prevalence and distribution of bacterial diseases in Nebraska dry bean production fields. The StarHerald, Scottsbluff, NE. Pages 1 & 2. January 16, 2011.
  • Harveson, R.M., and C.A. Urrea 2011. Conducting a field survey for determining the prevalence and distribution of bacterial diseases in Nebraska dry bean production fields. The Bean Bag. 29(2): 5-6.
  • Harveson, R.M., C.A. Urrea, and H.F. Schwartz, 2011. Abiotic diseases of dry beans. NebGuide EC1866, University of Nebraska, Lincoln. 12 p.
  • Linares, A.M., C. A. Urrea, T.G. Porch, and J.M. Osorno. 2011. A mapping population for the evaluation of severe drought tolerance in dry bean. BIC meeting, San Juan, PR. Poster 27.
  • Urrea, C.A., C.D. Yonts, and J. Smith. 2011. Improving dry bean production systems under limited irrigation by integrating variety drought tolerance, soil water based irrigation scheduling, and alleviation of soil compaction. 2011. Annu. Rept. Bean Improv. Coop. 54: 156-157.
  • Urrea, C.A, V. Schlegel, C. D. Yonts, and J. Smith. 2011. Effect of soil compaction and irrigation management on antioxidants in dry bean production. BIC meeting, San Juan, PR. Poster 42.
  • Urrea, C.A., and J. Thomas. 2011. 2010 mother and baby trial results. The StarHerald, Scottsbluff, NE. Page 2. January 9, 2011.
  • Urrea, C.A., and J. Thomas. 2011. Breeding great northern, pinto, and light red kidney beans for multiple disease resistance with high performance in western Nebraska. The StarHerald, Scottsbluff, NE. Page 1 & 2. May 29, 2011.
  • Urrea, C.A, and J. Thomas. 2010. 2010 mother and baby trial results. The Bean Bag. 28(5): 8 & 11.
  • Osorno, J.M., J.D. Kelly, M. Brick, C.A. Urrea, J. Garden-Robinson, and P. McClean. 2011. Early recruitment of the next generation of plant breeders: The BeanCAP. National Association of Plant Breeders, Texas AM. Poster.
  • Osorno, J.M., M.R. Miles, J. Weyers, J. Prendergast, J.D. Kelly, G. Varner, M. Siddiq, C.A. Urrea, K. Cichy, and A.M. Linares. 2011. Genetic and environmental effects of canning quality of pinto and navy bean cultivars commonly grown in the Central U.S. BIC meeting, San Juan, PR. Poster 11.


Progress 10/01/09 to 09/30/10

Outputs
OUTPUTS: Seven advanced lines, 4 great northern and 3 pinto lines, were planted in ten growers' fields in a Mother and Baby trial scheme. Advanced lines were compared to current cultivars grown in Nebraska. In regional trials conducted at Hatton, ND; Mitchell, NE; Frankenmuth, MI; and Fort Collins, CO; NE1-08-29 and NE1-06-11 were the top yielders, with a yield of 2,460 and 2,430 lbs/ac, respectively. In another regional trial conducted at Othello and Prosser; WA, Fort Collins, CO; and Mitchell, NE; Coyne had the highest yield of 2,257 lbs/ac. About 855 lines in different stages of breeding were tested in replicated trials at Scottsbluff and Mitchell, NE. Two-hundred and ninety three tropical germplasm from the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) were evaluated in observation nurseries. Beans with drought and heat tolerance, common blight resistance, and high iron content are being introgressed into elite NE germplasm. Ninety-nine new populations (great northern, pinto, light red kidney, cranberry, reds, and black) were advanced from F1 to F2 through selfing. About 3,600 individual F2:3 plant selections were made in 2010. Fifty-three and 156, advanced and early generation lines, respectively, from the shuttle breeding between Puerto Rico, and 300 RILs from Buster/SER22 were tested under irrigated and non-irrigated conditions in replicated trials. Irrigation was stopped at flowering stage. Elite and advanced lines were "fingerprinted" to identify whether the markers for resistance to common bacterial blight (SAP6, SU91), common rust (Ur3, Ur6, and Ur11), and bean common mosaic virus (SK14 and SBC-16) were present. A unique bean rust resistance gene from an interspecific cross has been identified and is being mapped. Results of 2009 research findings were published in newspaper articles and the Bean Bag. Results were also discussed during the Nebraska Dry Bean Growers Association Bean Day. In early February, I discussed with growers about other market class opportunities. The dry bean web-page http://panhandle.unl.edu/web/panhandlerec/drybeans) is in place. Dry bean annual reports are posted in the dry bean breeding section. As Western Regional Bean Trial coordinator, I compiled and summarized data (ID, WA, CO, and NE). I am participant of the Mid-west Regional Performance Nursery and the Cooperative Dry Bean Nursery (CDBN). I am W-1150 multi-state project participant contributing on drought studies and coauthored documents for the successful renewal of a project approved as W-2150 for November 2010 to November 2015. I am member of the Phaseolus Crop Germplasm and Bean Genetics Committees. PARTICIPANTS: James R. Steadman, Pamela Pena (graduate student), and Serena McCoy from the University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Robert M. Harveson, C. Dean Yonts, John Smith, James Schild and John Thomas from the UNL Panhandle Research and Extension Center, Scottsbluff, NE participated in the project. James Beaver helped in the winter nursery. About 1095 intermediate lines were increased in 2009. Tim Porch shared drought-tolerant germplasm. A drought shuttle breeding program between Puerto Rico and Nebraska is in place. M.A Pastor-Corrales tested the advanced and intermediate great northern and pinto Nebraska lines for rust resistance in Beltsville, MD. Phil N. Miklas, Shree P. Singh, Juan M. Osorno, Mark Brick, and James Kelly participated in the project through sharing their germplasm in the regional bean trials (2010 MRPN and WRBT). TARGET AUDIENCES: A progress report on new dry bean varieties was presented to the Nebraska Dry Bean Growers Association during their Bean Day on January 12, 2010. Two hundred and fifty bean growers attended the meeting. Information about new great northern and pinto bean lines developed by the University of Nebraska, exploring new dry bean market class opportunities for western Nebraska, and effect of soil compaction irrigation in dry bean production were presented to the Nebraska Dry Bean Growers Association during their field day on August 17, 2010. One hundred and fifty bean growers attended the field day. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.

Impacts
Great northern 'Coyne' released in 2008 continued performing well in 2010. It is resistant to common blight and bean common rust. Foundation seed increase is under way. Coyne will generate a gross income of 2.3 million dollars in 2011. Royalty fees will come back to the program. There will be a direct cost savings of $ 450,000 to growers because of reduced use of chemicals. New UNL lines showed bean common rust and common blight resistance. Current cultivars are susceptible. A potential release of a pinto line is being discussed with growers. This line has multiple disease resistance, upright plant architecture, and good seed quality. It will minimize the use of chemicals and favor the environment. Several exotic germplasm are showing potential under NE growing conditions. These germplasm will broad on NE dry bean genetic basis. Individual plant selections are showing excellent seed quality as well as good agronomics (plant architecture, earliness, and disease resistance). Chances of selecting superior genotypes will be increased. This will benefit NE dry bean industry. Use of MAS enhances the efficiency of the breeding program, saving time and money. Germplasm having the resistance markers can be quickly identified and used to breed resistance genes into elite lines. The shuttle breeding program between PR and NE expedites selection for multiple stress limiting traits at the same time. Four bean lines with drought and heat tolerance and common blight and root resistance are being released in 2010. These lines will benefit the Nebraska and USA bean industry as sources of multiple traits. Nebraska bean growers are exposed to new UNL bean lines. The web-page is a good source of communication with the dry bean industry.

Publications

  • Thomas, J.A., C.A. Urrea, R.M. Harveson, and K. Nielsen. 2010. Identification of sources of bacterial wilt resistance in dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Annu. Rept. Bean Improv. Coop. 53:130-131.
  • Urrea, C.A., and T. Porch. 2010. Phenotypic evaluation of a subset of the Phaseolus vulgaris core collections, the P. acutifolius germplasm collection, and cultivars for drought tolerance in Nebraska and Puerto Rico. Annu. Rept. Bean Improv. Coop. 53:164-165.
  • Pena, P.A., J.R. Steadman, and C.A. Urrea. 2010. Rhizoctonia root rot protocol for dry bean. In Bean root rot evaluation protocols. http://www.css.msu.edu/bic/PDF/Bean_Root_Rots.pdf.
  • Harveson, R.M., and C.A. Urrea. 2010. Evaluating copper sprays for managing bacterial wilt in dry beans. The Bean Bag 28(2): 9 & 12.
  • Harveson, R.M., and C.A. Urrea. 2010. Developing new varieties with resistance to bacterial brown spot for Nebraska dry bean production. The Bean Bag 28(2): 15.
  • Urrea, C.A. 2010. Dry bean breeding program. p.32-33. In D. Ostdiek, B. Harveson, D. Yonts, B. Wilson, and T. Holman (eds.) A century of change and progress in service to western Nebraska. University of Nebraska Lincoln, Panhandle Research and Extension Center 1910-2010.
  • Urrea, C.A. 2010. Dry bean breeding research thrives in Panhandle. StarHerald. May 30, page 2-3.
  • Schild, J.. B. Hawley, and C. Urrea. 2010. 2009 dry edible bean variety trials, Scottsbluff and Mitchell Ag Labs. The Bean Bag 27(3):13, 15, 16, & 20.
  • Pena, P.A., C.A. Urrea, and J.R. Steadman. 2010. Root rot caused by Rhizoctonia solani in dry beans. StarHerald. May 30, page 2.
  • Harveson, R.M., and C.A. Urrea 2010. Developing dry bean resistance to bacterial brown spot. StarHerald. May 30, page 4.
  • Urrea, C.A., J. Thomas, J.R. Steadman, R.M. Harveson, and K. Nielsen. 2010. Breeding great northern, pinto, and light red kidney beans for multiple disease resistance with high performance in western Nebraska. StarHerald. May 30, page 4-5.
  • Urrea, C.A., and J. Thomas. 2010. 2009 mother and baby trial results. StarHerald. April 11, page 2.
  • Harveson, R.M., and C.A. Urrea. 2010. Evaluating germplasm and breeding disease resistance for chickpeas and dry beans in western Nebraska. StarHerald. April 4, page 2.
  • Urrea, C.A. 2010. Nebraska Dry Bean Breeding Program. Workshop on 'Improving tolerance of common bean to abiotic stresses'. CIAT, Palmira, Colombia. November 2-4, 2010.
  • Harveson, R.M., J.R. Steadman, and C.A. Urrea. 2010. Integrating planting dates and fungicide applications for managing white mold of dry beans in western Nebraska. Plant Health Progress. doi:10.1094/PHP-2010-0701-02-RS.
  • Urrea, C.A., C.D. Yonts, and J. Smith. 2010. Effect of soil compaction and irrigation management in dry bean production. Annu. Rept. Bean Improv. Coop. 53:14-15.


Progress 10/01/08 to 09/30/09

Outputs
OUTPUTS: Tropical germplasm from the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) were evaluated in observation nurseries. Beans resistant to low fertility, drought and heat, common blight, and high iron content Genes for drought and heat tolerance, bacterial wilt resistance, and common bacterial wilt resistance are being introgressed into elite NE germplasm. High seed quality germplasm is considered as well. About 100 new populations were advanced from F1 to F2 through selfing. About 2,500 individual F2:3 plant selections were made in 2009. Thirty-one light red kidney and cranberry populations were advanced from F1 to F2. About 50 individual plant selections were made within each population based on characteristics described above. Small black and red beans were also advanced to F2. Great northern and pinto lines are also being developed. 102 lines from the shuttle breeding and 35 lines including germplasm from the shuttle breeding selected from last year were tested under irrigated and non-irrigated conditions in replicated trials. Irrigation was stopped at flowering stage. Nine advanced lines, 5 great northern and 4 pinto lines, were planted in nine growers' fields in a Mother and Baby trial scheme. Advanced lines are compared to current cultivars grown in Nebraska. I used MAS extensively to incorporate disease resistance into elite great northern and pinto bean lines. Each line was "fingerprinted" to identify whether the markers for resistance to common bacterial blight (SAP6, SU91), rust (Ur3, Ur6, and Ur11), and bean common mosaic virus (SK14 and SBC-16) were present. Most of the lines have the markers. One of CIAT's drought mapping populations composed of 103 RILs was evaluated for drought tolerance. 600 recombinant inbred lines from two drought mapping populations were advanced from F3 to F4 generation. Results of 2008 research findings were published in newspaper articles and the Bean Bag. Results were also discussed during the Nebraska Dry Bean Growers Association day. In early February, we discussed with growers other market class opportunities. The dry bean web-page (http://panhandle.unl.edu/web/panhandlerec/drybeans) is in place. Dry bean annual reports are posted in the dry bean breeding section. Western Regional Bean Trial coordinator: compiled and summarized data (ID, WA, CO, and NE). Mid-west Regional Performance Nursery participant. W-1150 multi -state project participant contributing on drought studies. Prepared minutes for the W-1150 project in 2009. Phaseolus Crop Germplasm Committee (PCGC) member. Bean Genetics Committee member. PARTICIPANTS: James R. Steadman, Pamela Pena (graduate student), and Serena McCoy from the University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Robert M. Harveson, C. Dean Yonts, John Smith, James Schild and John Thomas from the UNL Panhandle Research and Extension Center, Scottsbluff, NE participated in the project. James Beaver helped in the winter nursery. About 1003 intermediate great northern and pinto lines were increased in 2008. Tim Porch shared drought-tolerant germplasm. A drought shuttle breeding program between Puerto Rico and Nebraska is in place. M.A Pastor-Corrales tested the advanced and intermediate great northern and pinto Nebraska lines for rust resistance in Beltsville, MD. Phil N. Miklas, Shree P. Singh, Juan M. Osorno, Mark Brick, and James Kelly participated in the project through sharing their germplasm in the regional bean trials (2008 MRPN and WRBT). TARGET AUDIENCES: A progress report on new dry bean varieties was presented to the Nebraska Dry Bean Growers Association during their Bean Day on January 13, 2009. Three hundred and fifty bean growers attended the meeting. Information about new great northern and pinto bean lines developed by the University of Nebraska, exploring new dry bean market class opportunities for western Nebraska, and effect of soil compaction irrigation in dry bean production were presented to the Nebraska Dry Bean Growers Association during their field day on August 18, 2009. One hundred and fifty bean growers attended the field day. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.

Impacts
Several exotic germplasm are showing potential under NE growing conditions. These germplasm will broad on NE dry bean genetic basis. Individual plant selections are showing excellent seed quality as well as good agronomics (plant architecture, earliness, and disease resistance). Chances of selecting superior genotypes will be increased. This will benefit NE dry bean industry. Light red kidney's have the potential to be a great component of the NE dry bean industry. Its price is higher compared to the other market classes. Use of MAS enhances the efficiency of the breeding program, saving time and money. Germplasm having the resistance markers can be quickly identified and used to breed resistance genes into elite lines. Using this approach, my program identified a new bean common rust marker from Phaseolus acutifolius, the first such marker reported from a Phaseolus species. This gene is being mapped. Several lines within different market classes are performing well under irrigated and non-irrigated conditions. They'll be released as a germplasm in conjunction with USDA-ARS, PR. In addition to drought tolerance, some of the lines have heat tolerance, common blight and root rot resistance. These lines will benefit the dry bean community. Two of the drought mapping lines developed in Nebraska are showing high variability and responded well to drought stress. The RILs will be advanced two more generations in Puerto Rico before drought tolerance phenotyping. The shuttle breeding program between PR and NE expedites progress because two generations are evaluated in one year. Most lines carry drought (evaluated at UNL) and heat (evaluated at USDA-TARS) tolerance. These collaborative efforts benefit both UNL's and USDA-TARS' breeding programs and promote professional exchanges. Growers decided what other market class cultivars to be planted besides great northerns. More blacks, reds, and pinto beans were planted in 2009. GN 'Coyne' released in 2008 continues performing well. It's resistant to common blight and bean common rust. Foundation seed increase is under way. New UNL lines showed bean common rust and common blight resistance. Current cultivars are susceptible. A potential release of a pinto line was discussed with growers. This line has multiple disease resistance, upright plant architecture, and good seed quality. It will minimize the use of chemicals and favor the environment. Growers are exposed to new UNL bean lines. The web-page will be a good source of communication with the dry bean industry.

Publications

  • Urrea, C.A., C.D. Yonts, D.J. Lyon, and A.E. Koehler. 2009. Selection for drought resistance in dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) derived from the Mesoamerican gene pool in western Nebraska. Crop Sci. 49(6):2005-2010.
  • Urrea, C.A., J. Steadman, M. Pastor-Corrales, D. Lindgren, and J.P. Venegas. 2009. Registration of great northern common bean cultivar `Coyne' with enhanced disease resistance to common bacterial blight and bean rust. J. of Plant Reg. 3:1-4.
  • Urrea, C.A., and T.Porch. 2009. Phenotypic evaluation of a subset of the Phaseolus vulgaris core collections and the P. acutifolius. Annu. Rept. Bean Improv. Coop. 52: 104-105.
  • Schild, J., B. Hawley, and C. Urrea. 2009. 2008 dry edible variety trials, Scottsbluff and Mitchell Ag Labs. The Bean Bag 27(1): 6, 11, 12, 14, and 15.
  • Urrea, C.A., C. Dean Yonts, D.L. Lyon, and A. E. Koehler. 2009. Selection for drought tolerance in dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) derived from Mesoamerican race in western Nebraska. The Bean Bag 27(1): 18 and 21.
  • Urrea, C.A. 2009. 2008 Mother and baby trials. The Bean Bag 27(1): 21.
  • Urrea, C.A., J.R. Steadman, and A. Koehler. 2009. 2008 Mother and baby results revealed. Star-Herald. Jan 18: 1-2.
  • Urrea, C.A. 2009. Drought tolerant seeds: what's the future. Star-Herald. April 19: 1.
  • Urrea, C..A., C. Dean Yonts, J. Smith, and A. Koehler. 2009. Beans in limited irrigation, compaction studies under way. Star-Herald. May 31:1 and 4.
  • Urrea, C.A., J.R. Steadman, D.T. Lindgren, and R.M. Harveson. 2009. Multiple disease resistance, high performance, exotic dry bean germplasm the goal in western dry bean research. Star-Herald June 7: 2.
  • Urrea, C.A., C. Dean Yonts, and J. Smith, 2009. Effect of soil compaction and irrigation in dry bean production. The Bean Improv. Coop. O-07: 20.
  • Thomas, J.A., C.A. Urrea, R.M. Harveson, and K. Nielsen 2009. Identification of sources of bacterial wilt resistance in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). The Bean Improv. Coop. P-36: 44.


Progress 10/01/07 to 09/30/08

Outputs
OUTPUTS: UNL-ARD has approved the release of a new great northern cultivar, NE1-06-12, that will be marketed as 'Coyne'. NE1-06-12 has intermediate reaction to common bacterial blight, two genes for bean rust resistance (Ur-3 and Ur-6), and carries the single dominant hypersensitive I gene that provides resistance to all non-necrotic strains of the Bean common mosaic virus. Yield has been stable at about 45 bu/a. It had a slighter higher yield (160 lbs) than Marquis. Six mother trials were planted in Box Butte, Morrill, and Scotts Bluff counties. In these trials, the elite lines (mothers) were planted in the grower's field and compared to the current cultivar (reference) grown at that farm. Eighty F2 segregant populations were developed in 2008. I used MAS extensively to incorporate disease resistance into elite great northern and pinto bean lines. Each line was "fingerprinted" to identify whether the markers for resistance to common bacterial blight (SAP6, SU91), rust (Ur3, Ur6, and Ur11), and bean common mosaic virus (SK14 and SBC-16) were present. Most of the lines have the markers. Advanced (49) and intermediate (637) lines were evaluated for yield, seed quality and disease resistance (common bacterial blight, Bean common mosaic virus, rust, and white mold). Four hundred genotypes (elite + P. vulgaris + P. acutifolius) were evaluated in adjacent drought-stressed and non-stressed blocks at the PHREC-Mitchell. I continued a shuttle breeding program between USDA-TARS Puerto Rico and UNL. Most of the lines (320) showed good agronomic performance. Yield data are being analyzed. Ten drought mapping populations were formed. Based on drought trials conducted during 2005-2007, the genotypes Matterhorn, Beryl, and SER 22 were selected as drought resistant parents. Four hundred twenty-four accessions from the National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) collection of common beans and currently grown great northern cultivars and lines were screened for resistance to a virulent bacterial wilt isolate from a Nebraska great northern field. Rhizoctonia solani isolates causing root and crown rot of dry beans in western Nebraska were characterized. Phenotypic resistance to bean common rust, common bacterial blight, and root and crown rot was studied in cultivated and wild P. vulgaris, P. parvifolius, and P. acutifolius var. acutifolius accessions. I also coordinated the Western Regional Bean Trial (WRBT). Results have been disseminated through the Nebraska Bean Day, and Nebraska Field Days held by the Nebraska Dry Bean growers Association in January and August 2008. A total of 480 growers attended both meetings. Results of the dry bean variety trials are also posted in our http://varietytest.unl.edu web page. The Panhandle dry bean web page is also updated frequently: http://www.panhandle.unl.edu/drybeans. PARTICIPANTS: James R. Steadman from the University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Robert M. Harveson, C. Dean Yonts, John Smith, James Schild, and Drew Lyon from the UNL Panhandle Research and Extension Center, Scottsbluff, NE participated in the project. James Beaver helped in the winter nursery. About 1003 intermediate great northern and pinto lines were increased in 2008. Tim Porch shared drought-tolerant germplasm. A drought shuttle breeding program between Puerto Rico and Nebraska is in place. M.A Pastor-Corrales tested the advanced and intermediate great northern and pinto Nebraska lines for rust resistance in Belstville, MD. Phil N. Miklas, Shree P. Singh, Juan M. Osorno, Mark Brick, and James Kelly participated in the project through sharing their germplasm in the regional bean trials (2008 MRPN and WRBT). Steve Beebe and Mathew Blair from CIAT are contributing with germplasm. Target Audiences TARGET AUDIENCES: Results of trials evaluating the drought tolerance of dry bean germplasm were presented in at poster at the CSSA-ASA meeting in Houston, TX, on October 7, 2008. A progress report on great northern and pinto lines was presented to the Nebraska Dry Bean Growers Association during their Bean Day on January 8 and August 19, 2008. Four hundred and eighty bean growers attended the meetings. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.

Impacts
The great northern line, 'Coyne', out yielded Marquis and Orion. The pinto line, NE2-06-08, showed good yield potential, agronomic characteristics, disease resistance, and seed quality. Harvest was delayed this season and we are still processing samples, therefore the final data have not been analyzed. However, field observations suggest that the new germplasm has better agronomic characteristics and seed quality than the current cultivars. Several of these new lines carry genes for resistance to the most limiting bean diseases in western Nebraska. These lines have the potential to be released as cultivars in the near future and to improve the competitiveness of the Nebraska dry bean industry. Use of MAS enhances the efficiency of the breeding program, saving time and money. Germplasm having the resistance markers can be quickly identified and used to breed resistance genes into elite lines. Only one genotype from the NPGS dry bean collection showed resistance to multiple isolates of bacterial wilt during initial screening trials. This accession will again be inoculated with the five isolates to verify this resistance. Recently, bacteria wilt re-emerged as a serious problem that could impact the ability to market beans from western Nebraska. Most of the lines (320) developed in the shuttle breeding program between Puerto Rico and Nebraska showed good agronomic performance. These shuttle breeding programs expedite progress because two generations are evaluated in one year. Most lines carry drought (evaluated at UNL) and heat (evaluated at USDA-TARS) tolerance. Germplasm showing drought resistance will be used in our breeding program. R. solani isolates, which belong to AG-2-2 and AG-4 and their subgroups, have potential for use in pathogenicity tests and evaluations of dry bean germplasm. A molecular marker associated with rust resistance in the tertiary Phaseolus gene pool was found. This is the first marker reported for a secondary bean gene pool.

Publications

  • Mutlu, N., C.A. Urrea, P.N. Miklas, M.A. Pastor-Corrales, J.R. Steadman, D.T. Lindgren, A.K. Vidaver, and D.P. Coyne. 2008. Registration of common bacterial blight, rust and Bean common mosaic virus resistant great northern bean germplasm lines ABC-Weihing. J. Plant Reg. 2:53-55.
  • Urrea,C.A., R.M. Harveson, K. Nielsen, and J. Venegas. 2008. Identification of sources of bacterial wilt resistance in dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Annu. Rept. Bean Improv. Coop. 51:56-57.
  • Venegas, J., G. Godoy-Lutz, J.R. Steadman, C.A. Urrea, and R.M. Harveson. 2008. Morphological and molecular characterization from western Nebraska dry beans. Annu. Rept. Bean Improv. Coop. 51: 86-87.
  • Urrea, C.A., C.D. Yonts, and D. Lyon. 2008. Breeding for drought resistance in dry beans. ASA meeting. Houston, TX.
  • Urrea, C.A., C.D. Yonts, R. Higgins, D. Reichert, and D-M. Khu. 2008. Screening exotic dry bean drought tolerant germplasm in western Nebraska. Annu. Rept. Bean Improv. Coop. 51:72-73.


Progress 10/01/06 to 09/30/07

Outputs
OUTPUTS: Four elite great northern and three pinto lines were evaluated in four growers' fields in a 'Mother and Baby Trial' scheme. The lines were compared with the current cultivars grown in the Panhandle. The same set of lines was planted in the PHREC-Scottsbluff and Mitchell as demonstration plots. Sixty-seven F2 segregant populations were developed in 2007. These populations were developed taking in consideration the 'Good x Good' approach. Advanced and intermediate lines were evaluated for common bacterial blight, Bean common mosaic virus, rust, and white mold. The drought study was conducted in three Nebraska locations: Scottsbluff, Mitchell, and Sidney. I also coordinated the Western Regional Bean Trial (WRBT). Molecular DNA markers have been used to incorporate and pyramid disease resistance genes into the elite great northern and pinto lines. Results have been disseminated through the Nebraska Bean Day, and Nebraska Field Days held by the Nebraska Dry Bean growers Association in January and August 2007. A total of 460 growers attended both meetings. Results of the dry bean variety trials are also posted in our http://varietytest.unl.edu web page. The Panhandle dry bean web page is also updated frequently: http://www.panhandle.unl.edu/drybeans. PARTICIPANTS: James R. Steadman, Robert M. Harveson, C. Dean Yonts, John Smith, James Schild, and Drew Lyon from the UNL Panhandle Research and Extension Center, Scottsbluff, NE have been participating in the project. James Beaver helped in the winter nursery. About 500 lines intermediate great northern and pinto lines were increased in 2007. Tim Porch shared drought-tolerant germplasm. A drought shuttle breeding between Puerto Rico and Nebraska is in place. M.A Pastor-Corrales tested the advanced and intermediate great northern and pinto Nebraska lines to rust in Belstville, MD. Phil N. Miklas, Shree P. Singh, Juan M. Osorno, Mark Brick, and James Kelly participated in the project through sharing their germplasm in the regional bean trials (2007 MRPN and WRBT). TARGET AUDIENCES: Progress report on great northern & pinto lines was presented to the Nebraska Dry Bean Growers Association during their Bean Day on January 9, 2007. Two hundred bean growers attended the meeting. A drought tolerance study was presented in the High Plains Ag Lab Field Day on August 14, 2007. New great northern and pinto bean lines developed by the University of Nebraska and screening of exotic drought bean germplasm were presented to the Nebraska Growers Association during the field day in August 21, 2007. Two-hundred and sixty bean growers attended the field day. Poster presentations on drought and bacterial wilt were discussed in the Bean Improvement and Cooperative meeting in Madison, WI, in Ocober 29-November 2, 2007.

Impacts
The elite great northern lines planted in growers' fields had better performance than Marquis. In 2007, 1,003 F3 great northern, pinto, black and red individual plant selections were made for plant architecture, disease resistance, plant architecture, earliness, and good seed quality. Beryl, Bill-Z, and the exotic CIAT lines SEN 21 and SER 26 were identified to have drought tolerance. About 20% of the elite and intermediate great northern and pinto lines have higher yield than the current cultivars grown in Nebraska. About 99.9% of the Nebraska elite and intermediate great northern and pinto lines have at least three rust resistant genes. Most of the lines have a good tolerance to common bacterial blight, and upright plant architecture, and mature around 100 days. The great northern ABC-Weihing germplasm was developed by the University of Nebraska Agricultural Research Division in cooperation with the USDA-ARS and released in 2006. ABC-Weihing is the first great northern to posses the XAN 159 source of common bacterial blight resistance. ABC-Weihing has the Ur-3 and Ur-6 genes for resistance to common bean rust and carries the single dominant hypersensitive I gene that provides resistance to all non-necrotic strains of the Bean common mosaic virus.

Publications

  • Mutlu, N., C.A. Urrea, P.N. Miklas, M.A. Pastor-Corrales, J.R. Steadman, D.T. Lindgren, A.K. Vidaver, and D.P. Coyne. 2007. Registration of common bacterial blight, rust and Bean common mosaic virus resistant great northern bean germplasm lines ABC-Weihing. J. Plant Reg. (In Press).
  • Mutlu, N., C.A. Urrea, P.N. Miklas, M.A. Pastor-Corrales, J.R. Steadman, D.T. Lindgren, A.K. Vidaver, and D.P. Coyne. 2007. Release of ABC-Weihing common bacterial blight, rust and mosaic resistant, semi-upright, high seed quality great northern bean germplasm line. Annu Rept Bean Improvement Coop. 50:209.
  • Schild, J., B. Hawley, and C. Urrea. 2007. 2006 great northern variety trial- Mitchell Ag lab. The Bean Bag 25(2):14.
  • Schild. J., C. Urrea, and B. Hawley. 2007. What varieties should I be planting?. The Bean Bag. 25(2):8.
  • Schild, J., C. Urrea, and D. Yonts. 2007. Is dry bean harvest getting later? The Bean Bag 25(1): 1 and 13-16.
  • Urrea, C.A. 2007. Nebraska bean growers needed to test Mother and Baby bean trials. The Bean Bag. 25(2):9.
  • Urrea, C.A., C.D. Yonts, R. Higgins, D. Reichert, and D.-M. Khu. 2007. Screening of exotic dry bean drought germplasm in western Nebraska. Annu. Rept. Bean Improv. Coop. Abst. 22. Madison, WI.
  • Urrea, C.A. and D. Khu. 2007. Progress in great northern and pinto lines. The Bean Bag 25(1): 12.
  • Urrea, C.A. and D. Khu. 2007. Identification of drought tolerant lines. The Bean Bag 25(1): 12.
  • Venegas, J., K. Nielsen, and C. Urrea. 2007. Identification of bacterial wilt resistance in common beans. Nebraska Dry Bean Commission. 13(4): 4.
  • Urrea, C.A., J.R. Steadman, J. Schild, T. Lindgren, B. Harveson, D-M. Khu, C. Carlson, and B. Hawley. 2007. Breeding great northern, pinto beans for multiple disease resistance with high performance, and screening exotic dry bean germplasm in western Nebraska. The Bean Bag 25(3):6.
  • Urrea, C.A., R.M. Harveson, and K. Nielsen. 2007. Identification of sources of bacterial wilt resistance in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Annu. Rept. Bean Improv. Coop. Abst. 27. Madison, WI.
  • Venegas, J., J.R. Steadman, and C. Urrea. 2007. Molecular characterization of Rhizoctonia solani isolate from western Nebraska dry beans. Annu. Rept. Bean Improv. Coop. Abst. 30. Madison, WI.