Source: TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY submitted to
BIOSECURITY IN THE AGRIBUSINESS AND FOOD SUPPLY CHAIN
Sponsoring Institution
National Institute of Food and Agriculture
Project Status
TERMINATED
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
0208890
Grant No.
2007-38420-17752
Project No.
TEX09198
Proposal No.
2006-04269
Multistate No.
(N/A)
Program Code
KK
Project Start Date
Dec 1, 2006
Project End Date
Nov 30, 2011
Grant Year
2007
Project Director
McCarl, B.
Recipient Organization
TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY
750 AGRONOMY RD STE 2701
COLLEGE STATION,TX 77843-0001
Performing Department
AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS
Non Technical Summary
Economic and business decisions regarding biosecurity defense and food system vulnerability are driving increasing resource allocations in the food industry supply chain and government policy decisions. Concerns involve private food safety assurance versus public food safety regulation, strategic response to supply chain integrity risk and traceability within the supply chain, and animal disease defense and response. Fellows will develop expertise in risk-based economic analysis and systems modeling of the economic consequences of biosecurity and food supply chain threats, which will improve decision making by stakeholders in the food system, including the private (industry) and public (policy maker) sectors.
Animal Health Component
100%
Research Effort Categories
Basic
(N/A)
Applied
100%
Developmental
(N/A)
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
90360993020100%
Goals / Objectives
Critical areas of research within the Agribusiness Management and Economics target areas that will be addressed by this project include (1) private food safety assurance, (2) public food safety assurance, (3) traceability within the food supply chain, (4) strategic response to supply chain integrity risk, and (5) animal disease defense and response. Two critical pieces of legislation in the U.S. and E.U., relating to the integrity of the agribusiness and food supply chain, have considerable influence in the protocols underlying global trade. Both pieces of legislation translate to requiring one-step-forward, one-step-back traceability through record keeping within the supply chain. The 2002 US Bioterrorism Act promulgated two regulations, 1. Prior Notice of Imported Food Interim Final Rule requires that food imported or offered for import into the U.S. meet several conditions. Manufacturers must be registered prior to shipping products and complete documentation must be submitted prior to arrival of the shipment at the border that includes the identity of the article of food, the country of production, the shipper registration number, the source country of the article, mode of transportation, carrier, ultimate consignee, and the anticipated arrival information. Prior notices must be submitted and confirmed between 2 and 8 hours prior to arrival. 2. The establishment and maintenance of records for up to 2 years on all food transferred within the U.S. by non-transporters and transporters of food and food ingredients. European Union legislation EC 178, article 18 establishes the requirement for traceability of food between segments of the food supply chain for all food and food ingredients from fork to farm. These regulations were initiated under different legislative objectives but have similar consequences for E.U. and U.S. food chain participants. The accountability between buyers and sellers within the chain, and those who provide assembly and distribution services, has substantially increased. Since many of the costs associated with these regulations cannot be passed to the ultimate consumer, applied research using intelligence generated from implementing biosecurity and traceability protocols is critical to gaining efficiencies and, or, value from the food system and proactively securing the food supply chain. The two doctoral and two master of science Fellows will develop core competencies in the areas of cost benefit analysis of risky decisions incorporating proactive versus reactive strategies to potential market disruptions, training in the multidisciplinary economic and technical factors that influence management and policy decisions, risk communication impacts on consumer behavior and response, and trade and market impacts of biosecurity events.
Project Methods
A Recruiting Leaders Team has been created in the Department to focus on recruitment of top students and will assist in encouraging traditionally under-represented groups to apply for these fellowships. The Department has allotted a recruiting budget this year to provide opportunities for Recruiting Leaders to attend Recruitment Conferences and make presentations. We have created several recruiting tools: (1) constantly updated and improved website with highly visible advertisement for National Needs Fellowships; (2) banners for display at national meetings and other conferences; (3) a PowerPoint presentation available for use of all faculties when visiting other campuses; and (4) a Recruiting team of graduate students who are actively involved with prospective students. Above and beyond the well-established internal mentoring of graduate students within the Department there is an established interdisciplinary faculty group working with biosecurity research, teaching and outreach. There are ongoing opportunities for the fellows to engage in conferences, workshops and peer-review group seminars. The structure of the two degrees program, requirements and evaluations processes are provided in degree outlines posted on the department website. The Fellows advisory committees will be responsible for guiding the Fellows through the degree planning and completion process. Fellows will be required to include at least one co-PI as a co-chair of their committee to ensure that their program of study incorporates the objectives of the project. A graduate course on Economics Issues and Implications for Policy Design in Food Security will be offered for the first time in spring 2007. This course will integrate knowledge of bioscience and economics. Fellows will be exposed to economics and policy issues involved with decision making under the risk of accidental or deliberate events of animal diseases, food contamination, invasive species, etc. In addition, three new courses focusing on animal disease are developed under the FAZD in the College of Veterinary Medicine at Texas A&M University, including (a) risk analysis, disease detection and surveillance, (b) epidemiologic methods II and data analysis; (c) spatial model of epidemiology. Fellows can also benefit from these courses to prepare and enrich their bioscience background. The Department PhD examinations consist of: (1) the Qualifier Examination, (2) the Preliminary Examination, consisting of one departmentally-written field preliminary exam and an oral preliminary exam, and (3) a final oral exam (defense of the dissertation). The Agricultural Economics Field Preliminary Examinations are designed to test the ability of each student to recognize current issues and problems in the selected field of study, and formulate them into an economic analysis framework that can contribute to their efficient solution. The Field Examinations are intended to measure subject matter competency and preparedness of the student to begin independent scholarly dissertation research in his or her chosen field of study.

Progress 12/01/06 to 11/30/11

Outputs
OUTPUTS: Five students were funded under this project. As of this point in time Student number one has graduated with a Masters degree having done research on the economic value of animal identification, Student number two finished a Masters degree doing research on the economic value of continuity of business strategies involved with moving feed into quarantined areas and is in a job with USDA APHIS in Washington. Student number three was studying for a PhD and after almost 2 years in the program was unable to pass the required qualifying exams and was dismissed from the program falling back into the Master's degree program but in the process resigned from the national needs fellowship. This student completer his degree doing his remaining research in a manner not funded by this program but still in the area of bio security doing risk analysis in a food safety context, and completed his MS degree in summer 2010. (Joy, Nathaniel A. (2010) A duration analysis of food safety recall events in the United States: January, 2000 to October, 2009. M.S. thesis, Texas A&M University.) The fourth student was enrolled in the PhD program and took first-year course work. Unfortunately at that time she decided not to pursue further studies in agricultural economics and resigned the national needs fellowship. She subsequently transferred to the PhD program in animal science. The fifth began the program in fall 2010 and is proceeding in an on time manner. During the process of running the students through the program we developed a course they take in conjunction with others and run a number of informal seminars. During the project a masters level course in bio security economics was taught involving more than 20 students. One of our students joined USDA APHIS for two Summer internships gaining valuable experience on biosecurity topics and is now employed by USDA APHIS on a permanent basis working in this general area. The other student who graduated under this funding is working on risk matters in the Farm credit system and is seeking other employment. Yet another former fellowship recipient is employed in the financial services industry in a position in risk management and related analysis. PRODUCTS: Two principal products were developed. First a report was developed across management options for foot and mouth disease outbreaks in the Texas High Plains and this included an analysis of a priori and ex post options. Second work was done on animal tracing in Mr. J. Chris Looney's Masters thesis. Subsequently reports and presentations were drawn together with reports delivered to industry groups, DHS personnel, Texas cattle feeders, and USDA personnel along with professional agricultural economists. A journal article has been drafted on this. An important third product is emerging which will involve the continuity of business material but is not yet complete. Preliminary results show in the case of beef cattle it is important to have a priority planning for moving indeed but this is much less so in the case of a major dairy producing area. PARTICIPANTS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period. TARGET AUDIENCES: materials were disseminated to DHS, USDA, and industry stakeholders and professionals. These were in the forms of reports and presentations. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.

Impacts
OUTCOMES: Five students were educated in bio security economics and risk analysis. 16 others were educated in conjunction with these students in a class developed to provide training under this program plus the participating faculty improved their knowledge of bio security economics. The educated students and faculty are expected to contribute to the improvement of future decision-making regarding agricultural bio security alternatives. The project also generated applied research findings where an improved method for evaluating the value of the animal tracing was developed and implemented. Results of this are being incorporated into extension programs, material for DHS and USDA in their consideration of implementation in animal tracing. Reports were put in front of the industry. Across these contacts we hope to improve the quality of the economic rationale for any decisions made in animal tracing and quarantine policy.

Publications

  • Attavanich, W., D.A. Bessler, and B.A. McCarl, "H1N1 (Swine Flu) Media Coverage on Agricultural Commodity Markets", Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy, 33(2): 241- 259, 2011.
  • Carpenter, T.E., J.M. O'Brien, A.D. Hagerman, and B.A. McCarl, "Epidemic and economic impacts of delayed detection of foot-and-mouth disease: a case study of an outbreak in California", Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, 23, 26-33, 2011.
  • Egbendewe-Mondzozo, A., M. Musumba, B.A. McCarl, and X.M. Wu, "Climate Change and Vector-borne Diseases: An Economic Impact Analysis of Malaria in Africa", International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 8(3), , 913-930, 2011.
  • Hagerman, A.D., B.A. McCarl, T.E. Carpenter, J.O. O'Brien, and M.A. Ward, "Emergency vaccination and control of FMD: Consequences of its inclusion as a US Policy Option", Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy, (2011) volume 00, number 00, pp. 1-28, 2011.
  • Hartley, D.M., J.L. Rinderknecht, T.L. Nipp, N.P. Clarke, G.D. Snowder, B.A. McCarl, and others, "Understanding the Potential Impacts of Rift Valley Fever in the United States", Emerging Infectious Diseases', [serial on the Internet]. 2011 Aug http://www. cdc. gov/EID/content/17/8/101088. htm, 2011.
  • Hughes-fraire, R., A.D. Hagerman, and B.A. McCarl, "Rift Valley Fever: An Economic Assessment of Agricultural and Human Vulnerability - pr", Selected paper presented at the 2011 Annual Meetings of the Southern Agricultural Economics Association, Corpus Christi, February, 2011.
  • Mu, J.E., B.A. McCarl, and X.M. Wu, "Climate Change Influences on the Risk of Avian Influenza Outbreaks and Associated Economic Losses", Selected paper presented at the 2011 Annual Meetings of the Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, Pittsburgh, July, 2011.
  • Mu, J.H., and B.A. McCarl, "Climate, the Risk of Avian Influenza Outbreaks and Potential Economic Loss under Climate Change", Selected paper presented at the 2011 Annual Meetings of the Southern Agricultural Economics Association, Corpus Christi, February, 2011.
  • Yu, C.H., S.C. Park, B.A. McCarl, and S.H. Amosson, "Feedlots, air quality and Dust Control- Benefit estimation and incentive design", Selected Poster presented at the 2011 Agricultural and Applied Economics Association Meeting, Pittsburgh, July, 2011.


Progress 12/01/09 to 11/30/10

Outputs
Five students were funded under this project. As of this point in time Student number one has graduated with a Masters degree having done research on the economic value of animal identification, Student number two is in process with a Masters degree doing research on the economic value of continuity of business strategies involved with moving feed into quarantined areas and is just beginning a job with USDA APHIS in Washington. Student number three was studying for a PhD and after almost 2 years in the program was unable to pass the required qualifying exams and was dismissed from the program falling back into the Masters degree program but in the process resigned from the national needs fellowship. This student completer his degree doing his remaining research in a manner not funded by this program but still in the area of bio security doing risk analysis in a food safety context, and completed his MS degree in summer 2010. (Joy, Nathaniel A. (2010) A duration analysis of food safety recall events in the United States: January, 2000 to October, 2009. M.S. thesis, Texas A&M University.) The fourth student was enrolled in the PhD program and took first-year course work. Unfortunately at that time she decided not to pursue further studies in agricultural economics and resigned the national needs fellowship. She subsequently transferred to the PhD program in animal science. The fifth began the program in fall 2010 and is proceeding in an on time manner. During the process of running the students through the program we have developed a course they take in conjunction with others and run a number of informal seminars. During the project a masters level course in bio security economics was taught involving more than 20 students. One of our students joined USDA APHIS for two Summer internships gaining valuable experience on biosecurity topics and is now joining USDA APHIS on a permanent basis working in this general area. The other student who graduated under this funding is working on risk matters in the Farm credit system and is seeking other employment. Yet another former fellowship recipient is employed in the financial services industry in a position in risk management and related analysis. PRODUCTS: Two principal products were developed. First a report was developed across management options for foot and mouth disease outbreaks in the Texas High Plains and this included an analysis of a priori and ex post options. Second work was done on animal tracing in Mr. J. Chris Looney's Masters thesis. Subsequently reports and presentations were drawn together with reports delivered to industry groups, DHS personnel, Texas cattle feeders, and USDA personnel along with professional agricultural economists. A journal article has been drafted on this. An important third product is emerging which will involve the continuity of business material but is not yet complete. Preliminary results show in the case of beef cattle it is important to have a priority planning for moving indeed but this is much less so in the case of a major dairy producing area. OUTCOMES: Five students were educated in bio security economics and risk analysis. 16 others were educated in conjunction with these students in a class developed to provide training under this program plus the participating faculty improved their knowledge of bio security economics. The educated students and faculty are expected to contribute to the improvement of future decision-making regarding agricultural bio security alternatives. The project also generated applied research findings where an improved method for evaluating the value of the animal tracing was developed and implemented. Results of this are being incorporated into extension programs, material for DHS and USDA in their consideration of implementation in animal tracing. Reports were put in front of the industry. Across these contacts we hope to improve the quality of the economic rationale for any decisions made in animal tracing and quarantine policy. Similar activities are anticipated for the continuity of business strategies. DISSEMINATION ACTIVITIES: Materials were disseminated to DHS, USDA, and industry stakeholders and professionals. These were in the forms of reports and presentations. FUTURE INITIATIVES: As stated above the project will go on to evaluate continuity of business. We will also develop journal manuscripts from the two completed studies. We are funding an additional student

Impacts
Hopefully the research findings and reports generated under the project will contribute to the quality of decision-making regarding animal tracing and continuity of business. We have educated four students and number of others through the class and seminar activities. Faculty members' capabilities have also been improved. At least two of the students hope to go to work for USDA in the bio security area and the third one is seeking employment in that general area. The fourth student has moved on to animal science but retains the education obtained during her initial graduate studies. It is anticipated that during the future activities of these directly funded students plus the students and faculty who interacted with them that they will contribute to the United States national need for improved bio security and more generally in risk analysis.

Publications

  • Hagerman, A.D., and B.A. McCarl, "Economic Impact of a Livestock Attack", Handbook of Science and Technology for Homeland Security, 4 Volume Set edited by John G. Voeller, ISBN: 978-0-471-76130-3 Hardcover 2888 pages, April, 2010.
  • Hagerman, A.D., and B.A. McCarl, "Show Me The Money: Implications from Economic-Epidemic Impact Analyses", Presented at 2010 FAZD Center Industry Summit College Station, TX, April 13, 2010.
  • McCarl, B.A., "Morphing Research into Policy Advice", Presented at Agricultural and Applied Economics Research: What Makes It Relevant for Policy Advice Organized Symposia, AAEA Meeting, Denver, July, 2010.
  • McCarl, B.A., A.D. Hagerman, and R. Hughes-Fraire, "Investment Strategies for Addressing Zoonoses", Presented at Farm Foundation Meeting Zoonoses: Understanding the Animal Agriculture and Human Health Connection, September, 2010.
  • Hughes-Fraire, R., B.A. McCarl, and A.D. Hagerman, "Investment Strategies for Addressing Zoonoses", Proceedings of Farm Foundation Meeting: Zoonoses: Understanding the Animal Agriculture and Human Health Connection, Washington DC, September, 2010.
  • Hagerman, A.D., J.C. Looney, B.A. McCarl, D.P. Anderson, and M.A. Ward, "Rapid Effective Trace-Back Capability Value in Reducing the Cost of a Foot-and-Mouth Disease Event", Presented at the Southern Agricultural Economics Association Meetings, Orlando, February, 2010.
  • Hagerman, A.D., T.E. Carpenter, and B.A. McCarl, "The Role of Risk Attitude in Preference Rankings of Vaccine Use for FMD Eradication in the United States", Presented at International Foot and Mouth Symposium in Australia, 2010.
  • Hagerman, A.D., B.A. McCarl, and H-I. Lin, "The Role of Risk Attitude in Preference Rankings of Vaccine Use for Foot and Mouth Disease Eradication in the United States", AAEA 2010 meeting selected poster, Denver, 2010.
  • Hughes-Fraire, R., A.D. Hagerman, B.A. McCarl, and H. Gaff, "Assessment of US Agriculture Sector and Human Vulnerability to a Rift Valley Fever Outbreak", Poster at FAZD Annual Meeting, College Station, July, 2010.
  • Mu, J.H., and B.A. McCarl, "Avian Influenza Outbreaks and Poultry Production Mitigation Strategies in the United States", Presented at the First Joint EAAE/ AAEA Seminar (115th EAAE Seminar), Freising, Germany, September 15 - 17, 2010.
  • Mu, J.H., and B.A. McCarl, "Does Negative Information Always Hurt Meat Demand An Examination of Avian Influenza Information Impacts on U. S Meat Demand", Presented at the First Joint EAAE/ AAEA Seminar (115th EAAE Seminar), Freising, Germany, September 15 - 17, 2010.
  • Joy, Nathaniel A. (2010) A duration analysis of food safety recall events in the United States: January, 2000 to October, 2009. M.S. thesis, Texas A&M University.
  • Carpenter, T.E., J.M. OBrien, A.D. Hagerman, and B.A. McCarl, "Epidemic and economic impacts of delayed detection of foot-and-mouth disease: a case study of an outbreak in California", Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, forthcoming, 2010.


Progress 12/01/08 to 11/30/09

Outputs
Four students were funded under this project. As of this point in time Student number one has graduated with a Masters degree having done research on the economic value of animal identification, Student number two is in process with a Masters degree doing research on the economic value of continuity of business strategies involved with moving feed into quarantined areas. Student number three was studying for a PhD and after almost 2 years in the program was unable to pass the required qualifying exams and was dismissed from the program falling back into the Master's degree program but in the process resigned from the national needs fellowship. This student is doing research not funded by this program in the area of bio security and hopes to obtain a job with a USDA bio security related agency. The four student was enrolled in the PhD program and took first-year course work. Unfortunately at that time she decided not to pursue further studies in agricultural economics resigning the national needs fellowship. She subsequently transferred to the PhD program in animal science. This leaves us with excess money and we have repeatedly but unsuccessfully attempted to reach USDA personnel to ask whether we could put a new student on this funding. We hope to be able to do this in the near future. During the process of running the students through the program we have developed a course they would take in conjunction with others and run a number of informal seminars. One of our students join USDA APHIS for a Summer internship gaining valuable experience on biosecurity topics. That student will join USDA APHIS working in this general area upon graduation. The other student who graduated is working on risk matters in the Farm credit system and is seeking other employment. during the project and a masters level course in by a security economics was taught involving more than 20 students. PRODUCTS: Two principal products were developed. First a report was developed across management options for foot and mouth disease outbreaks in the Texas High Plains and this included a an analysis of a priority next post options. The animal tracing information from Mr. Looney's Masters thesis was incorporated into this. Subsequently a thesis and particular reports and presentations were drawn together with reports done to an old industry groups, DHS personnel, Texas cattle feeders, and USDA personnel along with professional agricultural economists. An important third product is emerging which will involve the continuity of business material but is not yet complete. Preliminary results show in the case of beef cattle it is important to have a priority planning for moving indeed but this is much less so in the case of a major dairy producing area. OUTCOMES: Four students were educated in by a security economics and risk analysis. 14 others were educated in conjunction with the students in a class developed to provide training under this program plus the participating faculty improve their knowledge of bio security economics. The educated students and faculty hopefully will improve future decision-making regarding agricultural bio security alternatives. The project also generated applied research findings where an improved method for evaluating the value of the animal tracing was developed and implemented. Results of this are being incorporated into extension programs, material for DHS and USDA in their consideration of implementation in animal tracing. Reports were put in front of the industry. Across these contacts we hope to improve the quality of the economic rationale for any decisions made in corn animal tracing. Similar activities are anticipated for the continuity of business strategies. DISSEMINATION ACTIVITIES: materials were disseminated to DHS, USDA, and industry stakeholders and professionals. These were in the forms of reports and presentations. FUTURE INITIATIVES: As stated above the project will go on to evaluate continuity business. We will also develop journal manuscripts account of the two completed studies. We hope to be able to use the funding with additional students and weight USDA confirmation that we can do that.

Impacts
Hopefully the research findings and reports generated under the project will contribute to the quality of decision-making regarding animal tracing and continuity of business. We have educated four students and the number of others through the class and seminar activities. Faculty members capabilities have also been improved. At least two of the students hope to go to work for USDA in the bio security area and the third one is seeking employment in that general area. The fourth student has moved on to animal science but retains the education obtained during her initial graduate studies. It is anticipated that during the future activities of see directly funded students plus the students and faculty interacted with them that they will contribute to the United States national need for improved bio security and more generally in risk analysis.

Publications

  • Hagerman, A.D., B.A. McCarl, H-I. Lin, J.C. Looney, D.A. Bessler, W. Huang, Q. Gao, L. Highfield, B. Norby, M.A. Ward, R. Hu, and Y.H. Jin, 2009, "Economic/Epidemic analysis of FMD issues: An Analysis largely in the Texas High Plains", FAZD Center report, 2009.
  • Hagerman, A.D., J.C. Looney, B.A. McCarl, D.P. Anderson, and M.A. Ward, 2009, "Rapid Effective Trace-Back Capability Value in Reducing the Cost of a Foot-and-Mouth Disease Event", to be Presented at the Southern Agricultural Economics Association Meetings, Orlando, February, 2010.
  • Looney,Chris, 2009, Comparative Cost Analysis of Alternative Animal Tracing Strategies Towards Foot and Mouth Disease Outbreaks in the Texas High Plains, MS Thesis, Texas A&M University, December 2009. (Texas Farm Credit)
  • Looney, J.C., A.D. Hagerman, B.A. McCarl, L. Highfield, and M.A. Ward, 2009, "Rapid Effective Trace-Back Capability Effectiveness in Reducing the Cost of a Foot-and-Mouth Disease Event", draft manuscript for submission to a journal, 2009.
  • McCarl, B.A., A.D. Hagerman, H-I. Lin, J.C. Looney, D.A. Bessler, W. Huang, Q. Gao, Y.H. Jin, B. Norby, L. Highfield, M.A. Ward, and R. Hu, 2009 "Industry Applications of Modeling Catastrophic Disease Effects in Confined Livestock Operations: Scenarios Modeled Under the Texas High Plains FMD Simulations", Presented at 2009 Department of Homeland Security University Summit, Washington, D.C., March 19, 2009.
  • McCarl, B.A., A.D. Hagerman, H-I. Lin, J.C. Looney, M.A. Ward, and L. Highfield, 2009, "Reducing vulnerability to animal disease: strategies, economic consequences and resilience", Presented at 2009 Department of Homeland Security University Summit Washington, D.C. March 17, 2009.


Progress 12/01/07 to 11/30/08

Outputs
Two MS and two PhD students have been recruited and are on campus. One MS (Chris Looney) and one PhD(Nathan Joy) are in their second year of study. THe other MS (Monica Galli) and PhD (Katheryn Olsen) are in first year. All are making progress toward their degree. Looney is studying the value of animal tracing in a FMD context. Galli is considering studying welfare slaughter and or compensation policy. The others are still in coursework. Galli will spend time with APHIS this summer. Looney should finish this summer. PRODUCTS: Students have been eduated on biosecurity and economic analysis. An economics of biosecurity class has been developed and offered with 6 students in it. OUTCOMES: Students will graduate with biosecurity and economics training. DISSEMINATION ACTIVITIES: Monica Galli will intern with USDA APHIS. Looney works with Farm Bureau. Both are contriuting to presentations that are being made in DHS circles that will be in next years publications. FUTURE INITIATIVES: Have students complete studies and papers/presentations plus be placed in industry, government and acedemia.

Impacts
Trained students will move into industry, government or acedemia and work to improve resiliancy of US agriculture to security threats. Papers by students will be distributed to sector stimulating efforts by others.

Publications

  • No publications reported this period


Progress 12/01/06 to 11/30/07

Outputs
Two students have been admitted on this project: PhD recipient: Nathaniel Joy, BS Economics, Texas A&M University MS recipient: John Christopher Looney, BS Animal Science, University of Arkansas. PRODUCTS: No products as yet associated with this project. OUTCOMES: No outcomes associated with this project at this time. DISSEMINATION ACTIVITIES: No activities at this time. FUTURE INITIATIVES: Identify and admit 1 PhD and 1 MS National Needs Fellow.

Impacts
No impacts are reported on this project at this time.

Publications

  • No publications reported this period