Source: FORT BERTHOLD COMMUNITY COLLEGE submitted to
COMPARING ESTABLISHMENT AND GROWTH CHARACTERISTICS OF JUNEBERRY CULTIVARS IN THE NORTHERN GREAT PLAINS
Sponsoring Institution
National Institute of Food and Agriculture
Project Status
EXTENDED
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
0206624
Grant No.
2006-38424-16847
Project No.
NDE-2006-01561
Proposal No.
2006-01561
Multistate No.
(N/A)
Program Code
ZY
Project Start Date
May 15, 2006
Project End Date
May 14, 2010
Grant Year
2006
Project Director
Klein, R. C.
Recipient Organization
FORT BERTHOLD COMMUNITY COLLEGE
P.O. BOX 490
NEW TOWN,ND 58763
Performing Department
(N/A)
Non Technical Summary
A. Significance of the Problem: Project Impact. Traversing the middle of the reservation, the Missouri River has always profoundly influenced the culture of the agronomic people living there. The construction of the Garrison Dam and subsequent formation of Lake Sakakawea dramatically reduced the reservation by 152,360 acres, requiring the relocation of 325 families. Extremely productive river bottom land was lost, and thousands of acres of timber and shrubs, including juneberries, were destroyed. Juneberries have a long tradition as a staple food for the Indian people and a significant part of their culture. At least 10 parameters will be included in the assessment of cultivar performance during this project. In addition to shoot growth, numbers of stems and suckers will be noted monthly. Sucker production is important to assess from a grower perspective; moderate suckering is beneficial for overall shrub expansion and growth, but excessive sucker shoots require extra pruning and labor. Plant health and appearance will be rated with additional notes taken on disease incidence and insect feeding. Reports containing research conclusions and producer budgets highlighting economic returns from the different types of grower operations (U-pick or processing) will be presented at extension events involving growers and the public. .
Animal Health Component
50%
Research Effort Categories
Basic
50%
Applied
50%
Developmental
(N/A)
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
20521993100100%
Knowledge Area
205 - Plant Management Systems;

Subject Of Investigation
2199 - Ornamentals and turf, general/other;

Field Of Science
3100 - Management;
Goals / Objectives
Objectives. The objectives of this proposal are: 1. To initiate a comprehensive juneberry cultivar trial evaluating growth characteristics, yield performance, pest resistance, and overall shrub health during the three-year establishment period at three research sites in North Dakota. 2. To evaluate the costs associated with commercial juneberry production and economic returns for particular cultivars based on current market potential as part of a feasibility assessment for growers. 3. To explore native stands of juneberries for material displaying superiority in one or more of the following characteristics: growth habit, berry size and/or flavor, pest resistance, or late blossoming time. The top selections will be propagated by shoot tip micropropagation and added to the cultivar trial in the second year for visual comparison to current industry material and enhancement of genetic diversity at each experiment site.
Project Methods
Respones to panels concernes to this proposal 1. Up to 20 cultivar/wild selection treatments will be chosen; material will come from the list mentioned in the application and also the wild selections (up to three). Decisions for which cultivars are selected will depend on the availability of material at the time we order the shrubs. It will be most conducive to get as many shrubs from one nursery as possible to minimize experimental errors. The target population size at each site is 320 shrubs by the second year. If fewer cultivars and native selections (treatments) are available, then the number of plants/rep may increase from 4 to 5 to maintain the target population size. For example, if the number of cultivars is 16 to 20, only 4 shrubs/rep will be planted, whereas 5 shrubs/rep will be planted if the total number of cultivars is 16 or less. 2. The rationale for Objective 3 is to engage the researchers in work that has been overlooked in the past. Most juneberry cultivars are selections from other regions. Native populations in the upper Great Plains may also contain shrubs that could be developed as cultivars in the future. 3.Previous work with juneberries has shown that this species is inherently prone to transplant shock and making it difficult for seedlings to thrive after transplanting. 4. An economist will be most helpful during the reporting process as figures are relayed to the general public after yearly and final conclusions are drawn from the data and experiment observations. 5. Research has been conducted since 2003 and some of the difficulties encountered have led to the current proposal. The main reason this information was not included in the review of juneberry biology is because we are preparing manuscripts for publication, but currently our results are not published. 6. The results of this experiment will be reported at on-site field days, grower conferences, tribal council meetings, and through a university website and scientific publication. 7. The reason for the difference in graduate student salary during the three years of the project is that the graduate student is anticipated to begin his/her research assistantship at the start of the fall semester in 2006 and finish in the spring semester of 2008. The salary requested is shown as a division between three years, but this project is expected to be undertaken by a Masters Degree candidate and should be completed within in two full years.

Progress 05/15/08 to 05/14/09

Outputs
Comparing establishment and growth characteristics of juneberry cultivars in the Northern Great Plains. The objectives of this proposal were to: 1. To initiate a comprehensive juneberry cultivar trial evaluating growth characteristics, yield performance, pest resistance, and overall shrub health during the three-year establishment period at three research sites in North Dakota. 2. To evaluate the costs associated with commercial juneberry production and economic returns for particular cultivars based on current market potential as part of a feasibility assessment for growers. 3. To explore native stands of juneberries for material displaying superiority in one or more of the following characteristics: growth habit, berry size and/or flavor, pest resistance, or late blossoming time. The top selections will be propagated by shoot tip micropropagation and added to the cultivar trial in the second year for visual comparison to current industry material and enhancement of genetic diversity at each experiment site. Contacts with nurseries in Canada were not as fruitful as originally proposed. No nursery could provide all the cultivars that we wanted to examine. Seedling size also varied greatly from one nursery to the next and would have placed certain cultivars at a distinct disadvantage if planted with other cultivars. Therefore, our only alternative was to obtain a plant or two for the cultivars we wanted to compare and to initiate our own micropropagated seedlings. Tissue culture activities began this past fall for 14 cultivars: Buffalo, Honeywood, JB 30, Martin, Northline, NDSU-K, Par 90, Parkhill, Pearson II, Pembina, Regent, Smokey, Success, and Thiessen. We are utilizing a cold-storage technique and growth chambers in order to obtain enough growth to transplant into the field in August. We have begun documenting costs associated with obtaining plant material and will continue to document equipment expenditures, production material costs as well time commitments for the establishment and production of juneberry. Obtaining seedlings at a price economical for orchard production appears to be the main obstacle to date. We have received over 30 contacts and will be visiting each location during late June/early July to observe these plants when the fruit is almost ripe. Progress was interrupted by the sudden resignation of Mr. Klein in December of 2008. All grant activities were suspended at Fort Berthold at that time, until a successor for Mr. Klein could be hired. His position was finally filled in June of 2009 by Mary Fredericks, although she was unable to be named PI for this grant. PRODUCTS: No products were produced during this grant period, although grant activities did continue, especially at NDSU. OUTCOMES: Due to the resignation of Mr. Klein, there were no outcomes for this period, other than continuation of research activities, including data aquisition. DISSEMINATION ACTIVITIES: None known. FUTURE INITIATIVES: Initiatives during this period were to fill the absent PI position.

Impacts
Impacts will be noted at completion of the Project.

Publications

  • No publications reported this period


Progress 05/15/07 to 05/14/08

Outputs
Comparing establishment and growth characteristics of juneberry cultivars in the Northern Great Plains. The objectives of this proposal were to: 1. To initiate a comprehensive juneberry cultivar trial evaluating growth characteristics, yield performance, pest resistance, and overall shrub health during the three-year establishment period at three research sites in North Dakota. 2. To evaluate the costs associated with commercial juneberry production and economic returns for particular cultivars based on current market potential as part of a feasibility assessment for growers. 3. To explore native stands of juneberries for material displaying superiority in one or more of the following characteristics: growth habit, berry size and/or flavor, pest resistance, or late blossoming time. The top selections will be propagated by shoot tip micropropagation and added to the cultivar trial in the second year for visual comparison to current industry material and enhancement of genetic diversity at each experiment site. PRODUCTS: Contacts with nurseries in Canada were not as fruitful as originally proposed. No nursery could provide all the cultivars that we wanted to examine. Seedling size also varied greatly from one nursery to the next and would have placed certain cultivars at a distinct disadvantage if planted with other cultivars. Therefore, our only alternative was to obtain a plant or two for the cultivars we wanted to compare and to initiate our own micropropagated seedlings. Tissue culture activities began this past fall for 14 cultivars: Buffalo, Honeywood, JB 30, Martin, Northline, NDSU-K, Par 90, Parkhill, Pearson II, Pembina, Regent, Smokey, Success, and Thiessen. We are utilizing a cold-storage technique and growth chambers in order to obtain enough growth to transplant into the field in August. We have begun documenting costs associated with obtaining plant material and will continue to document equipment expenditures, production material costs as well time commitments for the establishment and production of juneberry. Obtaining seedlings at a price economical for orchard production appears to be the main obstacle to date. OUTCOMES: Data being collected and cataloged on all cultivars. Wild stands being visited, mapped, and sampled. DISSEMINATION ACTIVITIES: Early this spring we developed a flyer to advertise our desire to find superior native juneberry plants. Numerous local newspapers also helped to inform the public. We have received over 30 contacts and will be visiting each location during late June/early July to observe these plants when the fruit is almost ripe. Plant samples for tissue culturing will be collected this fall after determining which plants have the greatest potential. FUTURE INITIATIVES: Project activities will be continued as proposed.

Impacts
Final impacts are yet to be determined. To date, project activities are proceeding well.

Publications

  • No publications reported this period


Progress 05/15/06 to 05/15/07

Outputs
Comparing establishment and growth characteristics of juneberry cultivars in the Northern Great Plains. The objectives of this proposal were to: 1. To initiate a comprehensive juneberry cultivar trial evaluating growth characteristics, yield performance, pest resistance, and overall shrub health during the three-year establishment period at three research sites in North Dakota. 2. To evaluate the costs associated with commercial juneberry production and economic returns for particular cultivars based on current market potential as part of a feasibility assessment for growers. 3. To explore native stands of juneberries for material displaying superiority in one or more of the following characteristics: growth habit, berry size and/or flavor, pest resistance, or late blossoming time. The top selections will be propagated by shoot tip micropropagation and added to the cultivar trial in the second year for visual comparison to current industry material and enhancement of genetic diversity at each experiment site. Contacts with nurseries in Canada were not as fruitful as originally proposed. No nursery could provide all the cultivars that we wanted to examine. Seedling size also varied greatly from one nursery to the next and would have placed certain cultivars at a distinct disadvantage if planted with other cultivars. Therefore, our only alternative was to obtain a plant or two for the cultivars we wanted to compare and to initiate our own micropropagated seedlings. Tissue culture activities began this past fall for 14 cultivars: Buffalo, Honeywood, JB 30, Martin, Northline, NDSU-K, Par 90, Parkhill, Pearson II, Pembina, Regent, Smokey, Success, and Thiessen. We are utilizing a cold-storage technique and growth chambers in order to obtain enough growth to transplant into the field in August. We have begun documenting costs associated with obtaining plant material and will continue to document equipment expenditures, production material costs as well time commitments for the establishment and production of juneberry. Obtaining seedlings at a price economical for orchard production appears to be the main obstacle to date. Early this spring we developed a flyer to advertise our desire to find superior native juneberry plants. Numerous local newspapers also helped to inform the public. We have received over 30 contacts and will be visiting each location during late June/early July to observe these plants when the fruit is almost ripe. Plant samples for tissue culturing will be collected this fall after determining which plants have the greatest potential. PRODUCTS: To initiate a comprehensive juneberry cultivar trial evaluating growth characteristics, yield performance, pest resistance, and overall shrub health during the three-year establishment period at three research sites in North Dakota. To evaluate the costs associated with commercial juneberry production and economic returns for particular cultivars based on current market potential as part of a feasibility assessment for growers. To explore native stands of juneberries for material displaying superiority in one or more of the following characteristics: growth habit, berry size and/or flavor, pest resistance, or late blossoming time. The top selections will be propagated by shoot tip micropropagation and added to the cultivar trial in the second year for visual comparison to current industry material and enhancement of genetic diversity at each experiment site. OUTCOMES: To complete a comprehensive juneberry cultivar trial evaluating growth characteristics, yield performance, pest resistance, and overall shrub health during the three-year establishment period at three research sites in North Dakota. To determine the costs associated with commercial juneberry production and economic returns for particular cultivars based on current market potential as part of a feasibility assessment for growers. To research native stands of juneberries for material displaying superiority in one or more of the following characteristics: growth habit, berry size and/or flavor, pest resistance, or late blossoming time. The top selections will be propagated by shoot tip micropropagation and added to the cultivar trial in the second year for visual comparison to current industry material and enhancement of genetic diversity at each experiment site. DISSEMINATION ACTIVITIES: Contacts with nurseries in Canada were not as fruitful as originally proposed. No nursery could provide all the cultivars that we wanted to examine. Seedling size also varied greatly from one nursery to the next and would have placed certain cultivars at a distinct disadvantage if planted with other cultivars. Therefore, our only alternative was to obtain a plant or two for the cultivars we wanted to compare and to initiate our own micropropagated seedlings. Tissue culture activities began this past fall for 14 cultivars: Buffalo, Honeywood, JB 30, Martin, Northline, NDSU-K, Par 90, Parkhill, Pearson II, Pembina, Regent, Smokey, Success, and Thiessen. We are utilizing a cold-storage technique and growth chambers in order to obtain enough growth to transplant into the field in August. Early this spring we developed a flyer to advertise our desire to find superior native juneberry plants. Numerous local newspapers also helped to inform the public. We have received over 30 contacts and will be visiting each location during late June/early July to observe these plants when the fruit is almost ripe. Plant samples for tissue culturing will be collected this fall after determining which plants have the greatest potential. FUTURE INITIATIVES: We have begun documenting costs associated with obtaining plant material and will continue to document equipment expenditures, production material costs as well time commitments for the establishment and production of juneberry. Obtaining seedlings at a price economical for orchard production appears to be the main obstacle to date.

Impacts
A documentaion of costs associated with obtaining plant material for orchard production. A comprehensive juneberry cultivar trial evaluating growth characteristics, yield performance, pest resistance, and overall shrub health. Evaulate native stands of juneberries for material displaying superiority in one or more characteristics.

Publications

  • No publications reported this period