Source: OREGON STATE UNIVERSITY submitted to
AGROCHEMICAL IMPACTS ON HUMAN AND ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH: MECHANISMS AND MITIGATION
Sponsoring Institution
National Institute of Food and Agriculture
Project Status
TERMINATED
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
0206020
Grant No.
(N/A)
Project No.
ORE00284A
Proposal No.
(N/A)
Multistate No.
W-1045
Program Code
(N/A)
Project Start Date
Oct 1, 2005
Project End Date
Sep 30, 2010
Grant Year
(N/A)
Project Director
Jenkins, J.
Recipient Organization
OREGON STATE UNIVERSITY
(N/A)
CORVALLIS,OR 97331
Performing Department
ENVIRONMENTAL AND MOLECULAR TOXICOLOGY
Non Technical Summary
The growing demand for food and fiber will place greater strain on agricultural production and environmental stewardship. Agrochemicals will remain fundamental as integrated pest management tools to assure an abundant food supply. Inevitably, a significant portion of applied agrochemicals may be lost to the surrounding environment, where they can adversely affect human and environmental health. The use of conventional and emerging crop protection chemistries in agricultural and urban pest management will require research on the fate and effects of agrochemicals, along with mitigation strategies, to minimize risks to humans and the environment. Replacement of the W-45 multistate research project will enable multistate collaborations to more effectively advance and transfer science to agricultural and regulatory stakeholders, who require solutions to complex human and environmental health concerns that are beyond the scope any individual State Agricultural Experiment Station or ARS.
Animal Health Component
30%
Research Effort Categories
Basic
(N/A)
Applied
30%
Developmental
70%
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
1120320106010%
1120320115025%
1120320200010%
1120320205010%
1330320106010%
1330320115025%
1330320200010%
Goals / Objectives
1. Identify, develop, and/or validate trace residue analytical methods, immunological procedures, and biomarkers. 2. Characterize abiotic and biotic reaction mechanisms, transformation rates, and fate in agricultural and natural ecosystems. 3. Determine adverse impacts from agrochemical exposure to cells, organisms, and ecosystems. 4. Develop technologies that mitigate adverse human and environmental impacts.
Project Methods
Objective 1: Identify, develop, and/or validate trace residue analytical methods, immunological procedures, and biomarkers. To characterize and quantify agrochemical exposure and effects to cells, organisms, and ecosystems, appropriate biomakers need to be elucidated and characterized. New measurement technologies need to be examined and optimized with respect to environmental and biological matrices. Objective 2: Characterize abiotic and biotic reaction mechanisms, transformation rates, and fate in agricultural and natural ecosystems. This research will encompass investigations of agrochemical transformation (mechanisms and rates) and agrochemical fate in the environment. The research will be applied to agrochemical efficacy, the potential for agrochemicals to contaminate air, groundwater and surface water, and chemical and biological remediation strategies. Objective 3: Determine adverse impacts from agrochemical exposure to cells, organisms, and ecosystems. This research will investigate the environmental impact of agrochemical exposure to target and non-target organisms from the cellular level to the population level. Objective 4: Develop technologies that mitigate adverse human and environmental impacts. Drawing from W1045 multidisciplinary collaborations and expertise, economically viable technologies and management strategies will be developed to prevent and/or mitigate potential agrochemical impacts on human and environmental health.

Progress 10/01/05 to 09/30/10

Outputs
OUTPUTS: Laboratory bioassays of the indigenous Pacific Northwest caddisfly were developed to investigate the effect of esfenvalerate on larvae exiting their cases. This abnormal behavior may result in a fitness deficit as a result of increased availability to predators, increased incidence of disease, and decreased respiration capacity. Affected larvae exhibited an impaired ability to rebuild cases after removal to a clean system. In addition, rebuilding behavior was further impaired by pre-exposure of detritus. Aquatic insect eggs are stationary an passive biological systems that may partition contaminants. We investigated mayfly, stonefly, and caddisfly susceptibility at the egg stage to esfenvalerate. We observed that egg mortality and post-hatch fitness and survivorship were a function of egg or egg clutch morphology, and treatment timing relative to egg development. We also examined the effect of dietary esfenvalerate uptake in aquatic insects representing different functional feeding groups. We utilized three field-collected aquatic insect species: a grazing scraper C. reticulata, an omnivorous filter feeder B. americanus , and a predator H. pacifica. Diet was laboratory-cultured algae and dead 3rd-instar C. tentans larvae pre-exposed to esfenvalerate. We observed reduction in C. reticulata small nymph growth and reduced egg production, case-abandonment and mortality in B. americanus. No adverse effects observed for H. pacifica nymphs. We evaluated the effectiveness of adapted and native woody plant species as drift barriers between cherry orchards and surface water resources in Wasco County (Middle Columbia-Hood Subbasin), Oregon. Wasco County contains nearly 9,000 acres of cherry orchards. Two sites were chosen based on prevailing wind direction and riparian vegetation. At each location deposition samplers were positioned horizontally at 5 m, just above the orchard tree canopy, along two transects extending from within the orchard towards the adjacent creek. For one transect the sampler at the creek was intercepted by riparian vegetation and the other was not. Application of malathion ULV was by fixed-wing aircraft. Two applications were sampled at each site. Sampler deposition data suggest that the presence of riparian vegetation can result in a small reduction in pesticide stream loading via drift. The ground trials were conducted using a simulated creek scenario. Application was to pears, 20 m from the simulated creek. We evaluated the Accutech Orchard Tower sprayer and a standard air blast sprayer. The air blast sprayer was operated both normally and modified with a plywood "doughnut" affixed to the rear of the sprayer which restricts airflow. We applied an emulsifiable concentrate (EC) formulation blank using fluorescein dye as a tracer. Deposition data suggest that riparian vegetation was generally effective in reducing deposition near the creek for applications using the Accutech sprayer. Results for the Air-O-fan were inconclusive. PARTICIPANTS: Paul Jepson, Professor, Integrated Plant Protection Center and Dept of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Kathrine Palmquist (Johnson), graduate student, Dept of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Phillip Janney, graduate student, Dept of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Helmut Riedl, Professor (Emeritus), Mid-Columbia Ag Research and Extension Center and Dept of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Glenn Wilson, technician, Dept of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Kelly Wallis, technician, Mid-Columbia Ag Research and Extension Center TARGET AUDIENCES: Agriculture and forestry production, State and federal natural resource agencies, Non-governmental environmental organizations, general public PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Not relevant to this project.

Impacts
Agricultural and urban use of the synthetic pyrethroids has become increasingly common as an alternative to the organophosphates. Increased pyrethroid use has renewed interest in expanding our understanding of the potential for adverse impacts on ecological health of aquatic systems. To this end, we propose the use of subtle sublethal endpoints that will more completely characterize the impact of pollutants in aquatic systems. Macroinvertebrates have often been selected for the evaluation of pollutant risks as their communities play a critical role in sustaining stream ecological health. In 2002 the U.S. District Court in Seattle ruled that EPA was in violation of the Endangered Species Act by not addressing the effects of pesticides on threatened and endangered salmon. In 2004 a temporary injunction was granted requiring no-spray buffers for 54 pesticide active ingredients to protect salmon-bearing streams in California, Oregon, and Washington. The standard buffers are 100 yards for aerial applications and 20 yards for ground applications. The effectiveness of these buffers in protecting aquatic resources is largely unknown. For aerial application of malathion we evaluated the effectiveness of a no-spray buffer and woody plant species as drift barriers between cherry orchards and surface water resources in the Middle Columbia-Hood Subbasin, Oregon. For ground application we used an EC formulation blank containing a fluorescent tracer to compare drift from a traditional airblast sprayer, with and without reduced airflow, as well as newer sprayer technology - Accutech Orchard Tower sprayer. Results from these studies have been presented at grower meetings to promote drift reduction technologies that can reduce pesticide surface water loading and impacts on aquatic life, including endangered salmonids and their food web.

Publications

  • Johnson, K., Jepson, P. and Jenkins, J. 2008. Esfenvalerate-Induced Case-Abandonment in the Larvae of the Caddisfly Brachycentrus americanus. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. Vol. 27, No. 2, pp. 397-403
  • Palmquist, K. R., J. J. Jenkins, P. C. Jepson. 2008. Clutch Morphology and the Timing of Exposure Impact the Susceptibility of Aquatic Insect Eggs to Esfenvalerate. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. Vol. 27, No. 8, pp. 1713-1720.
  • Palmquist, K. R., J. J. Jenkins, P. C. Jepson. 2008. Effects of Dietary Esfenvalerate Exposures on Three Aquatic Insect Species Representing Different Functional Feeding Groups. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. Vol. 27, No. 8, pp. 1721-1727.
  • Palmquist, K. R., P. C. Jepson, J. J. Jenkins. 2008. Impact of Aquatic Insect Life Stage and Emergence Strategy on Sensitivity to Esfenvalerate Exposure. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. Vol. 27, No. 8, pp. 1728-1734.


Progress 01/01/09 to 12/31/09

Outputs
OUTPUTS: The effectiveness of adapted and native woody plant species as drift barriers between cherry orchards and surface water resources in Wasco County (Middle Columbia-Hood Subbasin), Oregon, was evaluated. Wasco County contains nearly 9,000 acres of cherry orchards. Pest management includes the use of organophosphate insecticides, applied by airblast ground sprayers or fixed-wing aircraft. Two sites were chosen, one along Threemile Creek and the other along Mill Creek. Sites were chosen based on prevailing wind direction and riparian vegetation. At both sites the orchards slope down to the creek. However the two sites were distinct as to the distance from the edge of the application site to the creek. This distance is approximately 150m at the Threemile site and approximately 25m at the Mill Creek site. At each site two sampling areas were selected - an area with riparian vegetation between the orchard and the creek and an area without riparian vegetation. Spray deposition samplers consisted of Whatman No. 1 filter paper (23 x 26 cm), attached to rectangular aluminum frames. At each location a sampler was positioned horizontally at a height just above the orchard tree canopy, approximately 5m. Four or 5 samplers were located along two transects extending from within the orchard towards the creek. For one transect the sampler at the creek was intercepted by riparian vegetation and the other was not. Application of malathion ULV was by fixed-wing aircraft. Wind speed and direction, and temperature were monitored. Analysis was by gas chromatography with mass selective detection. Two applications were sampled at each site. At the Threemile Creek site malathion concentrations within the orchard ranged from <0.01 to 1.47 ug/cm2. Malathion concentrations at Threemile Creek were 0.45 and 0.16 ug/cm2 for the transect without riparian vegetation, and 0.05 and 0.16 ug/cm2 for the transect with riparian vegetation. At the Mill Creek site malathion concentrations within the orchard ranged from <0.01 to 0.77 ug/cm2. Malathion concentrations at Mill creek were 0.09 and 0.13 ug/cm2 for the transect without riparian vegetation, and 0.05 and 0.08 ug/cm2 for the transect with riparian vegetation. These data suggest that the presence of riparian vegetation can result in a small reduction in pesticide stream loading via drift. PARTICIPANTS: Debbie Chadwick Wy'East Resource Conservation and Development 625 SE Salmon Avenue #7 Redmond, OR 97756 Helmut Riedl and Kelly Wallis MCAREC/Oregon State University 3005 Experiment Station Drive Hood River, OR 97031 Dusty Eddy, USDA Natural Resource Conservation Service Ryan Bessette, Wasco Soil & Water Conservation District 2325 River Rd. Suite 3 The Dalles, OR 97058 Lindsay Hofsteen Wy'East Resource Conservation & Development 2325 River Rd. The Dalles, OR 97058 TARGET AUDIENCES: Grower and non-grower clientele have been informed on the outcome of this research with emphasis on the potential for pesticide loading into adjacent streams via spray drift and mitigation through the use of drift barriers. Informational meetings with community and government organizations have been conducted as follows: Oregon State University College of Agricultural Science tour group, OSU-MCAREC- May 1, 2008 Klahre House fieldtrip, 10 high school students, OSU-MCAREC- June 11, 2008 Natural Resources Conservation Services tour, OSU-MCAREC-June 18, 2008 OSU-MCAREC Field Day, Hood River, Oregon- August 7, 2008 Western Orchard Pest and Disease Management Conference, Portland, Oregon- Jan 14-16, 2009 Sweet Cherry Symposium, the Dalles, Oregon- February 5, 2009 PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Not relevant to this project.

Impacts
In 2002 the U.S. District Court in Seattle ruled that EPA was in violation of the Endangered Species Act by not addressing the effects of pesticides on threatened and endangered salmon. In 2004 a temporary injunction was granted requiring no-spray buffers for 54 pesticide active ingredients to protect salmon-bearing streams in California, Oregon, and Washington. The standard buffers are 100 yards for aerial applications and 20 yards for ground applications. The effectiveness of these buffers in protecting aquatic resources is largely unknown. For aerial application of malathion we evaluated the effectiveness of a no-spray buffer and woody plant species as drift barriers between cherry orchards and surface water resources in the Middle Columbia-Hood Subbasin, Oregon.

Publications

  • Stone, D.L., D.L. Sudakin, J.J. Jenkins. 2009. Longitudinal trends in organophosphate incidents reported to the National Pesticide Information Center, 1995-2007. Environmental Health 2009, 8:18 (20 April 2009) http://www.ehjournal.net/content/8/1/18
  • Janney, P. K., J. J. Jenkins, K. Wallis, H. Riedl. 2008. The Effect of Riparian Vegetation on Surface Water Loading of Aerially-Applied Malathion in Cherry Production. Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry North America 29th Annual Meeting, Tampa, FL. November 2008.


Progress 01/01/07 to 12/31/07

Outputs
OUTPUTS: Given the chemical properties of synthetic pyrethroids, it is probable that compounds including esfenvalerate that enter surface waters may become incorporated into aquatic insect food sources. The effect of dietary esfenvalerate uptake in aquatic insects representing different functional feeding groups was examined. Three field-collected aquatic insect species: a grazing scraper Cinygmula reticulata McDunnough (Ephemeroptera: Heptageniidae), an omnivorous filter feeder Brachycentrus americanus Banks (Trichoptera: Brachycentridae), and a predator Hesperoperla pacifica Banks (Plecoptera: Perlidae) were utilized. Laboratory-cultured algae were pre-exposed for 24h to esfenvalerate concentrations of 0, 0.025, 0.05, and 0.1 ug/L and provided to two C. reticulata age classes, small and final-instar nymphs. Reduction in small nymph growth was observed following three weeks feeding on algae exposed to 0.05 and 0.1 ug/L esfenvalerate, and the highest dietary exposure reduced egg production in final-instar nymphs. The diet for B. americanus and H. pacifica insects consisted of dead third-instar Chironomus tentans larvae; these were pre-exposed to esfenvalerate concentrations ranging between 0.1 and 1.0 ug/L. Consumption of the larvae exposed to 0.5 to 1.0 ug/L esfenvalerate caused case-abandonment and mortality in B. americanus caddisfly larvae. Although H. pacifica nymphs readily consumed esfenvalerate-exposed larvae, no adverse effects of consumption were observed during the course of this study. Further, there was no evidence of esfenvalerate-induced feeding deterrence in any of the species tested, suggesting that aquatic insects may not be able to distinguish between pyrethroid-contaminated and uncontaminated food sources. PARTICIPANTS: Paul Jepson, Katherine Palmquist, Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Integrated Plant Protection Center, Oregon State University

Impacts
Agricultural and urban use of the synthetic pyrethroids has become increasingly common as an alternative to the organophosphates. Increased pyrethroid use has renewed interest in expanding our understanding of the potential for adverse impacts on ecological health of aquatic systems. To this end, we propose the use of subtle sublethal endpoints that will more completely characterize the impact of pollutants in aquatic systems. Macroinvertebrates have often been selected for the evaluation of pollutant risks as their communities play a critical role in sustaining stream ecological health.

Publications

  • Jenkins, J., L. Norris and K. Maas-Hebner. 2007. Allegheny National Forest Final Environmental Impact Statement Appendix G1 - Human Health Risk Assessment for Glyphosate and Sulfometuron Methyl. U. S. Forest Service. March 2007.
  • Jenkins, J. 2007. Capability of West African Laboratories for Pesticide Trace Analysis. Report to the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome, Italy.


Progress 01/01/06 to 12/31/06

Outputs
Susceptibility of Aquatic Insect Eggs to Esfenvalerate: Aquatic insect eggs and egg clutches are passive biological systems that are exposed to a number of water-bourn contaminants. Eggs lack behavioral compensatory mechanisms observed in other life stages (e.g., avoidance drifting), and the finite energy resources of developing embryos may not allow for toxin-induced energy depletions. Additionally, metabolic capacity fluctuates over the course of embryonic development, decreasing to levels as low as those recorded for newly hatched larvae. The experiments described here were conducted to determine the susceptibility of three different aquatic insect species' eggs to esfenvalerate, a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide, and to determine the extent to which egg or egg clutch morphology impacts susceptibility. The eggs of Baetis sp. mayflies have a simple chorionic structure, which is similar in morphology to the majority of mayfly eggs. Hesperoperla pacifica stonefly eggs are characterized by a hard outer chorion and a cavern-like chamber of air separating the inner and outer chorion. The eggs of the caddisfly Brachycentrus americanus are contained inside a gelatinous matrix, similar to that of many amphibians. This morphological diversity results in part from independent evolutionary lines of insect colonization and adaptation to aqueous environments. Eggs, in particular, required adaptations to promote oxygen uptake in the low oxygen aquatic habitats and specialized structures to prevent bursting under high hydrostatic pressures. Specific morphological adaptations, such as egg attachment devices, and oviposition site selection by gravid females also work to protect eggs from scouring, burial in sediment, and predation. However, differences in developmental time, egg shell structure, and clutch type may impact both esfenvalerate uptake into the eggs and embryonic sensitivity to this insecticide. Synthetic pyrethroids, like esfenvalerate, exhibit strong affinities for the non-polar hydrocarbons such as those found in aquatic insect egg chorions and clutch gelatin. Pyrethroid insecticides induce toxicity by binding to voltage-activated sodium channels. This prevents channel closing and inactivation, resulting in prolonged nerve activity. In more developed insects, this leads to excitatory behavioral responses including twitching, muscle spasms, ataxia, and burning or itching sensations. Secondary effects of pyrethroid intoxication include decreased hydrocarbon production and uncontrolled release of hormones, both of which could affect normal embryonic development. Eggs or gravid females were collected at sites near Corvallis and the Metolious River at Camp Sherman, OR, for static exposures under controlled conditions for temperature and light. Eggs were exposed to esfenvalerate for 48 hours at concentrations ranging from 0.025 to 4.0 &#956;g/L. We observed that egg mortality and post-hatch fitness and survivorship were a function of egg or egg clutch morphology, and treatment timing relative to egg development.

Impacts
Agricultural and urban use of the synthetic pyrethroids has become increasingly common as an alternative to the organophosphates. Increased pyrethroid use has renewed interest in expanding our understanding of the potential for adverse impacts on ecological health of aquatic systems. To this end, we propose the use of subtle sublethal endpoints that will more completely characterize the impact of pollutants in aquatic systems. Macroinvertebrates have often been selected for the evaluation of pollutant risks as their communities play a critical role in sustaining stream ecological health.

Publications

  • Warner, K.E. and J.J. Jenkins. 2007. Effects of 17 Alpha-Ethinylestradiol and Bisphenol A on Vertebral Development in the Fathead Minnow (Pimephales promelas). Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 26, 732-737.
  • Sandahl, J. F., D. H. Baldwin, J. J. Jenkins, and N. L. Scholz. 2007. A sensory system at the interface between urban stormwater runoff and salmon survival. Environ. Sci. Technol. 41 (8), 2998 -3004.