Source: LOUISIANA STATE UNIVERSITY submitted to
HYDROTHERMAL TREATMENT OF DECOMMISSIONED PRESERVATIVE-TREATED WOOD
Sponsoring Institution
National Institute of Food and Agriculture
Project Status
TERMINATED
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
0205564
Grant No.
(N/A)
Project No.
LAB93780
Proposal No.
(N/A)
Multistate No.
(N/A)
Program Code
(N/A)
Project Start Date
Oct 1, 2005
Project End Date
Sep 30, 2010
Grant Year
(N/A)
Project Director
Shupe, T. F.
Recipient Organization
LOUISIANA STATE UNIVERSITY
(N/A)
BATON ROUGE,LA 70893
Performing Department
School of Renewable Natural Resources
Non Technical Summary
The three most commonly-used wood preservatives in the U.S. are chromated copper arsenate (CCA), oil-borne pentachlorophenol (penta), and coal tar-derived creosote. All are excellent preservatives for extending the service life of wood. All also pose profound environmental problems associated with their disposal: preservative-impregnated decommissioned wood is a high volume waste containing substantial levels of hazardous chemicals including known and probable human mutagens/carcinogens. As the volume of newly-treated and decommissioned wood increases yearly (please see section I.B., below), there is a proportional need to find alternatives to traditional disposal options, which mainly have been above-ground piles, land filling and incineration, all of which can have profound drawbacks. In general, CCA, penta, and creosote-impregnated waste wood contain leachable and environmentally mobile chemicals. These materials can be present in large cumulative amounts when the waste wood is collected in storage facilities and landfills. At many facilities containing decommissioned treated wood, leachate and volatiles have contaminated air, sediments, ground water, and exposed biota. The overall purpose of this work is to examine, in detail, the use of anoxic/reducing hydrothermal treatment of decommissioned CCA-, penta-, and creosote-treated wood. The proposed work herein is part of a larger on-going research program that is seeking to develop an economically viable and environmentally-friendly closed-loop recycling system for decommissioned preservative-treated wood products.
Animal Health Component
25%
Research Effort Categories
Basic
50%
Applied
25%
Developmental
25%
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
12306112000100%
Goals / Objectives
1) Document wood destruction efficiency and preservative transformation/recovery under hydrothermal (HT) (super- and sub-critical) conditions with variables such as pH, metallic co-reactants, and gaseous and dissolved reducing agents examined. 2) Evaluate the kinetics and reaction sequencing (i.e., identifying major intermediates between wood and petroleum-like hydrocarbon products. 3) Conduct direct mechanistic and kinetic studies of HT wood transformation and undesirable byproduct formation (e.g., chlorinated dioxins and furans) and determine ways to ameliorate this.
Project Methods
Recently decommissioned wood samples (approximately 1 ft sections) will be collected from representative southern yellow pine (Pinus sp.) highway guard rail (for CCA), decommissioned utility poles (creosote and penta). Wood samples will be examined to confirm that the genus is Pinus. The density of the material (guard rail or pole) will also be gravimetrically determined. The preservative retention of each sample will be done in accordance with AWPA standards. All wood sample types will be reduced to particles in a Wiley Mill and pass through a 1 mm mesh screen. Weighed particle samples will be added to high pressure corrosion resistant autoclaves in the presence of deionized water . The pH will be adjusted with HNO3 and NaOH to achieve acidic and basic conditions, respectively. The suspensions will be sparged with Ar for 1 h to remove dissolved oxygen, sealed and incubated at subcritical and supercritical conditions. These will be equilibrated in a muffle furnace for varying times up to 4 hours, not including heat up and cool down (approximately 2 h each). Quartz reactors will be used to study the effects of dissolved metals from the reactor walls on the HT reaction products, particularly with respect to undesirable condensation reactions involving chlorinated phenols resulting in more toxic species, e.g., chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, as discussed above. Although this has been done already with 4CP (above), it needs to be repeated with penta itself, and any other materials that give rise to undesirable byproducts. The penta solution will be placed in quartz-lined reactors with and without the presence of co-reactants (e.g, metals, reducing agents) and treated under both HT conditions. The goal is to find ways to efficiently eliminate the chlorinated residues and byproducts

Progress 10/01/05 to 09/30/10

Outputs
OUTPUTS: This project generated several outputs in the form of five journal publications, presentations to technical and non-technical audiences, and one US patent. A patent is currently under review that uses microwave assisted liquefaction extraction to remove of heavy metals from chromated cooper arsenate-treated wood has attracted the most commercial interest and has lead to additional research in this area to improve the economic viability of the process. PARTICIPANTS: This project was conducted with assistance from the LSU AgCenter's Calhoun Research Station and the USDA Forest Service's Southern Research Station. Our key industrial partner was Arnold Forest Products in Shreveport, La, who provided raw material, technical advice, and labor. TARGET AUDIENCES: The target audience for this research is the wood preservation industry, which includes producers and users of treated wood. A key audience for this research is the landfill industry. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.

Impacts
These results have great potential to have a revolutionary impact on how chromated cooper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood is disposed by greatly decreasing the amount that is land filled and increasing the amount of the residual preservative that is recycled and resued. The results showed that microwave-assisted liquefaction was very effective in recovering chromium and arsenic, and acetic acid was effective at removing copper and arsenic under the same conditions. The advantage of this approach is the reduced extraction time and one step method to achieve complete recovery of heavy metals. The current method has attracted wide industrial interest and was the basis for a US patent.

Publications

  • Eberhardt, T.E., W.J. Catallo, and T.F. Shupe. 2010. Hydrothermal transformation of Chinese privet seed biomass to gas-phase and semi-volatile products. Bioresource Technology. 101:4198-4204
  • Zhao, R.J., Z.H. Jiang, C.Y. Hse, and T.F. Shupe. 2010. The effect of steam treatment on bending properties and chemical composition of Moso bamboo Phyllostachys pubescens. Journal of Tropical Forest Science. 22(2):197-201.
  • Piao, C., J.E. Winandy, and T.F. Shupe. 2010. From hydrophilocity to hydrophobicity: A criticial review: Part 1. Wettability and surface behavior. Wood and Fiber Science 42(4):490-510.


Progress 01/01/09 to 12/31/09

Outputs
OUTPUTS: A major output in 2009 was the development of a Rapid Microwave-Assisted Acid Extraction of Metals from Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA)-Treated Southern Pine Wood. Copper, chromium, and arsenic were all rapidly extracted from chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated southern pine wood samples with three different acids (i.e., acetic acid, oxalic acid, and phosphoric acid) using a microwave reactor. Oxalic acid was effective in removing 100% of the chromium and arsenic at 160 C and 30 min., and acetic acid could remove 98% of the copper and arsenic under the same conditions. Oxalic acid greatly improved the extraction efficiency of arsenic and chromium when time was prolonged from 10 min. to 30 min. Acetic acid also showed improved ability to remove arsenic and copper when the reaction temperature was increased from 90 C to 160 C. Project information was disseminated through 23 refereed publications. PARTICIPANTS: Dr. Chung Hse USDA Forest Service Pineville, LA TARGET AUDIENCES: The Target audience for this research project is the forest products industry, governmental agencies, and other forest products researchers. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Not relevant to this project.

Impacts
These results have the potential to have a revolutionary impact on how preservative-treated wood is managed by greatly decreasing the amount that is landfilled and increasing the amount of the residual preservative that is recycled and resued. The results showed that diluted oxalic acid was very effective in recovering chromium and arsenic, and acetic acid was effective at removing copper and arsenic at the same conditions in a microwave reactor. The advantage of this approach is the reduced extraction time and one step method to achieve complete recovery of CCA metals. Although additional research on larger size southern pine chips should be done to further develop a more practical application of this method, the current method has attracted wide industrial interest and is the basis for a US patent application.

Publications

  • Via, B.K., C.L. So, T.F. Shupe, L.H. Groom, and J. Wikaira. 2009. Mechanical response of longleaf pine to variation in microfibril angle, chemistry associated wavelengths, density, and radial position. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing. 40(1):60-66.
  • Pan, H., T.F. Shupe, and C.Y. Hse. 2009. Characterization of novolac type liquefied wood/phenol/formaldehyde (LWPF) resin. Holz als Roh- und Werkstoff. 67(4):427-437.
  • Obanda, D.N. and T.F. Shupe. 2009. Biotransformation of tebuconazole by microorganisms: Evidence of a common mechanism. Wood Fiber Sci. 41(2):157-167.
  • Vlosky, R.P., T.F. Shupe, and Q. Wu. 2009. Perceptions & use of termite resistant treated wood products part I: The perspective of homeowners in Formosan subterranean termite infected states. Drvna Industrija (Wood Industry) Croatia. 60(3)135-144.
  • Vlosky, R.P., T.F. Shupe, and Q. Wu. 2009. Perceptions & use of termite resistant treated wood products part II: The perspective of home builders and architects in Formosan subterranean termite infected states. Drvna Industrija (Wood Industry) Croatia 60(4):219-228.
  • Pan, H., C.Y. Hse, R.P. Gambrell, and T.F. Shupe. 2009. Fractionation of heavy metals in liquefied chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood sludge using a modified BCR-sequential extraction procedure. Chemosphere. 77:201-206.
  • Piao, C. C. J. Monlezun, T.F. Shupe. 2009. Glueline bonding performance of decommissioned CCA-treated wood. Part I: Without retreatment. Forest Products Journal. 59(7/8):36-42.
  • Catallo, W.J., T.F. Shupe, J.L. Comeaux, T. Junk. 2009. Transformation of glucose to volatile and semi-volatile products in hydrothermal (HT) systems. Biomass and Bioenergy. doi:10.1016/jbiombioe.2009.07.017.
  • Shupe, T.F. and W.J. Catallo. 2009. Sub-l and supercritical water treatment of creosote-treated wood waste. In: C.Y. Hse, Z. Jiang, and M.L. Kuo (eds.). Advanced Biomass Science and Technology for Bio-Based Products. May 23-25, 2007. Beijing, China. pp. 9-16.
  • Lee, S.Y., T.F. Shupe, and C.Y. Hse. 2009. Plasma-enhanced modification of TMP fiber and its effect on tensile strength of wood fiber/PP composites. In: C.Y. Hse, Z. Jiang, and M.L. Kuo (eds.). Advanced Biomass Science and Technology for Bio-Based Products. May 23-25, 2007. Beijing, China. pp. 212-224
  • So, C.L., T.F. Shupe, S.T. Lebow, T.L. Eberhardt, and L.H. Groom. 2009. Application of near infrared spectroscopy to wood preservatives. In: C.Y. Hse, Z. Jiang, and M.L. Kuo (eds.). Advanced Biomass Science and Technology for Bio-Based Products. May 23-25, 2007. Beijing, China. pp. 125-130.
  • Pan, H., T.F. Shupe, and C.Y. Hse. 2009. Comparative study on liquefaction of creosote and chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood and untreated southern pine wood: effects of acid catalyst content, liquefaction time, temperature, and phenol to wood ratio. In: C.Y. Hse, Z. Jiang, and M.L. Kuo (eds.). Advanced Biomass Science and Technology for Bio-Based Products. May 23-25, 2007. Beijing, China. pp. 102-109.
  • Pan, H., T.F. Shupe, and C.Y. Hse. 2009. Investigation of bio-composites using novolac type liquefied wood resin: effects of liquefaction and fabrication conditions. In: C.Y. Hse, Z. Jiang, and M.L. Kuo (eds.). Advanced Biomass Science and Technology for Bio-Based Products. May 23-25, 2007. Beijing, China. pp. 73-81.
  • Pan, H., T.F. Shupe, and C.Y. Hse. 2009. Wood liquefaction and its application to novolac resin. In: C.Y. Hse, Z. Jiang, and M.L. Kuo (eds.). Advanced Biomass Science and Technology for Bio-Based Products. May 23-25, 2007. Beijing, China. pp. 39-50.
  • Wang, G., Z. Jiang, C.Y. Hse, and T.F. Shupe. 2009. Physical and mechanical properties of flakeboard with bamboo strips. In: C.Y. Hse, Z. Jiang, and M.L. Kuo (eds.). Advanced Biomass Science and Technology for Bio-Based Products. May 23-25, 2007. Beijing, China. pp. 402-411.
  • Lee, S., T.F. Shupe, L.H. Groom, and C.Y. Hse. 2009. Maleated polypropylene film and wood fiber handsheet laminates. Polymer Composites. 30 (12):1864-1872.
  • Pan, H. and T.F. Shupe. 2009. Wood liquefaction and value-added products. Louisiana Agriculture. 53(4):30-31.
  • Shupe, T.F. 2009. Hydrothermal processing of plant biomass for petrochemical and bioenergy products. Louisiana Agriculture. 53(4):32-33.
  • B. Yu, C.Y. Hse, and T.F. Shupe. 2009. Rapid microwave-assisted acid extraction of metals from chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated southern pine wood. IRG/WP 09-50262.
  • T. Du, C.Y. Hse, and T.F. Shupe. 2009. Antifungal activities of three supercritical fluid extracted cedar oils. IRG/WP 09-30501.
  • C.R. McIntyre, M.H. Freeman, T.F. Shupe, Q. Wu, and D.P. Kamdem. 2009. The form of copper: Does It really matter IRG/WP 09-30513.
  • Q. Wu, T. Shupe, J. Curole, K. Ragon, M. Voitier, M. Freeman, and D. Ring. 2009. Performance of fasteners in treated wood: A comparative study. IRG/WP 09-40465.
  • Q Wu, T. Shupe, J. Curole, K. Ragon, M. Voitier, M. Freeman, and D. Ring. 2009. Termite resistant properties of wood and natural fiber plastic composites - AWPA E1 test data. IRG/WP 09-40466.


Progress 01/01/08 to 12/31/08

Outputs
OUTPUTS: Information developed from this research has been broadly distributed by internet postings on the LSU AgCenter, School of Renewable Natural Resources, and Louisiana Forest Products Development Center web sites. A hard copy extension publication educating the public on wood decay was also released. Numerous presentations were made throughout the state and country to academic and non-technical audiences. Information has also been disseminated via video and news releases from the LSU AgCenter and direct interviews with local and national newspapers. PARTICIPANTS: Tianchuan Du is a Master of Science student that has worked on this project. TARGET AUDIENCES: The target audience is the wood preservation industry and consumers of preservative-treated wood. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.

Impacts
Recent research has focused on the use of novel chemical technologies to either recycle or detoxify the residual preservative in decommissioned preservative-treated wood. The principal technologies that have been successfully explored include wood liquefaction and supercritical water chemical conversion. Wood liquefaction uses mild temperatures and organic reagents in the presence of an organic catalyst to convert small wood particles into a viscous liquid material. This technique has been found to remove 99% of the metals from decommissioned CCA-treated wood wastes. The supercritical water approach uses extreme temperature and pressure and has been successfully applied to the three major types of wood preservatives found in landfills (i.e., creosote, CCA, and penta). The primary impact of this finding is the development of a closed loop recycling program for decommissioned treated wood wastes. This research has had both an environmental and economical impact. The development of a composite pole which uses waste wood will help reduce the demand for pole sized timber, increase environmental stewardship, and decrease the amount of preservative treated wood waste in landfills.

Publications

  • Lee, S., T.F. Shupe, and C.Y. Hse. 2008. Thermosets as compatibilizers at the isotactic polypropylene film and thermomechanical pulp fiber interphase. Composite Interfaces. 15(2-3):221-230.
  • Via, B.K. C.L. So, L.G. Eckhardt, T.F. Shupe, L.H. Groom, and M. Stine. 2008. Response of near infrared diffuse reflectance spectra to blue stain and wood age. Journal of Near Infrared Spectroscopy. 16(1):71-74.
  • Pan, H., T.F. Shupe, and C.Y. Hse. 2008. Synthesis and cure kinetics of liquefied wood/phenol/formaldehyde (LWPF) resins. Journal of Applied Polymer Science. 108:1837-1844.
  • Shupe, T.F., L.H. Groom, T.L. Eberhardt, T.C. Pesacreta, and T.G. Rials. 2008. Selected mechanical and physical properties of Chinese tallow tree juvenile wood. Forest Products Journal. 58(4):90-93.
  • Obanda, D.N, T.F. Shupe, and H.M. Barnes. 2008. Reducing leaching of boron-based wood preservatives A review of research. Bioresource Technology. 99(15):7312-7322.
  • Catallo, W.J. and T.F. Shupe. 2008. Hydrothermal treatment of mixed preservative-treated wood waste. Holzforschung. 62(1):119-122.
  • Yu, H.Q, Z.H. Jiang, C.Y. Hse, and T.F. Shupe. 2008. Selected physical and mechanical properties of moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens). Journal of Tropical Forest Science. 20(4):258-263.
  • Hwang, C.Y., C.Y. Hse, and T.F. Shupe. 2008. Effects of recycled materials on the properties of wood fiber-polyethylene composites Part 3: Wettability. Forest Products Journal. 58(5):66-72.
  • Gao, H., D. Obanda, T.F. Shupe, C.Y. Hse, D.R. Ring. 2008. Chemical analysis and antifungal activities of heartwood extracts of Port Orford cedar. Holzforschung. 62(5):620-623.
  • Obanda, D.N., T.F. Shupe., and W.J. Catallo. 2008. Resistance of Trichoderma harzianum to triazole based wood preservatives Proposed biotransformation pathyways. Holzforschung. 62(5):613-619.
  • Pan, H., T.F. Shupe, and C. Y. Hse. 2008. Physical and mechanical properties of bio-composites from wood particles and liquefied wood resin. In: J.R. Shelly, M.E. Puettmann, K.E. Skog, H.-S. Han (eds.). Woody Biomass Utilization Challenges and Opportunities. Forest Products Society. Madison, WI. ISBN-13: 978-1-892529-51-0. pp. 43-46 (refereed).
  • Catallo, W.J., T.F. Shupe, and T.L. Eberhardt. 2008. Hydrothermal processing of biomass from invasive aquatic plants. Biomass and Bioenergy. 32(2):140-145.


Progress 01/01/07 to 12/31/07

Outputs
OUTPUTS: Our laboratory made several oral and poster presentations at the Forest Products Society International Convention, American Wood Protection Association, Southeastern Utility Pole Conference, Ark-La-Tex Forestry Forum, Advanced Biomass Science and Technology for Bio-Based Products (Beijing, China), All Division 5 Conference (Taipei, Taiwan), and Durability of Wood-Framed Housing Lessons Learned from Natural Disasters Conference. We have submitted abstracts for several more oral and poster presentations in 2008 for presentation at the Society of Wood Science and Technology Conference (Concepcion, Chile), Forest Products Society International Convention, American Wood Protection Association and possibly others. The significance of the results obtained from this reach will be continued to be shared with scientific communities. PARTICIPANTS: Partner organizations include the USDA Forest Service, Southern Research Station, Auburn University, and Arnold Forest Products Corp. in Shreveport, La. TARGET AUDIENCES: The target audience for this work is the wood preservation industry, major treated wood users (utility pole users and railroad tie users) and the scientific community.

Impacts
All Port-Orford cedar (POC) wood extracts showed significant free radical scavenging activity. In the ABTS assay, the inner bark extracts exhibited the strongest free radical scavenging activity followed by the outer bark, sapwood, and heartwood extracts. In the metal chelating activity system, the sapwood extract demonstrated significant activity. The greatest Total Phenol Content (TPC), was detected in the inner bark with outer bark having the second highest amount. The lowest TPC extract was observed in the heartwood extract. These results indicate that the extracts of antioxidant activity is in accordance with the amount of phenolics present in these extracts, and the inner bark and outer bark of POC are rich in phenolics and may provide a good source of antioxidants. Free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are byproducts during numerous physiological and biochemical processes. Some research reports have shown that excessive ROS may be harmful biomoleculars that promote aging, cancer, and cardiovascular diseases. Consequently, protecting organisms from oxidative damage by use of antioxidants is one approach to prevent these diseases. However, previous research has reported that some synthetic antioxidants, such as butylated hydroxyltoluene (BHT) and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), are also carcinogenic. Hence, there is a great desire to search for safe and natural antioxidants as nutritional supplements and health food.

Publications

  • Saxe, J.K., E.W. Wannamaker, S.W. Conklin, T.F. Shupe, and B.D. Beck. 2007. Evaluating landfill disposal of chromated copper arsenate (CCA) treated wood and potential effects on groundwater: evidence from Florida. Chemosphere. 66:496-504.
  • Li, X.B., T.F. Shupe, C.Y. Hse, G.F. Peter, and T. L. Eberhardt. 2007. Anatomical and chemical composition changes with maturation of bamboo species Phyllostachys pubescens. Journal of Tropical Forest Science. 19(1):6-12.
  • Gao, H., T.F. Shupe, and T.L. Eberhardt, and C.Y. Hse. 2007. Antioxidant activity of extracts from the wood and bark of Port-Orford-cedar. Journal of Wood Science. 53:147-152.
  • Eberhardt, T.L., X. Li, T.F. Shupe, and C.Y. Hse. 2007. Chinese Tallow Tree (Sapium sebiferum) utilization: Characterization of extractives and cell wall chemistry. Wood and Fiber Science 39(2):319-324.
  • Pan, H., T.F. Shupe, and C.Y. Hse. 2007. Characterization of liquefied wood residues from different liquefaction conditions. Journal of Applied Polymer Science. 105:3739-3746.
  • Lee, S., T.F. Shupe, L.H. Groom, and C.Y. Hse. 2007. Wetting behaviors of phenol- and urea-formaldehyde resins as compatibilizers. Wood and Fiber Science. 39(3):482-492.
  • Lee, S., T.F. Shupe, L.H. Groom, and C.Y. Hse. 2007. Thermomechanical pulp fiber surface modification for enhancing the interfacial adhesion with polypropylene. Wood and Fiber Science. 39(3):424-433.
  • Via, B.K., C.L. So, L.H. Groom, T.F. Shupe, M. Stine, and J. Wikaira. 2007. Within tree variation of lignin, extractives, and microfibril angle coupled with the theoretical and near infrared modeling of microfibril angle. IAWA J. 28(2): 189-209.
  • Hwang, C.Y., C.Y. Hse, and T.F. Shupe. 2007. Effects of recycled materials on the properties of wood fiber-polyethylene composites Part 2: Effect of a compatibilizer on the wettability of birch plywood and polyolefins. Forest Products Journal. 57(11):80-84.
  • Vlosky, R.P. and T.F. Shupe. 2007. A survey of the U.S. treated wood manufacturing industry. In: Wood Protection 2006. Forest Products Society. Madison, WI. ISBN 1-892529-48-3. pp. 271-276.
  • Piao, P. and T.F. Shupe. 2007. When its done, is it really over for wood poles? 2007. In: (H.M. Barnes, ed.) Proceedings Southeastern Utility Pole Conference. Southern Forest Products Society. Madison, WI. ISBN 1-892529-43-2. pp. 165-172.
  • Shupe, T.F. 2007. Louisiana Natural Resources Symposium Proceedings. LSU AgCenter. ISBN 0-9763632-2-4. Baton Rouge, LA. 142 p.
  • Curole, J.P., T.F. Shupe, Q. Wu, D. Ring, and D. Ring. 2007. Analysis of the variability of control samples used in the AWPA E-1 Formosan subterranean termite laboratory jar test. In: (H.M. Barnes, ed.) Proceedings Southeastern Utility Pole Conference. Southern Forest Products Society. Madison, WI. ISBN 1-892529-43-2. p. 229.
  • Piao, C., T.F. Shupe, C.Y. Hse, and R.C. Tang. 2007. Finite element analysis of tapered wood laminated composite poles with biomimicking features and gluelines. In: (H.M. Barnes, ed.) Proceedings Southeastern Utility Pole Conference. Southern Forest Products Society. Madison, WI. ISBN 1-892529-43-2. p. 233.
  • Piao, C., T.F. Shupe, C.Y. Hse, and R.C. Tang. 2007. Tapered wood laminated composite poles with biomimicry features. In: (H.M. Barnes, ed.) Proceedings Southeastern Utility Pole Conference. Southern Forest Products Society. Madison, WI. ISBN 1-892529-43-2. p. 231.
  • Shupe, T.F. 2007. Closed loop preservative treated wood recycling program. In: (H.M. Barnes, ed.) Proceedings Southeastern Utility Pole Conference. Southern Forest Products Society. Madison, WI. ISBN 1-892529-43-2. p. 235.
  • So, C.L., T.F. Shupe, S.T. Lebow, T.L. Eberhardt, and L.H. Groom. 2007. Application of near infrared spectroscopy to wood preservatives. Abstracts of the Advanced Biomass Science and Technology for Bio-Based Products. May 23-25, 2007. Beijing, China. p. 17.
  • Tang, R.C., T.F. Shupe, and C.Y. Hse. 2007. FST (Formosan subterranean termite) resistance of wood composite boards made of lightweight softwood: Dawn Redwood (Metasequoia glyptostroboides). At: IUFRO All Division 5 Conference. Taipei, Taiwan on October 29 to November 2, 2007. p. 377.
  • Tang, R.C., C.Y. Hse, T.F. Shupe. 2007. Lightweight wood composite boards made of the fast-grown species - Paulownia. At: IUFRO All Division 5 Conference. Taipei, Taiwan on October 29 to November 2, 2007. p. 72.
  • Curole, J., T. Shupe, Q, Wu, D. Ring, and M. Voitier. 2007. Formosan subterranean termite testing techniques provided by the LSU wood durability laboratory. In: Durability of wood-framed housing Lessons learned from natural disasters. Biloxi, MS. Nov. 13-15, 2007. p. 11.
  • Ring, D., M. Voitier, T.F. Shupe, and Q. Wu. 2007. Formosan subterranean termite feeding on Spruce-Pine-Fir 2x4s: Relationship between percent weight loss and strength loss. In: Durability of wood-framed housing Lessons learned from natural disasters. Biloxi, MS. Nov. 13-15, 2007. p. 11.
  • Wang, G., Z. Jiang, C.Y. Hse and T.F. Shupe. 2007. Physical and mechanical properties of flakeboard reinforced with bamboo strips. Abstracts of the Advanced Biomass Science and Technology for Bio-Based Products. May 23-25, 2007. Beijing, China. p 70.
  • Lee, S.Y., T.F. Shupe, and C.Y. Hse. 2007. Plasma enhanced modification of TMP fiber and its effect on tensile strength of wood fiber/PP composites. Abstracts of the Advanced Biomass Science and Technology for Bio-Based Products. May 23-25, 2007. Beijing, China. p. 95.
  • Lee, S., T.F. Shupe, L.H. Groom, and C.Y. Hse. 2007. Thermosets as compatibilizers at the wood and polypropylene interfaces. In: 61st Forest Products Society Annual Meeting. June 10-13, 2007, Knoxville, TN, USA. Biographies and Abstracts. p. 33.
  • Lee, S., T.F. Shupe, L.H. Groom, and C.Y. Hse. 2007. TMP fiber surface modification for enhancing the interfacial adhesion with polypropylene. In: 60th Forest Products Society Annual Meeting. June 10-13, 2007, Knoxville, TN, USA. Biographies and Abstracts. p. 33.
  • Hse, C.Y., T.F. Shupe, and R.C. Tang. 2007. A complete closed-loop recycling system for CA-treated wood. At: IUFRO -All Division 5 Conference. Taipei, Taiwan on October 29 to November 2, 2007. p. 301.
  • Shupe, T.F. and W.J. Catallo. 2007. Supercritical water treatment of creosote-treated wood waste. At: IUFRO -All Division 5 Conference. Taipei, Taiwan on October 29 to November 2, 2007. p. 304.


Progress 01/01/06 to 12/31/06

Outputs
Recent work focused on creosote-treated wood in anoxic supercritical water (SC). Decommissioned (ca. 15 yr) creosote-treated pine utility pole wood that had been chipped was directly hydro-treated. During treatment, over 99 percent of the creosote-derived hydrocarbon residues in the wood were recovered and the wood itself was transformed into a mixture of hydrocarbons including substituted benzenes, phenolics and light PAHs. These wood-derived transformation products served to reconstitute the "light end" of the creosote, which largely had been lost while in service. Thus, the hazardous waste (creosote hydrocarbon mixture) was recovered, and the solid waste (wood) was transformed into a complimentary product mixture in a single pass. Solid residues after 12-20 h of treatment were less than 2 percent w/w.

Impacts
This work is expected to have positive impacts on both rural economic development and environmental stewardship. This work is part of a larger on-going research program that is seeking to develop an economically viable and environmentally-friendly closed-loop recycling system for decommissioned preservative-treated wood products. It is expected that this work will lay the groundwork for an industrial plant to convert decommissioned preservative-treated wood into value-added products. Therefore, successful development of the closed loop recycling system will result in economic development by adding jobs in rural communities. Moreover, this research has the potential to reduce the amount of preservative-treated wood that is land filled, which will save landfill space and reduce the amount of preservative leaching into groundwater. Moreover, the recycling of treated wood will reduce the harvest pressure on our timber resources.

Publications

  • Via, B.K., T.F. Shupe, L.H. Groom, M. Stine, and C.L. So. 2006. Variation in kink and curl of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) fibers. In: (D.D. Stokke, and L.H. Groom, eds). Characterization of the cellulosic cell wall. Grand Lake, CO. August 25-27, 2003. (ISBN 0-8138-0439-6). Blackwell Publishing, Ames, IA. pp. 180-191.
  • Shupe, T.F. (ed.). 2006. Composite industry in transition. Forest Products Society. Madison, WI. ISBN 1-892529-40-8. Madison, WI. 98 p.
  • Shupe, T.F., C.Y. Hse, and H. Roliadi. 2006. Removal of creosote from wood particles at different horizontal and vertical locations of decommissioned poles using steam treatment. Wood and Fiber Science. 38(2):345-350.
  • Lee, S., T. F. Shupe, and C. Y. Hse. 2006. Mechanical and physical properties of agro-based fiberboard. Holz als Roh- und Werkstoff. 64(1):74-79.
  • Shupe, T.F. and W.J. Catallo. 2006. Hydrothermal processing of Chinese tallow tree (Triadica sebifera syn. Sapium sebiferum) biomass. Wood and Fiber Science. 38(1):55-63.
  • Lebow, S., T.F. Shupe, B. Woodward, D. Crawford, B. Via and, C. Hatfield. 2006. Formosan and native subterranean termite attack of pressure-treated SPF wood species exposed in Louisiana. Wood and Fiber Science. 38(4):609-620.
  • Gao, H., T.F. Shupe, T.L. Eberhardt, and C.Y. Hse. 2006. Antioxidant activity of extracts from the bark of Chaemaecyparis lawsoniana (A. Murray) Parl. Holzforschung. 60(4):459-462.
  • Piao, C., T.F. Shupe, R.C. Tang, and C.Y. Hse. 2006. Mechanical properties of small-scale laminated wood composite poles: Effects of taper and webs. Wood and Fiber Science. 38(4):633-643.
  • Mejia, M.A., R.P. Vlosky, T.F. Shupe, and F. X. Aguilar. 2006. Analisis participativo de las fortalezas, oportunidades, debilidades y amenazas de la pequena y mediana industria transformadora de la madera en Siguatepeque y San Pedro Sula, Honduras. Recursos Naturales y Ambiente. 46-47:158-165.
  • Via, B.K., L.G. Eckhardt, C.L. So, T.F. Shupe, L.H. Groom, and M. Stine. 2006. The response of visible/near infrared absorbance to wood staining fungi. Wood and Fiber Science. 38(4):717-726.
  • Shupe, T.F. and C.Y. Hse. 2006. Recycling of preservative- treated wood using chemical extraction technologies. In: (T. Townsend and H. Solo-Gabriele, eds.). Environmental impacts of preservative-treated wood. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL. pp. 383-400.
  • Piao, C., T.F. Shupe, and C.Y. Hse. 2006. Dynamic control of moisture during hot pressing of wood composites. In: (T.F. Shupe, ed.): Recent developments in the particleboard, fiberboard, and molded wood products industry. Forest Products Society. Madison, WI. ISBN 1-892529-40-8 pp. 27-40.
  • Lee, S.Y., T.F. Shupe, and C.Y. Hse. 2006. Properties of bio-based medium density fiberboard. In: (T.F. Shupe, ed.): Recent developments in the particleboard, fiberboard, and molded wood products industry. Forest Products Society. Madison, WI. ISBN 1-892529-40-8 pp. 51-58.
  • Lee, S.Y., T.F. Shupe, L.H. Groom, and C.Y. Hse. 2006. Heterogeneous nucleation of a semicrystalline polymer on fiber surfaces. In: (T.F. Shupe, ed.): Recent developments in the particleboard, fiberboard, and molded wood products industry. Forest Products Society. Madison, WI. ISBN 1-892529-40-8. pp. 91-98.