Source: PURDUE UNIVERSITY submitted to
Sponsoring Institution
National Institute of Food and Agriculture
Project Status
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Accession No.
Grant No.
Project No.
Proposal No.
Multistate No.
Program Code
Project Start Date
Oct 1, 2005
Project End Date
Sep 30, 2010
Grant Year
Project Director
Conley, S. P.
Recipient Organization
Performing Department
Non Technical Summary
To remain economically viable in today's global soybean market, U.S. growers must continue to adapt new technology and utilize crop and pest management tools to diagnose and manage crop and pest related issues. The need for integrating crop and pest management disciplines in soybean research is more evident today than in years past. Increased soybean seed cost coupled with new seed-applied technologies have soybean growers asking what is the minimum seeding rate needed to maximize crop yield and economic return. Furthermore, new pest related issues such as glyphosate resistant marestail, the soybean aphid, and soybean rust have increased grower input cost and increased the need for improved crop vigilance. My goal is to develop an integrated research program that addresses the new needs that Indiana soybean growers are facing.
Animal Health Component
Research Effort Categories

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
Goals / Objectives
Goal statement: The overall goal of this research program is to increase the economic and environmental sustainability of current soybean production practices through improved crop and pest management strategies and the development of accurate and timely crop and pest management decision aids. The specific objectives of my research program are: Objective 1: Develop accurate soybean crop and pest management recommendations that maximize economic return for growers. Objective 2: Characterize soybean phenotypic response to environmental conditions. Objective 3: Quantify the impact of agronomic production practices on Asian soybean rust.
Project Methods
Objective 1: Develop accurate soybean crop and pest management recommendations that maximize economic return for growers. Research will be conducted at Purdue Agricultural Centers (PACs) to quantify the impact of intensive soybean management practices on soybean yield and economic profitability. Treatments will range from the conventional management strategy of seeding, no scouting, and one application of glyphosate to "intensive" management strategies that include utilization of seed-applied technology, frequent scouting, and the application of foliar nutrients and pesticides. Data to be collected will be specified by research faculty within each discipline and reported at the system level. Objective 2: Characterize soybean phenotypic response to environmental conditions. Research will be conducted at a number of Purdue Agricultural Centers to quantify the impact of crop stress on soybean crop phenology. A partial list of treatments to be investigated includes location (e.g. soil type, yield potential, etc.), crop stress and yield compensation mechanisms (e.g. defoliation, crop stand loss, etc.), planting date (early, on-time, late), and maturity group (range 2.4 to 4.4). The data collected will include LAI, PAR, phenological development rate, soybean yield and yield components. These experimental sites are located near automated weather stations that collect several climatic parameters including temperature, rainfall, photoperiod, and solar radiation. Additional research projects will be initiated as needed in the greenhouse and growth chamber to complement the in-field research. Objective 3: Quantify the impact of agronomic production practices on management of Asian soybean rust. Large plot experiments will be conducted at three Purdue Agricultural Centers (SEPAC, Davis, and NEPAC) to quantify the impact of row spacing and fungicide application timing on spray canopy penetration. The row spacing treatments are 30", 15", 7.5", and 7.5" with tram lines. The application timing treatments are R1, R3, R5, R3 + R5, R1 + R3 + R5, and an untreated control. At each application timing spray cards will be positioned at different heights within the soybean canopy to measure fungicide coverage. Small plot experiments will be conducted at several PACs to quantify the impact of planting date (early and on-time), maturity group (2.7 to 3.9), and fungicide application timing (R1, R3, R5, and untreated) on soybean yield and yield components. Similar experiments will be conducted at SEPAC and SWPAC to characterize the impact of fungicide application timing on soybean yield and yield components in double crop soybean production systems.

Progress 10/01/05 to 09/30/10

nothing to report; left Purdue for employment elsewhere

nothing to report; left Purdue for employment elsewhere


  • No publications reported this period

Progress 10/01/05 to 09/30/06

Since the introduction of glyphosate tolerant soybean in 1996, management of soybean production systems have dramatically changed. Today growers are faced daily with new crop and pest management technologies, new agronomic traits, and an ever changing pest complex. These new pests--the soybean aphid and the soybean rust fungus --may combine to form a potentially devastating pest complex, both of which require management with pesticides. To maintain commercial viability, soybean growers in the U.S. must continue to adopt new pest and crop management tools and technologies. The objective of my research was to identify current agronomic production practices and concerns of Indiana soybean producers, to aid Purdue Extension and research faculty in developing Extension programs and educational materials that meet current and future clientele needs, and to provide a framework for directing applied soybean research efforts. The results of my research define distinct similarities and differences among growers of different farm operation size. Large acreage growers (≥ 1000 acres) were more likely to plant soybeans in rows spaced 11 to 20 inches, reduce seeding rates, plant earlier, and have higher yields. Large acreage growers were also more likely to own a yield monitor, conduct on-farm research, use a computer, and routinely use the Internet. To manage soybean rust my research has proven that row spacing has no effect on spray canopy penetration at any application timing and that damage from sprayer wheel tracks will significantly reduce yield once the soybean crop enters the reproductive growth stage. At the whole-field level, this damage will depend on sprayer boom width. My results also prove that growers should apply fungicides in at least 15 GPA of carrier. When cutting input costs my research suggests that growers only need 100,000 plants to achieve 100% yield potential (the average seeding rate in Indiana is currently 198,000) and that a stand of 50,000 plants per acre will yield 85% of the maximum yield. My research suggests that as seed costs continue to rise, seed applied fungicide treatments will become cost effective and that the use of soybean inoculants in a corn-soybean rotation will return an average of one bushel per acre.

As Extension budgets remain stagnant, Extension educators and faculty are strongly urged to decrease the number of local meetings and focus on state/regional meetings and to develop and deliver information via the Web. My research indicated that these methods are the least desirable methods of information delivery for our grower clientele. To maintain strong contact and support with this clientele group we must continue to deliver at least some of our programs locally, encourage more growers to utilize computers, and develop Web-based materials that are simple, informative, and effective. My research also identified that growers of different operations sizes have distinctively different research and educational needs. It is critical that these needs are defined and the appropriate information delivered to improve the production systems and economic viability of these distinct grower groups. My research also suggests that Indiana growers do not need to greatly modify their production practices to manage soybean rust and that the addition of an inoculant to a corn-soybean rotation will result in an estimated $30 M increase in grower revenue annually. Lastly, my research indicates that a proper seeding rate management (i.e. seed cost) will result in an annual growers savings of $2 M.


  • Bradley, K.E. and Conley, S.P. 2006. Influence of Imazamox Rate and Tank-Mix Combinations on Winter Annual Broadleaf Weed Control and Yield in Imidazolinone-Resistant Wheat. Crop Management doi:10.1094/CM-2006-0523-01-RS, May 2006.
  • Cromley, S.M.; Wiebold, W.J.; Scharf, P.C.; and Conley, S.P. 2006. Hybrid and Planting Date Effects on Corn Response to Starter Fertilizer. Online. Crop Management doi:10.1094/CM-2006-0906-01-RS.

Progress 10/01/04 to 09/30/05

This is a new CRIS proposal therefore I have little information to report. Proposed research has been initiated with little to no significant problems. I am continuing to develop my research program to meet clientele needs and impact critical areas of interest. A needs assessment survey was sent to Indiana Soybean growers.

Survey results will inform future soybean research extension efforts, including funding support from the Indiana Soybean Association.


  • No publications reported this period