Source: NORTH CAROLINA STATE UNIV submitted to
BREEDING CUCUMBER, WATERMELON AND OTHER CUCURBITS
Sponsoring Institution
National Institute of Food and Agriculture
Project Status
TERMINATED
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
0204636
Grant No.
(N/A)
Project No.
NC06834
Proposal No.
(N/A)
Multistate No.
(N/A)
Program Code
(N/A)
Project Start Date
Oct 1, 2005
Project End Date
Sep 30, 2011
Grant Year
(N/A)
Project Director
Wehner, T. C.
Recipient Organization
NORTH CAROLINA STATE UNIV
(N/A)
RALEIGH,NC 27695
Performing Department
HORTICULTURAL SCIENCE
Non Technical Summary
Cucumber, watermelon and other cucurbits are important horticultural crops in the U.S. We will collect seeds from around the world, evaluate the collections for useful traits, and combine them into new cultivars.
Animal Health Component
50%
Research Effort Categories
Basic
20%
Applied
50%
Developmental
30%
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
2021420108060%
2021421108030%
2021429108010%
Knowledge Area
202 - Plant Genetic Resources;

Subject Of Investigation
1429 - Cucurbits, other; 1420 - Melons; 1421 - Cucumber;

Field Of Science
1080 - Genetics;
Goals / Objectives
Add useful scientific information on the breeding and genetics of cucumber, watermelon and other cucurbit crops to the research literature. Collect, evaluate and release accessions of those three crop species that have useful traits. Make available new inbred lines and hybrid cultivars with improved horticultural performance to the seed industry.
Project Methods
Collect seeds of cucumber, watermelon and other cucurbit crops from around the world, concentrating on primary and secondary centers of diversity (southern Africa and southeast Asia). Evaluate the collections along with the USDA plant introduction accessions and all available cultivars for useful horticultural traits. In cucumber, those will include fruit yield, earliness, quality, and resistance to nematodes using optimum methods developed by our program. In watermelon, those will include fruit sugar content, fruit flesh color, fruit yield, and resistance to gummy stem blight and powdery mildew using methods that are being developed as part of our research.

Progress 10/01/05 to 09/30/11

Outputs
OUTPUTS: Research is continuing on resistance to downy mildew in cucumber, and parthenocarpy in cucumber. Watermelon outcrossing rate, yield stability, and hollow heart resistance are being studied. Watermelon populations with orange flesh, Canary yellow flesh, small fruit, high yield, high quality, or gummy stem blight resistance are being improved for use in cultivar development. Breeding is continuing on eastern shipping cantaloupes, Sprite melons and canary melons. Breeding work is continuing on development of high yielding pickling cucumber inbreds. We are releasing cucumber hybrids and inbreds that are multiple branched littleleaf pickling type, as well as middle-eastern fresh market type and pickling type (both gynoecious and monoecious hybrids). The release of three new hybrids of luffa sponge gourd is also under way. A distanced education program in plant breeding was started. Two plant breeding courses are now on-line, and a graduate certificate is being developed. PARTICIPANTS: Tammy Ellington (research specialist), Adam Call (PhD candidate), Mahendra Dia (PhD candidate), Shen Ma (PhD candidate), Laura Arellano (greenhouse assistant). TARGET AUDIENCES: American Association for the Advancement of Science, American Genetic Association, American Society for Horticultural Science, American Society of Agronomy, Council for Agricultural Science and Technology, Crop Science Society of America, Cucurbit Genetics Cooperative, National Association of Plant Breeders (Plant Breeding CC), North Carolina Pickle Producers, Pickle Packers International, Plant Breeding Center at NC State, Watermelon Research and Development Group. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.

Impacts
The general public receives value from this project through higher quality, lower cost food that is available fresh through a greater part of the year. Growers benefit through higher yield per acre and improved disease resistance. Processors benefit from new cultivars that yield a higher percentage of useable product. Seed companies receive trained plant breeders and useful germplasm. New information from our research is made available in journal articles, through on-campus courses, distance education, in professional certificate programs, at scientific meetings, and on the world wide web.

Publications

  • Yang, ShuangJuan, Han Miao, ShengPing Zhang, ZhouChao Cheng, Jian Zhou, ShaoYun Dong, T. C. Wehner and XingFang Gu. 2011. Genetic analysis and mapping of gl-2 gene in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). Acta Horticulturae Sinica; 38: 1685-1692.
  • Davis, A. R., C. L. Webber, W. W. Fish, T. C. Wehner, S. King, and P. Perkins-Veazie. 2011. L-citrulline levels in watermelon cultigens tested in two environments. HortScience 46: 1572-1575.
  • Kumar, R. and T. C. Wehner. 2011. Discovery of second gene for solid dark green versus light green rind pattern in watermelon. J. Heredity 102: 489-493.
  • Kumar, R. and T. C. Wehner. 2011. Inheritance of fruit yield in two watermelon populations in North Carolina. Euphytica 182:275-283.


Progress 10/01/09 to 09/30/10

Outputs
OUTPUTS: Research is continuing on resistance to downy mildew in cucumber, and parthenocarpy in cucumber. Watermelon outcrossing rate, yield stability, and hollow heart resistance are being studied. Watermelon populations with orange flesh, Canary yellow flesh, small fruit, high yield, high quality, or gummy stem blight resistance are being improved for use in cultivar development. Breeding is continuing on eastern shipping cantaloupes, Sprite melons and canary melons. Breeding work is continuing on development of high yielding pickling cucumber inbreds. We are releasing cucumber hybrids and inbreds that are multiple branched littleleaf pickling type, as well as middle-eastern fresh market type and pickling type (both gynoecious and monoecious hybrids). The release of three new hybrids of luffa sponge gourd is also under way. PARTICIPANTS: Tammy Ellington (research specialist), Lingli Lou (MS candidate), Adam Call (PhD candidate), Mahendra Dia (PhD candidate), Shen Ma (PhD candidate), Laura Arellano (greenhouse assistant). TARGET AUDIENCES: American Association for the Advancement of Science, American Genetic Association, American Society for Horticultural Science, American Society of Agronomy, Council for Agricultural Science and Technology, Crop Science Society of America, Cucurbit Genetics Cooperative, National Association of Plant Breeders (Plant Breeding CC), North Carolina Pickle Producers, Pickle Packers International, Plant Breeding Center at NC State, Watermelon Research and Development Group. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.

Impacts
The general public receives value from this project through higher quality, lower cost food that is available fresh through a greater part of the year. Growers benefit through higher yield per acre and improved disease resistance. Processors benefit from new cultivars that yield a higher percentage of useable product. Seed companies receive trained plant breeders and useful germplasm. New information from our research is made available in journal articles, through on-campus courses, distance education, in professional certificate programs, at scientific meetings, and on the world wide web.

Publications

  • Zhang, S., Miao, H., Gu, X., Yang, Y., Xie, B., Wang, X., Huang, S., Du, Y., Sun R., and Wehner, T.C. 2010. Genetic mapping of the scab resistance gene in cucumber. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 135:53-58.
  • Tetteh, A. Y., Wehner, T.C., and Davis, A.R. 2010. Identifying resistance to powdery mildew race 2W in the USDA-ARS watermelon germplasm collection. Crop Sci. 50:933-939.


Progress 10/01/08 to 09/30/09

Outputs
OUTPUTS: Research is continuing on resistance to downy mildew in cucumber, and parthenocarpy in cucumber. Watermelon populations with small fruit, high yield, high quality or gummy stem blight resistance have been developed for use in cultivar development. Breeding is starting on eastern shipping cantaloupes, and continuing on development of specialty melons for the North Carolina market with the production of new Sprite and canary type hybrids. Breeding work is continuing on development of high yielding pickling cucumber inbreds. We are releasing cucumber hybrids and inbreds that are multiple branched littleleaf pickling type, as well as middle-eastern fresh market type and pickling type (both gynoecious and monoecious hybrids). The release of three new hybrids of luffa sponge gourd is also under way. PARTICIPANTS: Tammy Ellington (technician), Antonia Tetteh (PhD candidate), Lingli Lou (MS candidate), Adam Call (MS candidate), Mahendra Dia (PhD candidate), Jiyoung Oh (visiting scholar), Laura Arellano (greenhouse assistant), Elaine Levin (office assistant). TARGET AUDIENCES: American Association for the Advancement of Science, American Genetic Association, American Society for Horticultural Science, American Society of Agronomy, Council for Agricultural Science and Technology, Crop Science Society of America, Cucurbit Genetics Cooperative, National Association of Plant Breeders (Plant Breeding CC), North Carolina Pickle Producers, Pickle Packers International, Plant Breeding Center at NC State, Watermelon Research and Development Group PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: G.J. Holmes has left NC State University.

Impacts
The general public receives value from this project through higher quality, lower cost food that is available fresh through a greater part of the year. Growers benefit through higher yield per acre and improved disease resistance. Processors benefit from new cultivars that yield a higher percentage of useable product. Seed companies receive trained plant breeders and useful germplasm. New information from our research is made available in journal articles, through on-campus courses, in professional certificate programs, at scientific meetings, and on the world wide web.

Publications

  • Ling, K.S., Harris, K.R., Meyer, J.D.F., Levi, A., Guner, N., Wehner, T.C., Bendahmane, M., and Havey, M.J. 2009. Non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms in the watermelon eIF4E gene are closely associated with resistance to Zucchini yellow mosaic virus. Theor. Appl. Genet. 120: 191-200.


Progress 10/01/07 to 09/30/08

Outputs
OUTPUTS: Research is continuing on inheritance of fruit yield in two populstions, and on resistance to powdery mildew in watermelon. Research on resistance to gummy stem blight is being used to develop resistant lines, and recombinant inbred lines are being produced from four populations of general interest to breeders. Breeding is continuing on development of specialty melons for the North Carolina market with the production of new Oriental crisp-flesh hybrids. Breeding work is continuing on development of high yielding pickling cucumber inbreds. We are releasing cucumber hybrids and inbreds that are multiple branched littleleaf pickling type, as well as middle-eastern fresh market type. The release of three new hybrids of luffa sponge gourd is also under way. PARTICIPANTS: Tammy Ellington (technician), Adam Criswell (MS candidate), Antonia Tetteh (PhD candidate), Jiyoung Oh (PhD candidate), Lingli Lou (MS candidate), Adam Call (MS candidate), Rakesh Kumar (PhD candidate), Mahendra Dia (PhD candidate), Shengping Zheng (visiting scholar), Marlene Taja (visiting scholar), Laura Arellano (greenhouse assistant), Elaine Levin (office assistant). TARGET AUDIENCES: American Association for the Advancement of Science, American Genetic Association, American Society for Horticultural Science, American Society of Agronomy, Council for Agricultural Science and Technology, Crop Science Society of America, Cucurbit Genetics Cooperative, National Association of Plant Breeders (Plant Breeding CC), North Carolina Pickle Producers, Pickle Packers International, Plant Breeding Center at NC State, Watermelon Research and Development Group PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Not relevant to this project.

Impacts
The general public receives value from this project through higher quality, lower cost food that is available fresh through a greater part of the year. Growers benefit through higher yield per acre and improved disease resistance. Processors benefit from new cultivars that yield a higher percentage of useable product. Seed companies receive trained plant breeders and useful germplasm. New information from our research is made available in journal articles, through on-campus courses, in professional certificate programs, at scientific meetings, and on the world wide web.

Publications

  • Davis, A.R., Levi, A., Tetteh, A., Wehner, T., Russo, V., and Pitrat, M. 2007. Evaluation of watermelon and related species for resistance to race 1W powdery mildew. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci 132: 790-795.
  • Gusmini, G. and Wehner, T.C. 2008. Fifty-five years of yield improvement for cucumber, melon, and watermelon in the United States. HortTechnology 18:9-12.
  • Kozik, E.U. and Wehner, T.C. 2008. A single dominant gene Ch for chilling resistance in cucumber seedlings. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 133: 225-227.
  • Zhang, S., Gu, X., and Wehner, T.C. 2008. Brief introduction about cucumber production, breeding and processing in U.S.A. China Vegetables 1: 6-8.


Progress 10/01/06 to 09/30/07

Outputs
Research is continuing on inheritance of fruit yield in two populstions, and on resistance to powdery mildew in watermelon. Research on resistance to gummy stem blight is being used to develop resistant lines, and recombinant inbred lines are being produced from four populations of general interest to breeders. Breeding is continuing on development of specialty melons for the North Carolina market with the production of new Oriental crisp-flesh hybrids. Breeding work is continuing on development of high yielding pickling cucumber inbreds. We are releasing cucumber hybrids and inbreds that are multiple branched littleleaf pickling type, as well as middle-eastern fresh market type. The release of three new hybrids of luffa sponge gourd is also under way.

Impacts
The general public receives value from this project through higher quality, lower cost food that is available fresh through a greater part of the year. Growers benefit through higher yield per acre and improved disease resistance. Processors benefit from new cultivars that yield a higher percentage of useable product. Seed companies receive trained plant breeders and useful germplasm. New information from our research is made available in journal articles, through on-campus courses, in professional certificate programs, at scientific meetings, and on the world wide web.

Publications

  • Davis, A. R., Levi, A., Wehner, T., and Pitrat, M. 2006. PI525088-PMR, a melon race 1 powdery mildew-resistant watermelon line. HortScience 41: 1527-1528.
  • Walters, S. A., Wehner, T. C., Daykin, M. E., and Barker, K. R. 2006. Penetration rates of root-knot nematodes into Cucumis sativus and C. metuliferus roots and subsequent histological changes. Nematropica 36: 225-236.
  • Gusmini, G. and Wehner, T. C. 2007. Heritability and genetic variance estimates for fruit weight in watermelon. HortScience 42: 1332-1336.
  • Gusmini, G., Wehner, T. C., and Donaghy, S. B. 2007. SASQuant: A SAS software program to estimate genetic effects and heritabilities of quantitative traits in populations consisting of 6 related generations. J. Hered. 98: 345-350.


Progress 10/01/05 to 09/30/06

Outputs
Research is continuing on inheritance of fruit yield, and on resistance to powdery mildew in watermelon. Research on resistance to gummy stem blight is being used to develop resistant lines. Breeding is continuing on development of specialty melons for the North Carolina market with the release of four new Sprite-type hybrids. Breeding work is continuing on development of high yielding pickling cucumber inbreds. We are releasing cucumber hybrids and inbreds that are multiple branched littleleaf pickling type, as well as middle-eastern fresh market type. The release of three new hybrids of luffa sponge gourd is also under way.

Impacts
The American public benefits from this project through higher quality, lower cost food that is available fresh through a greater part of the year. Growers benefit through higher yield per acre and better disease resistance. Processors benefit from new cultivars that yield a higher percentage of useable product. Seed companies receive trained plant breeders and useful germplasm. New information from our research is made available in journal articles, classes, scientific meetings, and on the world wide web.

Publications

  • Gusmini, G. and T. C. Wehner. 2006. Qualitative inheritance of rind pattern and flesh color in watermelon. J. Hered. 97: 177-185.
  • Joobeur, T., G. Gusmini, X. Zhang, A. Levi, Y. Xu, T. C. Wehner, M. Oliver, and R. A. Dean. 2006. Construction of a watermelon BAC library and identification of SSRs anchored to melon or Arabidopsis genomes. Theor. Appl. Genet. 112: 1553-1562.
  • Klosinska, U., E. U. Kozik, and T. C. Wehner. 2006. Inheritance of a new trait - twin fused fruit - in cucumber. HortScience 41: 313-314.
  • Gusmini, G. and T. C. Wehner. 2005. Foundations of yield improvement in watermelon. Crop Sci. 45: 141-146.
  • Gusmini, G. and T. C. Wehner. 2005. Genes determining rind pattern inheritance in watermelon: a review. HortScience 40: 1928-1930.
  • Gusmini, G., R. Song, and T. C. Wehner. 2005. New sources of resistance to gummy stem blight in watermelon. Crop Sci. 45: 582-588.
  • Wehner, T. C. 2005. 'NC-Davie' and 'NC-Duplin' pickling cucumber hybrids. HortScience 40: 1574-1576.
  • Wehner, T. C. 2005. 'NC-Sunshine' and 'NC-Stratford' slicing cucumber hybrids. HortScience 40: 1577-1579.