Source: PENNSYLVANIA STATE UNIVERSITY submitted to
USING NEW TECHNOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES FOR MUSHROOM CULTIVATION
Sponsoring Institution
National Institute of Food and Agriculture
Project Status
TERMINATED
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
0204453
Grant No.
(N/A)
Project No.
PEN04096
Proposal No.
(N/A)
Multistate No.
(N/A)
Program Code
(N/A)
Project Start Date
Jul 1, 2005
Project End Date
Jun 30, 2010
Grant Year
(N/A)
Project Director
Beyer, D. M.
Recipient Organization
PENNSYLVANIA STATE UNIVERSITY
208 MUELLER LABORATORY
UNIVERSITY PARK,PA 16802
Performing Department
PLANT PATHOLOGY
Non Technical Summary
The PA mushroom industry needs research and extension activities maintain the lead the US in mushroom production and remain competitive in the North American markets. The industry has challenges in the environmental impact, improvements in fresh quality marketing and energy efficiencies. Spent mushroom substrate (SMS), a co-product from mushroom production, is creating disposal problems for the PA mushroom industry and ways to reduce the amount produced and disposed is a major challenge for the industry. Disease control remains the major problem in growing mushrooms because of the decline in chemicals that are registered for mushroom production. The results of this project will determine if aeration reduces environmental impact of substrate preparation on the community and provide emission criteria that can be used by the industry and township supervisors or regulators. The project may result in the reduction of the co-product SMS and reduced its impact of the local communities and environment. To increase fresh quality or value added products will help promote mushrooms and increase consumer demand. Better disease management will result in less pesticide use, reduce cropping cost and yield loss. Better understanding of the energy use and consumption by the growers will also reduce cost of growing mushrooms. These and other outcomes of the project should enable mushroom farmers to continue to be productive and remain competitive in the North American market.
Animal Health Component
70%
Research Effort Categories
Basic
25%
Applied
70%
Developmental
5%
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
1330410309020%
1331470106025%
2051470110225%
2121470116010%
4021470202010%
5021470101010%
Goals / Objectives
1. Systematically monitor odors to quantify emissions at mushroom substrate preparation facilities; evaluate emissions from new aeration technology; establish odor emission guidelines. 2. Evaluate new products and innovative technology for mushroom production. 3. Determine cultural practices to improve mushroom quality and mushroom nutritional identity for consumers. 4. Develop pilot-scale system for alternative substrate mushroom production. 5. Optimize the use of energy to increase profitability of mushroom production.
Project Methods
1. The project will monitor emissions at the MTDF and commercial composting operations to determine variability of odor emissions and to quantify odor reduction through aeration of substrate. A Pulsed Fluorescent Hydrogen Sulfide Analyzer and ammonia monitoring equipment will be used to monitor emissions at commercial substrate preparation facilities. 2. Disease management project aims to use a fluorescent-based technique to quantify the survival of fungal and bacterial pathogens in casing and on mushroom sporophores and new chemicals will be evaluated in vivo to attempt to have certain new pesticides available for use in the mushroom industry. Mushrooms will be grown on spent compost using amendments that allow for a more efficient use of the substrate. 3. The project will develop and or test new technologies to improve crop efficiency or productivity and to improve quality and shelf life of cultivated mushrooms on a semi commercial scale. Selected white and brown strains of Agaricus bisporus will be grown under carefully controlled conditions at the MTDF with selected experimental variations in cultural practices under study. Efficiency and productivity of mushrooms grown with new cultural practices, alternative compost and casing ingredients will be assessed by calculation of harvest yield based on pounds of mushrooms harvested per square foot of compost surface and biological efficiency based on the ratio of weight of mushrooms harvested per unit dry weight of dry compost. 4. A pilot-scale system will be developed that encompasses the steps from spawn through removal/recycling of used substrate. The first step is the aseptic production of spawn. An aseptic processing unit, originally developed for pasteurized processing of mushrooms, will be adapted to make a grain-based spawn mix. 5. The project will further refine spreadsheets that can be down-loaded to each producer for his use on a more or less continuous basis. The spreadsheets will be adapted so that the data from PECO can be interfaced with the detailed analyses to provide more robust datasets to the cooperating producers. Finally, weather forecasts available on-line from NOAA will be integrated with the datasets to provide even more value to the decision models.

Progress 07/01/05 to 06/30/10

Outputs
OUTPUTS: This project has a major impact on resolving cultural benchmarks growers will need to optimize their investments in Phase I aerated composting systems and evaluate management schemes for maximum yield, quality and energy savings. The results of this project show that that aeration does, in fact, reduce the amount of the indicator chemicals and provides some guidelines for modifying or constructing an economically feasible substrate preparation facility. It has integrated established and new management methodologies with new odor measurement technologies. Corn and soybean stover was used successfully for compost substrate bulk ingredients as alternatives to wheat-straw bedded horse manure (WSBHM). Up to 50% WSBHM was substituted with corn stover with no adverse influence on yields. Soybean stover could be used, but was not structurally conducive to substrate physical characteristics. We demonstrated that it is possible to obtain reasonably high yields of brown Agaricus bisporus on non-composted substrate (NCS) and mixtures of NCS/"spent" mushroom compost (SMC) following the additions of either organic or inorganic supplements at spawning or at casing. This could lead to commercial production of this species without the necessity to compost. Several cropping experiments were conducted to determine the effects of adding: 1) spawn, 2) various levels of delayed release nutrient, and 3) phase II compost to 2nd break mushroom compost (2BkC), and 4) delaying time of re-casing on mushroom yield and biological efficiency (BE). The addition of 15% spawn to nutrient-supplemented 2BkC (w.w./d.w) increased yield by 11% over the control (no spawn) but did not affect BE. Agaricus bisporus research conducted this past years has demonstrated that in vitro several organic acids at selected concentrations of stimulated the growth of Trichoderma aggressivum (var. Th4), the pathogen causing Green Mold disease. The results of in vivo assays showed that some organic acids added to the substrate predisposed the substrate to disease development. Disease development was quicker and more severe in substrate treated with different organic acids. A new chemical fungicide, imazalil sulfate, was found to be a highly effective prophylactic treatment for spawn and supplement in controlling the Trichoderma Green Mold disease. Mushroom exposed to different UBV light (wavelengths 290-315 nm) before harvesting resulted in an increased vitamin D2 values up to 22% to 300% of the recommended dietary allowance. These results suggest that mushrooms could be grown with UVB lights and be a significant source of Vitamin D2. Research continues to enable mushroom producers to ensure optimal energy usage to increase profitability. The importance of developing and implementing energy management strategies is documented by: 1) dramatic increases in prices of energy sources, 2) uncertainty of the long-term availability of conventional fossil-based energy sources, 3) expected dramatic increases in price of electricity in Pennsylvania after the rate caps expire in 2009-10, and 4) prospect of restrictions of carbon emissions in the near term. PARTICIPANTS: Graduate Students: Aaron Brown - MS Student in PPath, graduate 2008; Ms. Stephanie Loehr is an M.S. degree candidate in the Department of Plant Pathology at Penn State; Dr. Alma Rodriguez Estrada received her Ph.D. in plant pathology from Penn State in 2008; Dr. Delphina Mamiro received her Ph.D. in plant pathology from Penn State in 2006; Joy Dubost(PhD) - Food Science; Mark Corey(MS) - Food Science; AuBrei Weigand(MS) - Food Science; Archie Williams - Ag Engr - PhD student graduate in 2009; Mark Bechara - Ag Engr, MS student 2007; Nadia Sabeh, - Ag Engr, MS student 2006; Chris Houser - MS student in progress, Agronomy. Participants: Dr. Ken Lomax - University of Delaware; Dr. C. J. Wysocki - Monell Institute, Philadelphia; Dr. Jose E. Sanchez is a professor at El Colegio de la Frontera Sur., Tapachula, Chiapas, Mexico; Mr. William Chalupa was vice president for quality control at Modern Mushrooms, Toughkenammon, PA; Dr. Maria del Mar Jimenez-Gasco, is assistant professor of plant pathology at Penn State; Dr. M. H. J. Lee is post-doctoral associate in Food Science at Penn State; Dr. J. Pecchia - Research Facilities Manager, PPath; Dr. M. Fidenza - Associate Professor, Horticulture, Penn State Berks Co.; Dr. Greg Roth - Professor Agronomy, Penn State; Dr. E. Wheeler - Professor Ag and Biol Engr, Penn State; Dr. B. Graves- Professor Ag and Biol Engr, Penn State; Kimberly Paley - Senior Research Technician, PPath; Vija Wilkinson - Senior Research Technician, PPath; Carl Schlagnhaufer - Senior Research Technician, PPath. TARGET AUDIENCES: Mushroom Growing Community. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.

Impacts
This project over the years has shown that mushroom composting odors can be reduced through forced aeration almost eliminating anaerobic conditions that cause the offensive odors. We have investigated alternative compost ingredients and have shown that mushrooms can be grown on non-composted substrates and on substrate from previous crops with additional supplements or fished phase II compost added. Several new fungicides and bio-pesticides have been tested and shown effective in controlling Trichoderma Green Mold disease. Anaerobic conditions that produce organic acids have been linked to the severity and development of this disease. We have shown that mushrooms exposed to UV light pre-harvest and postharvest have increased vitamin D levels. We have provided growers with several energy management strategies to help offset that anticipated increase in energy cost. Several large mushroom composting operations have incorporated forced aeration technology in their operations, reducing community complaints and avoiding costly air emission regulations. Mushroom growers have been provided with alternative disease management strategies and tools to reduce the Trichoderma Green Mold epidemic of the late 1990's to mid 2000's. Many growers have implemented energy management schemes to reduce cost and prepare for anticipated increases in energy prices.

Publications

  • Beyer, D. M. 2005. Bacterial Blotch Part II. Mushroom News 53(1):14-20.
  • Beyer, D. M. 2005. Polishing up and managing your casing. Australian Mushroom Growers Association Journal (Autumn). pgs. 4-10.
  • Beyer, D. M. 2005. Best Management Practices for Mushroom Substrate Preparation. Mushroom News 53(11):30-34.
  • Pecchia, J., D. M. Beyer, T. Richard, and P. Heinemann. 2006. SMS as a Biofilter Media. In the Proceedings of the 2nd International Spent Mushroom Symposium. Edited by D. M. Beyer. American Mushroom Institute. CD ROM.
  • Beyer, D. M. 2005. Compost, Casing and Disease - What's Hot and What's Not. Mushroom Business. Netherlands (September). pgs. 10-12.
  • Beyer, D. M. 2005. Portobello growing in the United States. Australian Mushroom Growers Association Journal (Summer). pgs. 11-13.
  • Beyer, D. M. and R. Noble. 2005. Opportunities for using SMS - An Overseas Perspective. Australian Mushroom Growers Association Journal (Summer). pgs. 30-36.
  • Beyer, D. M. 2006. Integrated Pest Management - Environmental Health and Safety Issues. Mushroom News 54(4):3-13.
  • Beyer, D. M. 2006. Quality and Characteristics of Bulk Compost Ingredients. Mushroom News 54(8):4-13.
  • Beyer, D. M. 2006. Quality and Characteristics of Raw Ingredients. Mushroom Business Netherlands (September). pgs. 2-3.
  • Beyer, D. M., J. Pecchia, and K. Paley. 2006. Reusing Spent Mushroom Substrate for Mushroom Cultivation. In the Proceedings of the 2nd International Spent Mushroom Symposium. Edited by D. M. Beyer. American Mushroom Institute. CD ROM.
  • Fidanza, M., D. Sanford, and D. Beyer. 2006. A plant nutrient analysis survey of fresh SMS. In the Proceedings of the 2nd International Spent Mushroom Symposium. Edited by D. M. Beyer. American Mushroom Institute. CD ROM.
  • Fidanza, M., D. Sanford, and D. Beyer. 2006. Opportunities for the use of SMS in the lawn and landscape. In the Proceedings of the 2nd International Spent Mushroom Symposium. Edited by D. M. Beyer. American Mushroom Institute. CD ROM.
  • Labuschagne, P. M., D. M. Beyer, P. J. Wuest, and J. Kremser. 2006. Suppressive Nature of Spent Mushroom Substrate in Controlling Verticillium Disease of Agaricus bisporus. In the Proceedings of the 2nd International Spent Mushroom Symposium. Edited by D. M. Beyer. American Mushroom Institute. CD ROM.


Progress 10/01/08 to 09/30/09

Outputs
OUTPUTS: Corn and soybean stover was used successfully for compost substrate bulk ingredients as alternatives to wheat-straw bedded horse manure (WSBHM). Up to 50 percent WSBHM was substituted with corn stover with no adverse influence on yields. Soybean stover could be used, but was not structurally conducive to substrate physical characteristics. Another research project examined several environmental and cultural practices that influence development of water logged "window-pane" mushrooms that cause a fresh quality problem. Different combinations of dry to wet substrate and casing moistures were tested to determine their influence on symptom development. Results suggest that low compost and casing moistures enhance occurrence of window panes. These symptoms were further enhanced under high relative humidity. The influence of an activated carbon (AC) amendment to a sterilized peat-based casing on mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) production was compared using a non-composted, sterilized grain-based substrate and a conventionally composted manure-based substrate. The addition of AC up to 10-15 percent (wt/wt) of the casing markedly increased mushroom yield for the grain-based substrate, but not for that of the composted substrate. On average, mushroom productivity was higher for the grain-based substrate over that of the compost. Several cropping experiments were conducted to determine the effects of adding: 1) spawn, 2) various levels of delayed release nutrient, and 3) phase II compost to 2nd break mushroom compost (2BkC), and 4) delaying time of re-casing on mushroom yield and biological efficiency (BE). The addition of 15 percent spawn to nutrient-supplemented 2BkC (w.w./d.w) increased yield by 11 percent over the control (no spawn) but did not affect BE. The addition of delayed release supplements to 2BkC increased yields by 29-54 percent, depending on the treatment. Substitution of 15 percent phase II compost in 2BkC (15/85) did not significantly affect mushroom yields. However, use of 15 percent phase II compost in 2BkC increased the response of the mixture to delayed release supplement. Mushroom yields increased 2.1 percent/day as time of re-casing was delayed up to 10 days. PARTICIPANTS: Dr. Jose E. Sanchez is a professor at El Colegio de la Frontera Sur., Tapachula, Chiapas, Mexico. Mr. William Chalupa is vice president for quality control at Modern Mushrooms, Toughkenammon, PA. Dr. Maria del Mar Jimenez-Gasco, is assistant professor of plant pathology at Penn State. Dr. M. H. J. Lee is post-doctoral associate in Food Science at Penn State. Ms. Stephanie Loehr is an M.S. degree candidate in the Department of Plant Pathology at Penn State. Dr. Alma Rodriguez Estrada received her Ph.D. in plant pathology from Penn State in 2008. TARGET AUDIENCES: Growers, suppliers and other technical people involved in the mushroom community worldwide. Includes the increasing Hispanic growers in Pennsylvania and California. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.

Impacts
The increased knowledge of factors influencing the texture and fresh quality of mushrooms will benefit grower's profitability. The performance of a novel sterilized, grain-based substrate has been improved to the level of traditional manure-based compost for the cultivation of A. bisporus. Growers will be able to adjust substrate and casing moistures, along with better relative humidity control to improve the quality of their fresh mushrooms. A grain-based substrate for the cultivation A. bisporus offers a solution to the odor and disposal problems associated with traditional composted manure-based substrates. By optimizing supplement levels and adding 15 percent phase II compost to commercial 2BkC, or by delaying casing by 5 to 10 days, it was possible to obtain BE's that were equivalent to supplemented phase II compost. Re-supplementing and re-casing compost offers growers the potential to increase productivity from the same compost, thereby reducing labor, raw materials and time required to prepare fresh phase II compost.

Publications

  • Bechara, M. A., P. Heinemann, P. N. Walker, A. Demirci, and C. P. Romaine. 2009. Evaluating the addition of activated carbon to heat-treated mushroom casing for grain-based and compost-based substrates. BioResource Tech. 100:4441-4446.
  • Bechara, M. A., P. H. Heinemann, P. N. Walker, and C. P. Romaine. 2008. Enhanced production of Agaricus bisporus using non-composted substrate in the presence of delayed-release supplements and control agents for water release. Biol. Engineering 1:245-253.
  • Rodriguez Estrada, A. E., M. H. J. Lee, R. B. Beelman, M. del Mar Jimenez-Gasco, and D. J. Royse. 2009. Enhancement of the antioxidants ergothioneine and selenium in Pleurotus eryngii var. eryngii basidiomata through cultural practices. World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 25:1597-1607.
  • Royse, D. J. 2009. Oyster mushrooms. In Mark Licker (publisher) McGraw-Hill Yearbook of Science & Technology. New York, NY. pp 272-274.
  • Royse, D. J. 2009. Cultivation of shiitake on natural and synthetic logs. College of Agricultural Sciences, Research and Cooperative Extension. The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA. http://pubs.cas.psu.edu/PubTitle.aspvarTitle=cultivation+of+shiitake +on+natural&Submit=Go
  • Royse, D. J. and W. Chalupa. 2009. Effects of spawn, supplement, and phase II compost additions and time of re-casing second break compost on mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) yield and biological efficiency. Bioresource Technol. 100:5277-5282.
  • Sanchez, J. E. and D. J. Royse. 2009. Scytalidium thermophilum-colonized grain, corncobs and chopped wheat straw substrates for the production of Agaricus bisporus. Bioresource Technol. 100:1670-1674.
  • Mamiro, D. P. and D. J. Royse. 2008. Yield and mushroom solids of Agaricus bisporus as influenced by moisture content of substrate. In J. I. Lelley, and J. A. Buswell (eds.) Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Mushroom Biology and Mushroom Products. Bonn, Germany. September 29-October 3, 2008. pp.83-90.


Progress 10/01/07 to 09/30/08

Outputs
OUTPUTS: Agaricus bisporus research conducted this past year has demonstrated that in vitro several organic acids at selected concentrations of stimulated the growth of Trichoderma aggressivum (var. Th4), the pathogen causing Green Mold disease. The results of in vivo assays showed that some organic acids added to the substrate predisposed the substrate to disease development. Disease development was quicker and more severe in substrate treated with different organic acids. A new chemical fungicide, imazalil sulfate, was found to be a highly effective prophylactic treatment for spawn and supplement in controlling the Trichoderma Green Mold disease. A commercial formulation of the bacterium Bacillus subtilus, which is manufactured by AgraQuest Inc., Davis, CA, was found to be an efficacious spawn and supplement treatment for the control of green mold. Mushroom exposed to different UBV light (wavelengths 290-315 nm) before harvesting resulted in an increased vitamin D2 values up to 22% to 300% of the recommended dietary allowance. These results suggest that mushrooms could be grown with UVB lights and be a significant source of Vitamin D2. Other research has demonstrated that button mushrooms grown in dry compost and obtained from the end of the third flush contained ergothioneine levels of 2.1 and 1.8 mg/g dry weight for brown and white strains respectively. Mushrooms (brown strain of Agaricus bisporus) were obtained from Crop No. 3502 grown at the MTDF on dry compost (67% moisture at spawning). Further investigations into the utilization of alternative substrates for growing agaricus bisporus and agaricus blazei were conducted. Nutrient supplements and Scytalidium thermophilum were added to the substrate to determine if yield could be increased. Another study invested the use of a single substrate for A. bisporus, A. blazei, and Pleurotus ostreatus. Several experiments were performed to determine the effect of adding nutrient supplements to colonized mushroom compost (MC) for the production of a second crop of mushrooms. Mushrooms were harvested for 1, 2, or 3 breaks, the casing removed and the MC then was fragmented and re-supplemented with delayed release nutrient. Continuing emphasis is placed on monitoring energy usage and evaluating the effectiveness of various measures to increase energy efficiency in mushroom production. PARTICIPANTS: Dept. of Plant Pathology Faculty: D.M. Beyer, C.P. Romaine, and D. J. Royse. Staff: J. Pecchia, V. Wilkinson, K. Paley, C. Schlagnhaufer. Graduate Students and Post Docs: Stephanie Loehr. Visiting Professor: J. E. Sanchez. Dept. of Ag. and Biological Engineering Faculty: P. Heinemann, D. Buffington. Dept. of Food Science Faculty: R.B. Beelman. Graduate Students: Michael Kalaras, AuBrei Weigand. TARGET AUDIENCES: Growers, suppliers and other technical people involved in the mushroom community worldwide. Includes the increasing Hispanic growers on Pennsylvania and California. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.

Impacts
A. bisporus yields increased with the addition of supplements and Scytalidium thermophilum. It was also shown that A. bisporus, A. blazei, and Pleurotus ostreatus could all be grown successfully with the same substrate. Results suggested The results suggest that anaerobic conditions during the composting substrate preparation will predispose the mushroom crop to Trichoderma Green Mold disease. The results of the Penn State research effort supported the FDA-approved label for the use of this material on mushrooms. In September 2008, this biocontrol agent became available to the mushroom industry under the name Jazz(registered trademark). The efficacy, broad-spectrum mode of action, and organic certified status of this product represent a major breakthrough in fungicide chemistry for mushrooms. Jazz(registered trademark) is the first of its kind- a durable, safe, and effective biological control agent for a major fungal pathogen on A. bisporus. Re-supplementing and re-casing of MC represents a potential opportunity for growers to increase revenues and reduce costs associated with preparation and disposal of compost. Work carried out at Penn State generated the essential efficacy and non-toxicity data supporting the registration of this fungicide on mushrooms, which is slated for approval in early 2009. The reduction of anaerobic compost conditions has reduced the incidence and severity of the Green Mold disease in the industry this past year. Alternative substrates can potentially reduce the time, labor, and equipment needed to prepare conventional compost-based substrates. This would reduce or eliminate the environmental and societal concerns associated with composted substrate preparation and the disposal of mushroom compost.

Publications

  • Royse, D.J. and J.E. Sanchez. 2008. Supplementation of second break mushroom compost with isoleucine, leucine, valine, phenylalanine, Fermenten(registered trademark) and SoyPlus(registered trademark). World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 24:2011-2017.
  • Buffington, D.E. 2008. Energy management strategies to increase profitability of mushroom production. In: Van Gruening (ed.) Science and cultivation of edible and medicinal fungi: Mushroom Science 17, Cape Town, South Africa, 20-24 May. South African Mushroom Farmers Association, Pretoria, South Africa. pp. 251-255. CD-ROM.
  • Sanchez, J.E., L. Mejia, and D.J. Royse. 2008. Pangola grass colonized with Schytalidium thermophilum for the production of Agaricus bisporus. Bioresource Technol. 99:655-662.
  • Mamiro, D.P. and D.J. Royse. 2008. The influence of spawn type and strain on yield, size and mushroom solids content of Agaricus bisporus produced on non-composted and spent mushroom compost. Bioresource Technol. 99:3205-3212.
  • Rodriguez Estrada, A.E., D.J. Royse, and M.M. Jimenez-Gasco. 2008. Nucleotide sequence polymorphisms of the partial (Beta)-tublin gene in two varieties of Pleurotus eryngii. In: Van Gruening (ed.) Science and cultivation of edible and medicinal fungi: Mushroom Science 17, Cape Town, South Africa, 20-24 May. South African Mushroom Farmers Association, Pretoria, South Africa. pp. 83-96. CD-ROM.
  • Romaine, C.P., D.J. Royse, and C. Schlagnhaufer. 2008. Emergence of benzimidazole-resistant green mould, Trichoderma aggressivum, on cultivated Agaricus bisporus in North America. In: Van Gruening (ed.) Science and cultivation of edible and medicinal fungi: Mushroom Science 17, Cape Town, South Africa, 20-24 May. South African Mushroom Farmers Association, Pretoria, South Africa. pp. 510-523. CD-ROM.
  • Royse, D.J., J.E. Sanchez, R.B. Beelman, and J. Davidson. 2008. Re-supplementing and re-casing mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) compost for a second crop. World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 24:319-325.
  • Royse, D.J. and J.E. Sanchez. 2008. Supplementation of first break mushroom compost with hydrolyzed protein, commercial supplements and crystalline amino acids. World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 24:1333-1339.
  • Beyer, D., K. Paley, J. Kremser, and J. Pecchia. 2008. Influence of Organic Acids on the Growth and Development of Trichoderma aggressivum a pathogen of Agaricus bisporus. In: Van Gruening (ed.) Science and cultivation of edible and medicinal fungi: Mushroom Science 17, Cape Town, South Africa, 20-24 May. South African Mushroom Farmers Association, Pretoria, South Africa. pp. 540-555. CD-ROM.
  • Buffington, D.E. 2008. Electric water heaters for mushroom producers. Mushroom News 56(1):4-7.
  • Royse, D.J. 2008. Double cropping Agaricus bisporus by re-supplementing and re-casing compost. In: Lelley, J.I. and Buswell, J.A. (eds.) Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Mushroom Biology and Mushroom Products, 29 Sept to 3 Oct, Bonn, Germany. pp. 48-53.
  • Bechara, M.A., P. H. Heinemann, P. N. Walker, V. L. Wilkinson, and C. P. Romaine. 2008. Cultivation of Agaricus bisporus and Agaricus blazei on substrates composed of cereal grains and oilseeds. Biological Engineering 1(1):65-78.
  • Bechara, M.A., P.H. Heinemann, P.N. Walker, and C.P. Romaine. 2008. Effect of Delayed-release Supplements in Grain-based Substrate on Yield of the Mushroom Agaricus bisporus. Transactions of ASABE 51(4):1501-1505.
  • Beelman, R. and H. Lee. 2008. Factors affecting ergothioneine content in button mushrooms. Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Mushroom Biology and Mushroom Products. Bonn, Germany, September 30. pp 165-170.
  • Beyer, D., R. Beelman, J. Pecchia, K. Paley, and N. Chikthimmah. 2008. Vitamin D2 content and retention in Agaricus bisporus with Ultraviolet Light irradiation. In: Van Gruening (ed.) Science and cultivation of edible and medicinal fungi: Mushroom Science 17, Cape Town, South Africa, 20-24 May. South African Mushroom Farmers Association, Pretoria, South Africa. pp. 212-218. CD-ROM.


Progress 01/01/07 to 12/31/07

Outputs
OUTPUTS: Conduct a systematic and continuous monitoring of odors during different processing events and times to quantify emissions at different size commercial mushroom substrate preparation facilities. Evaluate and compare emissions from the new aeration technology used at some operations to the traditional substrate preparation operations. To establish some odor emission guidelines for mushroom substrate preparation facilities. Evaluate new products and innovative technology for mushroom production. Refine disease management procedures to increase yield and fresh quality for both white and brown strains of Agaricus mushrooms. Investigate the how to increase the substrate utilization by the mushroom to reduce the quantity of SMS left after a crop of mushrooms. Design and construct a pilot-scale system for alternative substrate mushroom production and modify existing aseptic processing unit for preparation and pasteurization of spawned grain-based substrate. Refine the composition of the growth substrate for maximum mushroom productivity and evaluate the modified production scheme in terms of economics, energy use, mushroom yield, and substrate bio-efficiency. Optimize the use of energy to increase the profitability and net cash flow of mushroom production and processing. Determine cultural practices that can improve mushroom quality and alter composition that can improve mushroom nutritional identity for consumers. PARTICIPANTS: Dept. of Plant Pathology Faculty: D.M. Beyer, C.P. Romaine, and D. Royse; Staff: J. Pecchia, V. Wilkinson, K. Paley, and C. Schlagnhaufer; Graduate Students and Post Docs: A. E. Rodriguez Estrada, and D. P. Mamiro. Dept. of Ag and Biological Engineering Faculty: P. Heinemann, and D. Buffington; Graduate Student: M. Bechara. Dept. of Food Science; Faculty: R.B. Beelman; Graduate Student: N.J. Dubost. TARGET AUDIENCES: Audiences that will benefit from this project include the mushroom community, which can use the results on emissions to improve their relationship with their surrounding neighbors. Additional uses of SMS will help reduce the disposal problems in the area concentrated with mushroom farms. Nutritional research will benefit the consumers of mushrooms and improve the market for fresh mushrooms. Disease and energy research will benefit growers by helping them reduce the cost of growing mushrooms and reduce the use of pesticides.

Impacts
Spent mushroom compost was successfully used as a media for a biofilter to reduce odors from Phase I mushroom composting. Trials conducted at a commercial mushroom facility demonstrated that a biofilter media with 50% mushroom soil significantly reduced hydrogen sulfide and ammonia emissions from the mushroom substrate preparation process. Research was conducted to show that the addition of organic acids to mushroom substrate at spawning time stimulated the growth of Trichoderma aggressivum. Organic acids are found as residual compounds in substrate that has been anaerobic during the substrate preparation process. This research suggests that avoiding anaerobic conditions would help reduce the severity of Trichoderma Green Mold disease of the A. bisporus. Other research in the area of disease control involved the evaluation of bio-rational fungicides for activity against Trichoderma green mold. A certified organic bacterial formulation (Bacillus sp.) effectively controlled green mold disease under high disease pressures from the highly pathogenic genotype, T. aggressivum. Continuing studies will focus on optimizing its rate for the treatment of both spawn and supplement and more fully evaluating its possible toxic side effects to Agaricus bisporus. Mushroom yield, substrate bioefficiency, and spawn-run duration in non-composted grain-based substrates were enhanced to varying degrees by the addition of Scytaldium themophilum. Two theoretical designs for grain-based mushroom production systems were developed referred to as "Complete On-site" and "Satellite" Mushroom Production Systems. Based on a cost model developed, the Complete On-site Mushroom Production Process was the more economically viable alternative. It was demonstrated that it is possible to obtain reasonably yields of brown A. bisporus on non-composted substrate (NCS) and mixtures of NCS/"spent" mushroom compost (SMC) following the additions of either organic or inorganic supplements at spawning or at casing. This research could lead to commercial production of this species without the necessity to compost. A. bisporus and A. blazei mushrooms were successfully produced on sterilized substrates consisting of millet grains and three types of oilseeds (soybean, niger, and safflower). Research continues to enable mushroom producers to ensure optimal energy usage to increase profitability. The importance of developing and implementing energy management strategies is documented by: 1) dramatic increases in prices of energy sources, 2) uncertainty of the long-term availability of conventional fossil-based energy sources, 3) expected dramatic increases in price of electricity in Pennsylvania after the rate caps expire in 2009-10, and 4) prospect of restrictions of carbon emissions in the near term. Several cultural factors and growing techniques were found to influence the ergothioneine content of mushrooms, an important anti-oxidant in people's diet.

Publications

  • Bechara, M.A. 2007. Alternative mushroom production systems using non-composted grain-based substrates. Ph.D. Dissertation. The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA. 248 pp.
  • Beyer, D.M., K. Paley, J.J. Kremser, and J. Pecchia. 2007. Does anaerobic compost contribute to the growth and development of Trichoderma green mold? Mushroom News 55(4):8-12.
  • Dubost, N. J., R. B. Beelman, and D. J. Royse. 2007. Influence of selected cultural factors and postharvest storage on ergothioneine content of common button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus). Int. J. Med. Mushr. 9:163-176.
  • Mamiro, D. P., D. J. Royse, and R. B. Beelman. 2007. Yield, size and mushroom solids content of Agaricus bisporus produced on non-composted and spent mushroom compost. World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 23:1289-1296.
  • Rodriguez Estrada, A. E. and D. J. Royse. 2007. Yield, size and bacterial blotch resistance of Pleurotus eryngii grown on cottonseed hulls/oak sawdust supplemented with manganese, copper and whole ground soybean. Bioresource Technol. 98:1898-1906.
  • Romaine, C. P., D. J. Royse, and C. Schlagnhaufer. 2007. Imazalil sulfate as an alternative spawn and supplement treatment for green mold disease. Mushroom News 55(4):4-7.
  • Royse, D. J. and J. E. Sanchez. 2007. Ground wheat straw as a substitute for portions of oak wood chips used in shiitake (Lentinula edodes) substrate formulae. Bioresource Technol. 98:2137-2141.


Progress 01/01/06 to 12/31/06

Outputs
The emission monitoring research of phase I mushroom substrate preparation has collected data from phase I substrate preparation at the MTDF on the University Park Campus and at the Hy-Tech facility in West Grove. The data gathered at these sites include ammonia and hydrogen sulfide concentrations in the headspace of the bunkers as well as ammonia concentrations at a perimeter location. The hydrogen sulfide levels in the bunker head space peak approximately 12 hrs after the substrate is loaded into the bunkers or after it is turned. The ammonia concentrations in the bunker head space peak prior to the substrate being turned or removed from the bunkers. The perimeter ammonia levels at Hy-Tech peaked when the wind was blowing across the bunkers and windrows. The perimeter ammonia levels at the MTDF peaked when the wind was carrying odors from the Penn State dairy complex. Research continued into alternative substrates for mushroom production. The use of sterile vs. non-sterile casing layers, material water-holding capacities, and pasteurization parameters were investigated. The use of mushroom compost as a biofilter media showed that when mixed with wood chips at a 1:1 ratio, the odors emanating from Phase 1 bunkers could be reduced according to human panel assessment and quantitative measurements. Cropping experiments suggest that the addition of the amino acid histidine to compost at spawning time increased the ergothioneine in the mushroom tissue, but decreased yield.

Impacts
Better understanding of the aerated phase 1 substrate preparation process will help growers to better manage their operation, which will in turn reduce processing time, reduce energy usage, and improve mushroom yield and quality. Reduction of odors from phase 1 and spent substrate processing will improve relations between the operations and the community. Alternative substrates for mushroom production may lead to use for mushrooms grown for pharmaceuticals or other non-food uses. Biofilters may be required for future composting operations, therefore cheap economical materials like spent mushroom substrate may prove to be a practical media.

Publications

  • Labance, S.E., Heinemann, P.H., Graves, R.E. and Beyer, D.M. 2006. Evaluation of the Effects of Forced Aeration During Phase I Mushroom Substrate Preparation. Part 1: Model Development Trans. ASABE. 49(1): 167-174.
  • Labance, S.E., Heinemann, P.H., Graves, R.E. and Beyer, D.M. 2006. Evaluation of the Effects of Forced Aeration During Phase I Mushroom Substrate Preparation. Part 2: Measurements and Model Results. Trans. ASABE. 49(1): 175-182.
  • Bechara, M.A., Heinemann, P.H., Walker, P.N. and Romaine, C.P. 2006. Non-composted Grain-based Substrates for Mushroom Production (Agaricus bisporus). Trans. ASABE. 49(3):819-824.
  • Bechara, M.A., Heinemann, P.H., Walker, P.N. and Romaine, C.P. 2006. Agaricus bisporus mushroom cultivation in hydroponics systems. Trans. ASABE. 49(3): 825-832.
  • Mamiro, D. P. 2006. Non-composted and spent mushroom substrates for production of Agaricus bisporus. Ph.D. Thesis. The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA. pp. 1-100.
  • Royse, D. J. 2006. Germplasm enhancement, culture developments and disease management for Agaricus bisporus and Lentinula edodes in North America. In Proceedings of the International Symposium on Mushroom Science, September 20-22. Akita Prefectural University, Shimoshinjo-Nakano, Akita, Japan. Pages 39-48.
  • Sabeh, N., Wheeler, E.F., Heinemann, P.H. and Beyer, D.M. 2006. Environmental Conditions within Small-scale Agaricus bisporus mushroom production rooms. Applied Engineering in Agriculture. 22(6):612-621.
  • Sabeh, N.C., Wheeler, E.F., Heinemann, P.H. and Beyer, D.M. 2006. Environmental conditions within small-scale Agaricus bisporus mushroom production rooms. Applied Engineering in Agriculture 22(6):907-917.


Progress 01/01/05 to 12/31/05

Outputs
Hydrogen sulfide and ammonia monitoring equipment was used to continuously monitor emissions at the Mushroom Test Demonstration Facility to better understand the time variability of odor emissions and to quantify odor reduction through aeration of substrate. A fluorescent-based technique was developed to quantify the survival of fungal and bacterial pathogens in casing and on mushroom sporophores. Food safety issues were addressed in experiments that demonstrated that human pathogens (e.g. fecal coli forms) were significantly reduced during Phase I substrate preparation and eliminated during Phase II pasteurization. Selected white and brown strains of Agaricus bisporus were grown under carefully controlled conditions at the MTDF with selected experimental variations in cultural practices under study. Yields on alternative non-composted substrates were improved by optimizing water holding materials and nutrient supplements. The project monitored electricity usage on a continuous basis in hourly intervals on several modern mushroom farms. Evaluated different strategies were evaluated to optimize electricity usage to increase profitability of mushroom production. Strategies examined include use of an alternate tariff option for electricity purchase and an on-site electricity generation system. The project developed dynamic management strategies to gain maximum performance of an on-site generation system by balancing operational costs with the avoided costs for electricity from the utility company.

Impacts
This project has a major impact on resolving cultural benchmarks growers will need to optimize their investments in Phase I aerated composting systems and evaluate management schemes for maximum yield, quality and energy savings. The results of this project show that that aeration does, in fact, reduce the amount of the indicator chemicals and provides some guidelines for modifying or constructing an economically feasible substrate preparation facility. It has integrated established and new management methodologies with new odor measurement technologies. It has provided the technology transfer through extension outreach needed to educate growers in approaches to controlled environmental composting. Reduction of odors from Phase 1 and spent substrate processing will improve relations between the operations and the community. Results of the value added research will enable growers to promote the health benefits of consuming fresh mushrooms and will have an impact on improving the market demand. It is anticipated that mushroom producers will be able to use the results of the energy analyses to make decisions at least on a daily basis concerning how the electricity demand will be managed for the day based on the analyses of how electricity was used in the previous day and the predicted weather forecasts. These and other outcomes of the project have enabled mushroom farmers to continue to be productive and remain competitive in the North American market.

Publications

  • Collopy, P. D., and D. J. Royse. 2004. Characterization of phytase activity from cultivated edible mushrooms and their production substrates. J. Agr. Food Chem. 52:7518-7524
  • Chikthimmah, N., LaBorde, L. F., and Beelman, R. B. 2005 Hydrogen peroxide and calcium chloride added to irrigation water as a strategy to reduce bacterial population and improve quality of fresh mushrooms. Journal of Food Science. 70 (6): 273-278
  • Beelman, R. B., and D. J. Royse. 2005. Evaluation of Orykta (TM) as a source of micronutrients to improve yield and quality of Agaricus bisporus mushrooms. In: Proceedings of The 5th International Conference on Mushroom Biology and Mushroom Products. Acta Edulis Fungi Vol. 12. Pp. 277-281.
  • Sabeh, N., E.F. Wheeler, D.M. Beyer, and P.H. Heinemann. 2005. Environmental control strategies in Agaricus bisporus production rooms and their effects on mushroom quality. Mushroom News, Science and Technology 53(1):6-12.