Source: LOUISIANA STATE UNIVERSITY submitted to
MINERAL AND AMINO ACID NUTRITION OF POULTRY
Sponsoring Institution
National Institute of Food and Agriculture
Project Status
TERMINATED
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
0201468
Grant No.
(N/A)
Project No.
LAB93715
Proposal No.
(N/A)
Multistate No.
(N/A)
Program Code
(N/A)
Project Start Date
Aug 1, 2004
Project End Date
Jul 31, 2010
Grant Year
(N/A)
Project Director
Southern, L. L.
Recipient Organization
LOUISIANA STATE UNIVERSITY
(N/A)
BATON ROUGE,LA 70893
Performing Department
School of Animal Science
Non Technical Summary
Sources of minerals (organic versus inorganic) and varying levels of amino acids may affect production responses in broilers and layers. This project will evaluate the effect of various sources of minerals, phytase, and amino acids on production responses, tissue mineral levels, and carcass triats of broilers and laying hens.
Animal Health Component
100%
Research Effort Categories
Basic
(N/A)
Applied
100%
Developmental
(N/A)
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
3023210101025%
3023220101050%
3083220101025%
Goals / Objectives
This objectives of this research are to: 1) determine the effect of dietary phytase and reduced calcium and phosphorus on growth performance, bone response variables, and the concentration of phosphorus in poultry litter; 2) evaluate the efficacy of different sources of phytase; 3) determine the effect of Virginiamycin on mineral utilization in broilers; 4) determine the bioavailability of organic minerals for broilers; 5) determine the effect of organic minerals on production responses in layers; and 6) evaluate low-protein, amino acid supplemented diets for poultry.
Project Methods
The research will be conducted with sexed or straight-run commercial broilers in brooder batteries or in floor pens, and with laying hens. Treatments will be replicated a minimum of five times with a minimum of five (battery) or 50 (floor pens) chicks per pen. In the battery studies, the chicks will be individually weighed and wingbanded, and in the floor pen studies, the chicks will be weighed in pen groups. Initial and final weights and feed intake will be determined to calculate daily gain, feed intake, and gain feed. Diet formulation will depend on the experiment, but in general, all diets will be corn-soybean meal based, and meet the nutrient requirements of broilers (NRC, 1994) except in experiments where nutrient deficiencies are being evaluated. In the floor pen studies, a three-phase feeding program that is similar to industry recommendations will be used. The starting phase diet will be fed from 0 to 15 days, the growing phase diet from 15 to 35 days, and the finishing phase from 35 to 42 or 49 days. Diets will be formulated to provide 1.26% total lysine and 3,075 kcal/kg of ME for the starting phase, 1.15% total lysine and 3,150 kcal/kg of ME for the growing phase, and 1.00% total lysine and 3,200 kcal/kg of ME for the finishing phase. Dietary additions of phytase and minerals will be made at the expense of sand. Diets and water will be provided ad libitum. The water will provided by automatic nipple waterers with nine nipples in each pen in the floor pens studies, and in stainless steel trays in the battery studies. In the floor pen studies, feed will be provided via a feed tray for 0 to 7 days and then by two hanging tube feeders (43.2 cm diameter each) for the remainder of the trials. In the battery studies, feed will be provided in stainless steel trays. The floor pen studies will be conducted in tunnel-ventilated houses. One infrared brooding lamp per pen will be used for the first week. The lighting will be via incandescent lights and similar to commercial conditions; 24:0 L:D from 0- to 4-days posthatching, 20:4 L:D from 5- to 10-days posthatching, 18:6 L:D from 11- to 18-days posthatching, and 16:8 L:D from 19 days until project end. The light intensity will be 1.0 to 1.3 foot candles for 0- to 10-days posthatching and 0.2 to 0.3 foot candles from 11 days until project end. The batteries are environmentally controlled with raised wire floors and continuous fluorescent lighting. All data will be analyzed by analysis of variance procedures for completely randomized designs by the general linear model procedure of SAS. The pen of broilers will serve as the experimental unit for all data. Orthogonal or nonorthogonal polynomial contrasts or the PDIFF option will be used to separate treatment means.

Progress 08/01/04 to 07/31/10

Outputs
OUTPUTS: During the past year, this project resulted in three presentations at national or sectional meetings, two publications in refereed journals, one publication in Louisiana Agriculture and one invited presentation. The information gained from this research was presented to academic and industry poultry nutritionists, and it was used as practical examples of poultry research in undergraduate and graduate student training. PARTICIPANTS: The following graduate students participated in this research and used all or part of this work toward their degree. Ph.D., Victor Naranjo, Jose Charal, April Waguespack; M.S.,Stephen Treese. TARGET AUDIENCES: Poultry producers, students, and nutritionists in industry and academia. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.

Impacts
Our research focuses on improving nutritional efficiency in poultry and at the same time, minimizing nutrient loss to the environment. We work on amino acid and mineral requirements and on the ideal protein concept for poultry. If we know the minimum requirement for a nutrient and the exact ratio of other nutrients to that specific nutrient, then it is possible to formulate diets that maximize output by the animal but minimize nutrient loss to the environment. The data from one research project indicated that uric acid in the excreta and urea and uric acid in the serum could be used as indicators of amino acid utilization in poultry. These responses can be used in very short time periods or when growth performance cannot be used. Another project showed that the energy content of distiller's by products could be increased by exogenous dietary enzymes. Other research has established the effect of phytase on phosphorus loss to the environment, that high levels of calcium do not interfere with the efficacy of phytase, that an antibiotic growth promoter is more effective in improving growth performance than Calsporin, and that nitrogen loss in excreta can be greatly reduced if supplemental amino acids are added to the diet. This research project has developed ways to minimize nutrients in animal waste with no loss in animal productivity.

Publications

  • Donsbough, A.L., S. Powell, A. Waguespack, T.D. Bidner and L.L. Southern. 2010. Uric acid, urea, and ammonia concentrations in serum and uric acid concentration in excreta as indicators of amino acid utilization in diets for broilers. Poult. Sci. 89:287-294.
  • Adeola, O., J.A. Jendza, L.L. Southern, S. Powell. A. Owusu-Asiedu. 2010. Contribution of exogenous dietary carbohydrases to the metabolizable energy value of corn distillers grains for broiler chickens. Poult. Sci. 89:1947-1954.
  • Powell, S., L. Johnston, T. Lavergne, T. Bidner, L. Southern, and L. Gaston. 2010. Effect of dietary phosphorus level and phytase supplementation on growth performance, bone strength, and phosphorus excretion in broilers. Louisiana Agriculture 53:26.
  • L.L. Southern, T. Lavergne, T.D. Bidner,and S, Powell. Nutritional strategies to minimize nutrient output from poultry operations. National Poultry Waste Management Symposium, Greensboro, NC. October 27, 2010. (Invited presentation)
  • Powell, S., T. Bidner and L. Southern. 2010. The nonphytate P requirement for 0 to 14-day old broilers. 2010. International Poultry Scientific Forum Abstracts, page 68.
  • Powell S., T. Bidner and L. Southern. 2010. The effect of dietary Ca level on the efficacy of an E. coli derived phytase in 0 to 21-day old broilers. International Poultry Scientific Forum Abstracts, page 6.
  • Mahoney, S., S. Powell, T. Bidner and L. Southern. 2010. The effect of Virginiamycin and Calsporin in high and low energy diets for 0 to 18-day old broiler chicks. International Poultry Scientific Forum Abstracts, page 7.


Progress 01/01/09 to 12/31/09

Outputs
OUTPUTS: This project resulted in three presentations at national or sectional meetings and three publications in refereed journals. The information gained from this research was presented to academic and industry poultry nutritionists, and it was used as practical examples of poultry research in undergraduate and graduate student training. PARTICIPANTS: The following graduate students participated in this research and used all or part of this work toward their degree. Ph.D., Victor Naranjo, Syrena Powell, April Waguespack; M.S., Emily Fruge, Amanda Donsbough, and Stephen Treese. TARGET AUDIENCES: Poultry producers, students, and nutritionists in industry and academia. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.

Impacts
Our research is focused on improving nutritional efficiency in poultry and at the same time, minimizing nutrient loss to the environment. We focus on amino acid and mineral requirements and on the ideal protein concept for poultry. If we know the minimum requirement for a nutrient and the exact ratio of other nutrients to that specific nutrient, then it is possible to formulate diets that maximize output by the animal but minimize nutrient loss to the environment. The data from one research project indicted that the glycine plus serine requirement was 2.10% of the diet. Four experiments evaluated the interactive effects of glycine, total sulfur amino acids and lysine in corn-soybean meal diets on growth performance of broilers. The data indicate that glycine improves efficiency of feed utilization. Five experiments were conducted to determine the level of L-lysine that can be included in corn-soybean meal diets for broilers before an amino acid beyond methionine, lysine, threonine, and glycine becoming limiting and to determine the order of limiting amino acids in low crude protein soybean meal diets. In summary, 0.25% L-Lysine-HCl can be added to corn-soybean meal diets supplemented with methionine, threonine, and glycine with no negative effects on growth performance. Arginine and valine are equally limiting (after methionine, threonine, lysine and glycine) in diets containing 0.25% L-lysine-HCl. This research project has developed ways to minimize nutrients in animal waste with no loss in animal productivity.

Publications

  • Waguespack, A.M., S. Powell, T. D. Bidner, R. L. Payne and L.L. Southern. 2009. Effect of incremental levels of L-lysine and determination of the limiting amino acids in low crude protein corn-soybean meal diets for broilers. Poult. Sci. 88:1216-1226.
  • Powell, S., T.D Bidner and L.L. Southern. 2009. The interactive effects of glycine, total sulfur amino acids, and lysine supplementation to corn-soybean meal diets on growth performance and serum uric acid and urea concentrations in broilers. Poult. Sci. 88:1407-1412.
  • Waguespack, A.M., S. Powell, T.D. Bidner and L.L. Southern. 2009. The glycine plus serine requirement of broiler chicks fed low crude protein, corn-soybean meal diets. J. Appl. Poult. Res. 18:761-765.
  • Waguespack, A., T. Bidner and L. Southern. 2009. The interactive effects of glycine, creatine, and fishmeal supplementation to corn-soybean meal diets on broiler growth performance. International Poultry Scientific Forum Abstracts, page 14.
  • Powell, S., T. D. Bidner and L.L. Southern. 2009. The effects on broiler growth performance of glycine supplementation at varying levels of dietary methionine and cystine in low crude protein diets. International Poultry Scientific Forum Abstracts, page 12.
  • Fruge, E., S. Powell, T. Bidner and L. Southern. 2009. Effect of incremental red blood cell (RBC) addition on growth performance of broilers. International Poultry Scientific Forum Abstracts, page 10.


Progress 01/01/08 to 12/31/08

Outputs
OUTPUTS: This project resulted in six presentations at national or sectional meetings and three publications in refereed journals. The information gained from this research was presented to academic and industry poultry nutritionists, and it was used as practical examples of poultry research in undergraduate and graduate student training. PARTICIPANTS: The following graduate students participated in this research and used all or part of this work toward their degree. Ph.D., Syrena Powell, April Waguespack; M.S., Emily Fruge, Amanda Donsbough, Victor Naranjo. TARGET AUDIENCES: Poultry producers, students, and nutritionists in industry and academia. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.

Impacts
Our research is focused on improving nutritional efficiency in poultry and at the same time, minimizing nutrient loss to the environment. We focus on amino acid and mineral requirements and on the ideal protein concept for poultry. If we know the minimum requirement for a nutrient and the exact ratio of other nutrients to that specific nutrient, then it is possible to formulate diets that maximize output by the animal but minimize nutrient loss to the environment. Previously, our research has evaluated the maximum level of supplemental lysine, methionine, and threonine that can be added to broiler diets with no negative effect on growth performance. We have evaluated the use of serum uric acid and urea nitrogen as response variables to determine the efficiency of protein utilization in broiler diets. These response variables respond to amino acid deficiencies in a diet, but they are not adequately sensitive to be used to determine amino acid requirements of poultry. Research to determine the glycine requirement of broilers is continuing, but at this point, the estimated requirement estimates seem unreasonably high. Research on the phosphorus requirement of broilers and the relationship between calcium and phosphorus is also continuing. This research project has developed ways to minimize nutrients in animal waste with no loss in animal productivity.

Publications

  • Lauzon, D. A., S. L. Johnston, L. L. Southern and Z. Xu. 2008. The effect of carrier for vitamin E on liver concentrations of vitamin e and vitamin e excretion in broilers. Poult. Sci. 87:934-939.
  • Powell, S., S. Johnston, L. Gaston and L. L. Southern. 2008. The effect of dietary phosphorus level and phytase supplementation on growth performance, bone breaking strength, and litter phosphorus concentration in broilers. Poult. Sci. 87:949-957.
  • Jackson, A.R., S. Powell, S. Johnston, J.L. Shelton, T.D. Bidner, F.R. Valdez and L.L. Southern. 2008. The effect of chromium propionate on growth performance and carcass traits in broilers. J. Appl. Poultry Res. 17:476-481.
  • Waguespack, A., S. Powell, A. Donsbough, D. Dean, T. Bidner and L. Southern. 2008. The effect of glycine in diets for broilers fed corn-soybean meal diets. International Poultry Scientific Forum Abstracts, page 45.
  • Waguespack, A., T. Bidner and L. Southern. 2008. The glycine requirement of broilers fed low crude protein, corn-soybean meal diets. International Poultry Scientific Forum Abstracts, page 7.
  • Powell, S., T.D. Bidner and L.L. Southern, 2008. The interactive effects of glycine, total sulfur amino acids, and lysine addition to corn-soybean meal diets on growth performance and serum uric acid of 0-to 18-day old broilers. 2008. International Poultry Scientific Forum Abstracts, page 6.
  • Donsbough, A., S. Powell, T. Bidner and L. Southern. 2008. Serum uric acid as a response to assess amino acid adequacy of a diet. International Poultry Scientific Forum Abstracts, page 7.
  • Lauzon, D.A., S. Powell and L.L. Southern. 2008. Relative bioavailability of different sources of Cu in diets for 0- to 14-day old broilers. International Poultry Scientific Forum Abstracts, page 43.


Progress 01/01/07 to 12/31/07

Outputs
OUTPUTS: This project resulted in four presentations at national or sectional meetings and one publication in a refereed journal. The information gained from this research was presented to academic and industry poultry nutritionists, and it was used as practical examples of poultry research in undergraduate and graduate student training. PARTICIPANTS: The following graduate students participated in this research and used all or part of this work toward their degree. Ph.D., Syrena Powell, Danielle Lauzon, April Waguespack; M.S., Emily Fruge, Amanda Donsbough, Victor Naranjo. TARGET AUDIENCES: Poultry producers, students, and nutritionists in industry and academia. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: none

Impacts
Our research is focused on improving nutritional efficiency in poultry and at the same time, minimizing nutrient loss to the environment. We focus on amino acid and mineral requirements and on the ideal protein concept for poultry. If we know the minimum requirement for a nutrient and the exact ratio of other nutrients to that specific nutrient, then it is possible to formulate diets that maximize output by the animal but minimize nutrient loss to the environment. Our research has evaluated the maximum level of supplemental lysine, methionine and threonine that can be added to broiler diets with no negative effect on growth performance. In this diet with the maximum level of supplemental amino acids, we have determined the fifth and sixth limiting amino acids. Subsequent research will determine the glycine requirement in this diet. The ultimate goal of this research is to minimize the total crude protein in broiler diets without affecting animal productivity. We also have evaluated a Louisiana-produced extruded soybean meal in broiler diets. Our data indicate that this protein source is comparable to conventional soybean meal and results in more economical growth performance. We have continued to evaluate various mineral supplements and interactions in diets for broilers. Organic minerals may have positive effects on overall productivity of broilers and other livestock, and interactions between minerals in diets for broilers are different than in diets for pigs. This research project has developed ways to minimize nutrients in animal waste with no loss in animal productivity.

Publications

  • Shelton, J.L. and L.L.Southern. 2007. Interactive effects of zinc, copper and manganese in diets for broilers. Inter. J. Poult. Sci. 6 (7) 466-469.
  • Waguespack, A., S. Powell, T. Bidner and L. Southern. 2007. Effect of incremental levels of L-Lysine-HCl in low crude protein corn-soybean meal diets on growth performance of broiler chicks. Poultry Sci. 86:1538 (print version only) or International Poultry Scientific Forum Abstracts, page 8.
  • Waguespack, A., S. Powell, T. Bidner and L. Southern. 2007. Determination of the limiting amino acid other than methionine, threonine, lysine, and glycine in low crude protein corn-soybean meal diets for broiler chicks. Poultry Sci. 86:1538 (print version only) or International Poultry Scientific Forum Abstracts, page 8.
  • Powell, S., V. Naranjo, D. Lauzon, L. Southern, T. Bidner, and C. Parsons. 2007. Evaluation of Louisiana-produced extruded-expelled soybean meal for chickens. Poultry Sci. 86:1536 (print version only) or International Poultry Scientific Forum Abstracts, page 6.
  • Southern, L.L. 2007. Minerals: Effect of form on requirements and bioavailability. J. Anim. Sci. 85 (Suppl. 1):424. (Invited presentation)


Progress 01/01/06 to 12/31/06

Outputs
Two experiments (Exp.) were conducted to evaluate growth and bone responses in 0 to 14 d-old broilers. Each treatment was replicated with a minimum of 5 pens of 6 chicks each. Each Exp. contained a positive control (PC) corn soybean meal (C-SBM) diet (2.22 Ca:non phytate P [nPP] ratio at 0.45% nPP). In Exp. 1 in addition to the PC diet, 2 levels of nPP (0.25 and 0.35%) were fed at Ca:nPP ratios of 1.6, 1.9, 2.2, and 2.5. In Exp. 2 in addition to the PC diet, 2 levels of nPP (0.25 and 0.35%) were fed at Ca:nPP ratios of 1.6, 1.9, 2.2, 2.5, 2.8, and 3.1. In Exp. 1, increasing nPP from 0.25 to 0.35% increased (P < 0.02) ADG, ADFI, G:F, and bone breaking strength. Gain:feed was increased linearly (P < 0.04) as Ca:nPP increased. In Exp. 2, nPP level did not affect growth performance (P > 0.10). There was a quadratic effect (P < 0. 06) of Ca:nPP on ADG with gain being optimum at a Ca:nPP of 2.2 in broilers fed 0.25% nPP or at a Ca:nPP of 1.9 in broilers fed 0.35% nPP. Bone breaking strength and bone ash percentage were increased (P < 0.01) by increasing nPP from 0.25 to 0.35%. Bone breaking strength and bone ash percentage were increased quadratically (P < 0.02) by increasing Ca:nPP. A Ca:nPP ratio of 1.9 to 2.2 is optimum, and 0.35% nPP does not maximize bone response variables regardless of the Ca level. Two Exp. were conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary Cr propionate (0, 200, 400, or 800 ppb of Cr) on growth and carcass traits of 0 to 42 d-old and 0 to 49 d-old broilers. Treatments were replicated with 7 pens (4 male and 3 female) with either 50 male or 55 female broilers each. In Exp. 1, 400 ppb Cr decreased (quadratic, P < 0.10) ADG and G:F in the grower phase, but mortality was reduced (cubic, P < 0.10) in broilers fed 200 or 800 ppb Cr. In the finisher phase, G:F was increased (quadratic, P < 0.10) in broilers fed all dietary levels of Cr, and mortality was reduced (quadratic, P < 0.10) in broilers fed 200 and 400 ppb Cr. Chromium did not affect carcass, yield or quality traits. In Exp. 2, Cr did not affect growth. The results of these Exp. indicate that Cr as CrProp improved G:F in the later phases of growth and reduced mortality in one Exp. Two Exp. were conducted to determine the effect of vitamin E source on availability. Chicks were pretested from d 0 to 7 posthatching on a C-SBM diet without vitamin E supplementation, and the Exp. lasted from 7 to 19 d posthatching. Each treatment was replicated with a minimum of 5 pens of 5 chicks each. In Exp. 1, the dietary treatments were the C-SBM diet with varying levels (0, 30, 100, or 300 ppm) of vitamin E adsorbed to either verxite or to silica. In Exp. 2, the dietary treatments were the 0 and 30 ppm vitamin E adsorbed to verxite or to silica. At both 100 and 300 ppm supplemental vitamin E, an average of 94% and 44% of vitamin E intake from verxite and silica, respectively, was excreted in the feces, but at 30 ppm vitamin E, 49 and 45% of vitamin E intake was excreted in the feces (vitamin E source, P < 0.01; and source x level interaction, P < 0.08). In Exp. 2, 52 and 43% of vitamin E intake from verxite and silica was excreted in the feces (source, P < 0.02).

Impacts
The optimum calcium to phosphorus ratio is 1.9 to 2.2 and 0.35% nPP does not maximize bone response variables regardless of the Ca level. Chromium as chromium propionate has some positive effects on broiler growth and mortality. Source of vitamin E affects the availability of vitamin E.

Publications

  • Robbins, K.R., A.M. Saxton and L.L. Southern. 2006. Estimation of nutrient requirements using broken-line regression analysis. J. Anim. Sci. 84(E. Suppl.):E155-E165.
  • Dean, D.W., L.L. Southern, B.J. Kerr and T.D. Bidner. 2006. Glycine supplementation to low protein amino acid supplemented diets supports optimal performance of broiler chicks. Poultry Sci. 85:288-296.
  • Shelton, J.L. and L.L. Southern. 2006. Effect of phytase addition with or without the trace mineral premix on growth performance, bone response variables, and tissue mineral concentrations in commercial broilers. J. Appl. Poultry Res. 15:94-102.
  • Watson, B.C., J.O. Matthews, L.L. Southern and J.L. Shelton. 2006. The effects of phytase on growth performance and intestinal transit time of broilers fed nutritionally adequate diets and diets deficient in calcium and phosphorus. Poultry Sci. 85:493-497.
  • Powell, S., S. Johnston, L. Gaston and L. Southern. 2006. The effect of dietary phosphorus level and phytase supplementation on growth performance, bone breaking strength, and phosphorus excretion in broilers. Poultry Sci. 85(Suppl.):153. (Abstr.)
  • Roux, M., S. Johnston and L. Southern. 2006. The effect of dietary phosphorus level and Ca:P ratio on growth performance and bone response variables in broilers. Poultry Sci. 85(Suppl.):200. (Abstr.)
  • Jackson, A., L. Southern, S. Johnston. J. Shelton, V. Sewalt and F. Valdez. 2006. The effect of chromium as chromium propionate on growth and carcass traits of broilers. Poultry Sci. 85(Suppl.):200. (Abstr.)
  • Lauzon, D., S. Johnston, L. Southern, Z. Xu and B. W. Cousins. 2006. The effect of source of vitamin E on growth performance and vitamin E excretion in broilers. Poultry Sci. 85(Suppl.):167. (Abstr.)


Progress 01/01/05 to 12/31/05

Outputs
Six experiments (EXP) were conducted to determine the effects of low crude protein (CP) in diets for broilers and to evaluate limiting essential and nonessential amino acids (AA) in these diets. In EXP 1, corn-soybean meal diets were formulated to 16.18, 17.68, 19.18, 20.68, or 22.18% CP. The 22.18% CP diet provided 1.23% Lys and 0.89% total sulfur amino acids (TSAA), and served as the positive control (PC) diet in all EXP. Increasing dietary CP linearly increased final BW, daily gain (ADG), and gain:feed (G:F) (P < 0.005). In EXP 2, ADG, final BW, and G:F were decreased (P < 0.01) when CP was reduced, but the addition of the nonessential AA increased final BW, ADG, and G:F (P < 0.07) to the level of broilers fed the PC. In EXP 3, chicks fed diets with supplemental Glu, Ala, Asp, or Pro had reduced daily feed intake (ADFI), ADG, and final BW (P < 0.05) compared with the PC diet. Addition of Gly or the combination of Gly and other AA to the low CP diet increased G:F (P < 0.01) compared with chicks fed PC, and ADG was not different from that of broilers fed the PC diet. In EXP 4 to 6, the Gly requirement of chicks fed low CP diets was determined. In summary, low CP diets result in optimal growth of broilers with Gly + Ser levels of 2.44%. Another EXP was conducted to determine the effects of feeding different nonphytate P (nPP) levels with and without phytase (PHY) supplementation on broiler growth performance, bone breaking strength (BBS), and phosphorus (P) excretion. An EXP with 4 trials was conducted with 7,840 Ross x Ross straight run broilers. The broilers were fed a 4 phase feeding program consisting of starter (0 to 14 d), grower (14 to 32 d), finisher (32 to 41 d), and withdrawal (41 to 50 d) periods. For each trial, the same pen was used continuously for each treatment/replication combination, and the litter was not removed between trials. Broilers were fed a control diet (0.43, 0.40, 0.36, or 0.32% nPP in the starter, grower, finisher, and withdrawal phases, respectively), a low Ca and P (LCaP) diet with a 0.05 % reduction in nPP in each phase (Ca:P maintained), and these two diets supplemented with 600 PHY units/kg (nPP was reduced by 0.10% in diets with PHY). There was no main effect of PHY on BBS, but BBS was decreased in the broilers fed the LCaP diet with PHY addition (nPP x Phy, P < 0.01) in the grower phase, and BBS was decreased in the finisher (P < 0.02) and withdrawal (P < 0.01) phases for broilers fed the LCaP diet. Total P (TP), soluble P (SP), and reactive soluble P (RSP) were decreased (P < 0.04) in litter of broilers fed the LCaP diet. Total P (TP), soluble P (SP), and reactive soluble P (RSP) were decreased (P < 0.04) in litter of broilers fed the LCaP diet. Total P was decreased (P < 0.01) in litter of broilers fed PHY, but SP and RSP were not affected (P > 0.1) by PHY. These data indicate that PHY supplementation at 600 FTU/kg reduces growth during some phases, and that PHY reduces total P but not soluble P in litter.

Impacts
Low protein, amino acid supplemented diets can be used successfully in broiler production with the use of glycine. Dietary phytase reduces phosphorus excretion to the environment.

Publications

  • Payne, R.L., T.K. Lavergne and L.L. Southern. 2005. Effect of inorganic versus organic selenium on hen production and egg selenium concentration. Poultry Sci. 84:232-237.
  • Payne, R.L., T.K. Lavergne and L.L. Southern 2005. A comparison of two sources of phytase in liquid and dry forms in broilers. Poultry Sci. 84:265-272.
  • Payne, R.L. and L.L. Southern. 2005. Comparison of inorganic and organic selenium sources for broilers. Poultry Sci. 84:898-902.
  • Payne, R.L. and L.L. Southern. 2005. Changes in glutathione peroxidase and tissue selenium concentrations of broilers after consuming a diet adequate in selenium. Poultry Sci. 84:1268-1276.
  • Shelton, J.L., D.W. Dean, L.L. Southern and T.D. Bidner. 2005. Effect of protein and energy sources and bulk density of diets on growth performance of chicks. Poultry Sci. 84:1547-1554.
  • Watson, B.C., J.O. Matthews, L.L. Southern and J.L. Shelton. 2005. The interactive effects of Eimeria acervulina infection and phytase in broiler chicks. Poultry Sci. 84:910-913.
  • O Connor-Dennie, T. and L.L. Southern. 2004. The effect of virginiamycin in diets with adequate or reduced dietary calcium or nonphytate phosphorus for broilers. Poultry Sci. 84:1868-1874.


Progress 01/01/04 to 12/31/04

Outputs
Phytate has been shown to bind to cations including calcium, zinc, copper, lead, manganese, magnesium, cobalt, and iron. It also has been shown to have negative effects on digestive enzymes, and availability of protein, amino acids, and carbohydrates. Phytate is found in feed ingredients such as corn and soybean meal, and it can cause a decrease in nutrient availability in diets containing these ingredients. Microbial phytase has been shown to increase the availability of calcium, phosphorus, metabolizable energy, and amino acids in diets for broilers. However, much more research has been conducted on the calcium and phosphorus effects than on the metabolizable energy and amino acids effects. Therefore, two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of phytase on the release of metabolizable energy and amino acids from corn-soybean meal diets for broilers. Experiment 1 was a battery study that lasted for 14 days and included diets adequate in all nutrients, diets deficient in metabolizable energy and amino acids, and these latter two diets with and without added phytase. Experiment 2 was a floor-pen study that lasted 42 days and included diets with reduced levels of metabolizable energy and amino acids with added phytase. Growth performance, meat quality, and tibia ash were not affected by using the metabolizable energy and amino acids values for phytase. Total phosphorus, soluble phosphorus, and inorganic soluble phosphorus in the litter were reduced when phytase was added to the diets. These data indicate that metabolizable energy and amino acids values for phytase can be used in diet formulations for broilers with no loss in growth or yield performance, but a decrease in the phosphorus content of the litter will be observed.

Impacts
These data indicate that metabolizable energy and amino acid values for phytase can be used in diet formulations for broilers with no loss in growth or yield performance, but a decrease in the phosphorus content of the litter will be observed. The reduced phosphorus excretion will result in the need for less land space to apply the litter, and a reduced opportunity for eutrophication of water resources.

Publications

  • Shelton, J.L., Southern, L.L., Gaston, L.A. Gaston and Foster, A. 2004. Evaluation of the nutrient matrix values for phytase in broilers. J. Appl. Poult. Res. 13:213-221.