Source: LANGSTON UNIVERSITY submitted to
QUALITY, SAFETY AND SHELF-LIFE OF GOAT MILK AND DAIRY PRODUCTS ON THE MARKET
Sponsoring Institution
National Institute of Food and Agriculture
Project Status
TERMINATED
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
0200780
Grant No.
2004-38814-15111
Project No.
OKLXZENG
Proposal No.
2004-02587
Multistate No.
(N/A)
Program Code
EQ.F1
Project Start Date
Sep 1, 2004
Project End Date
Aug 31, 2007
Grant Year
2004
Project Director
Zeng, S.
Recipient Organization
LANGSTON UNIVERSITY
(N/A)
LANGSTON,OK 73050
Performing Department
AGRI RES & EXTENSION CENTER
Non Technical Summary
The public demands safe and wholesome products. This study is conducted to determine the quality, safety and shelf-life of dairy goat products on the U.S. market.
Animal Health Component
75%
Research Effort Categories
Basic
25%
Applied
75%
Developmental
(N/A)
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
50350101100100%
Goals / Objectives
1) to establish a comprehensive database of dairy goat product safety, quality and shelf-life on the store shelves 2) to develop and implement biological, biochemical and/or physical interventions to control undesirable microbes 3) to enhance the marketability and profitability of goat milk and dairy products.
Project Methods
Goat milk and milk products on the US market will be collected at different stages and analyzed for microbial, organoleptic, chemical and biochemical quality. The safety and shelf-life of these dairy goat product will be determined.

Progress 01/01/07 to 12/31/07

Outputs
OUTPUTS: The objectives of this project are to 1) establish a comprehensive database of dairy goat product safety, quality and shelf-life on the store shelves; 2) identify the unique values such as CLA of dairy goat products; 3) develop and implement biological, biochemical and/or physical interventions to control undesirable microbes; 4) enhance the marketability and profitability of goat milk and dairy products by improving product microbiological and sensory quality, and by prolonging shelf-life of finished products; and 5) assist store managers and personnel handling goat milk and dairy products by providing information and techniques to maximize product quality and shelf-life. All experiments proposed in the project were completed in 2007. In the third year of this project, we focused on the quality, safety, and shelf-life of goat milk cheeses on the market, and on the development of CLA-enhanced cheeses and their sensory quality and texture characteristics. In addition, a study was conducted to investigate seasonal effects on cheese quality and texture. All the goat milk and cheese samples were analyzed. Some data have been statistically analyzed for preparation of manuscripts. There is still some data to be collected and analyzed for future manuscript preparation. PARTICIPANTS: Dr. S.S. Zeng, Project Director, American Research Institute for Goats, Langston University; Dr. M. Perdue, USDA/ARS collaborator; Dr. Perdue had a two-year overseas assignment during this project and therefore was replaced by Dr. Jo Ann Van Kesse; Dr. Jo Ann Van Kesse, USDA/ARS collaborator/Research Animal Scientist of USDA/ARS; Dr. S.E. Gilliland, 1862 Institution Collaborator/Professor, Department of Animal Science, Oklahoma State University; Dr. Sean Chen, Visiting Scholar, Henen Science and Technology University, Leyang, Henen, China. TARGET AUDIENCES: Dairy producers, dairy processors, dairy/animal scientists, food scientists, state/federal regulators, and general consumers. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Because the original USDA/ARS collaborator Dr. Perdue had a two-year overseas assignment during this project, he was replaced by Dr. JoAnn Van Kesse also of USDA/ARS. Because of the nature of extended aging (ripening) periods of goat milk cheeses, many cheese samples were not completely analyzed at the end of the project, a no-cost extension of the project to March 2008 was requested and granted.

Impacts
This project has developed a comprehensive and applicable data base for goat milk and its products and established measurements of quality and shelf-life for uniform quality standards. This project should promote the dairy goat industry by encouraging goat processors and store managers to produce and deliver higher quality milk and longer shelf-life products to the consumer. Information on quality and shelf-life characteristics provides a guideline to establish quality standards to enhance profitability. The U.S. dairy goat industry will benefit from this project by increasing profitability of dairy products and the strengthened competitiveness with European counterparts. As a result, improved economic return is anticipated for the small farmers engaged in production of goat milk and its products in the U.S.

Publications

  • ZENG, S.S., CHEN, S.S., BAH, B. AND TESFAI, K. 2007. Effect of extended storage on microbiological quality, somatic cell count and composition of raw goat milk on farm. J. Food Protection 70:1281-1285.
  • Zeng, S.S., SORYAL, K., FEKADU, B., BAH, B. AND POPHAM, T. 2007. Predictive formulae for goat cheese yield based on milk composition. Small Rumin. Res. 69:180-186.
  • OLSON, D., VAN HEKKEN, D.L., TUNICK, M.H., SORYAL, K.A. AND ZENG, S.S. 2007. Effects of stage of lactation and aging on functional properties of goats' milk Cheddar-and Colby-like cheeses. Small Rumin. Res. 70:218-227.
  • VAN HEKKEN, D.L., TUNICK, M.H., SORYAL, K.A. AND ZENG, S.S. 2007. Proteolytic and rheological properties of aging Cheddar-like caprine milk cheeses manufactured at different times during lactation. J. Food Sci. 72:115-120.
  • CHEN, S.S., VAN KESSE, J.S., BAH, B., REN, F.Z. AND ZENG, S.S. 2007. Validation of Petrifilm plates for enumeration of total bacteria, psychotropic bacteria, and coliforms in goat milk. J. Anim Sci. 85(Suppl. 1):487.


Progress 09/01/04 to 08/31/07

Outputs
OUTPUTS: The objectives of this project are to 1) establish a comprehensive database of dairy goat product safety, quality and shelf-life on the store shelves; 2) identify the unique values such as CLA of dairy goat products; 3) develop and implement biological, biochemical and/or physical interventions to control undesirable microbes; 4) enhance the marketability and profitability of goat milk and dairy products by improving product microbiological and sensory quality, and by prolonging shelf-life of finished products; and 5) assist store managers and personnel handling goat milk and dairy products by providing information and techniques to maximize product quality and shelf-life. All experiments proposed in the project were completed by 2007 and aa sample analyses completed in early 2008. Research data have been statistically analyzed for preparation of abstracts and manuscripts. PARTICIPANTS: Dr. S. S. Zeng, Project Director, American Research Institute for Goats, Langston University; Dr. M. Perdue, USDA/ARS collaborator; Dr. Perdue had a two-year overseas assignment during this project and therefore was replaced by Dr. Jo Ann Van Kesse; Dr. Jo Ann Van Kesse, USDA/ARS collaborator/ Research Animal Scientist of USDA/ARS; Dr. S. E. Gilliland, 1862 Institution Collaborator/Professor, Department of Animal Science, Oklahoma State University Dr. Sean Chen, Visiting Scholar, Henen Science and Technology University, Leyang, Henan, China. TARGET AUDIENCES: Dairy producers, dairy processors, dairy/animal scientists, food scientists, state/federal regulators, and general consumers. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Because the original USDA/ARS collaborator Dr. Perdue had a two-year overseas assignment during this project, he was replaced by Dr. Jo Ann Van Kesse also of USDA/ARS; Because of the nature of extended aging (ripening) periods of goat milk cheeses, many cheese samples were not completely analyzed at the end of the project, a no-cost extension of the project to March 2008 has been applied and granted.

Impacts
This project has developed a comprehensive and applicable data base for goat milk and its products and established measurements of quality and shelf-life for uniform quality standards. This project should promote the dairy goat industry by encouraging goat processors and store managers to produce and deliver higher quality milk and longer shelf-life products to the consumer. Information on quality and shelf-life characteristics provides a guideline to establish quality standards to enhance profitability. The U.S. dairy goat industry will benefit from this project by increasing profitability of dairy products and the strengthened competitiveness with European counterparts. As a result, improved economic return is anticipated for the small farmers engaged in production of goat milk and its products in the U.S.

Publications

  • Chen, S.X., F.Z. Ren, B. Bah, S.S. Zeng, 2008. Effect of CLA dietary supplementation in dairy goats on quality of semi-hard cheese; the 9th International Conference on Goats, Queretaro, Mexico, August 31 - September 05, 2008.
  • Zeng, S.S., E. Garry, E. Vasquez, and B. Bah, 2008. Comparison of electronic vs. microscopic methods on SCC of goat milk. The 9th International Conference on Goats, Queretaro, Mexico, August 31 - September 05, 2008.
  • Chen, S.X., M. Rovai, A. Lock, D. E. Bauman, T. Gipson, F. Z. Ren, S. S. Zeng. 2008. Effects of Milk Fat Depression Induced by Trans-10, Cis-12 Conjugated Linoleic Acid Dietary Supplementation on Properties of Semi-hard Goat Cheese. J. Dairy Sci. (in press).
  • Zeng, S.S., Zhang, L. G.R. Wiggans, J. Clay, R. LaCroix, J.Z. Wang, and T. Gipson. 2008. Distribution of composition and somatic cell count in milk of goats enrolled in Dairy Herd Improvement in U.S. In: Dairy Farming, Nova Publishers, (in press).
  • Chen, S. S., L. Zhang, B. Bah, and S. S. Zeng, 2008. Effect of somatic cell count in goat milk on yield and sensory quality of semi-hard cheese; the Annual American Dairy Science Association (ADSA)/American Society of Animal Science (ASAS) Conference, Indianapolis, IN; July 7-11, 2008.


Progress 01/01/06 to 12/31/06

Outputs
During the second year of this project, there were three experiments carried out. One dealt with the quality and safety of raw goat milk on the farm. The second one investigated the effects of somatic cell count on cheese yield and quality. And the third experiment was designed to enhance the content of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in goat colostrum milk and subsequently to determine the effect of CLA on health benefits of goat colostrum milk, and on cheese quality and texture. In all of these three studies, some new examination methods, such as Petrifilms for pathogen enumeration, protein assays, and use of a Texture Profile Analyzer for cheese body and texture were applied to determine the quality and safety of the goat milk products. These studies have almost been completed, awaiting the final analyses of CLA. All other data have been gathered and will be statistically analyzed. Abstracts were prepared and will be presented at the American Dairy Science Association annual conference in July, 2007.

Impacts
This project will develop a comprehensive and applicable data base for goat milk and its products and establish measurements of quality and shelf-life for uniform quality standards. This project should promote the dairy goat industry by encouraging goat processors and store managers to produce and deliver higher quality milk and longer shelf-life products to the consumer. Information on quality and shelf-life characteristics provides a guideline to establish quality standards to enhance profitability. The U.S. dairy goat industry will benefit from this project by increasing profitability of dairy products and the strengthened competitiveness with European counterparts. As a result improved economic return is anticipated for the small farmer engaged in production of goat milk and its products in the U.S.

Publications

  • ZENG, S., BAH, B. AND CHEN, S. 2006. Effects of extended storage on microbiological quality, somatic cell count, and composition of grade-A goat milk. Oklahoma Research Day. University of Central Oklahoma, pp 138-139. Abstr.
  • CHEN, S., ZENG, S., ROVAI, M., GIPSON, T., BAUMAN, D., LOCK, A., BAH, B. AND GOETSCH, A. 2006. Effects of CLA supplementation on texture profile of semi-hard goat cheese. J. Anim. Sci. 84(Suppl. 1):327. Abstr.
  • CHEN, S., GOETSCH, A., BAH, B., ROVAI, M., ZENG, S., GIPSON, T., LOCK, A. AND BAUMAN, D. 2006. Effects of CLA supplementation on texture profile of semi-hard goat cheese. Oklahoma Research Day. University of Central Oklahoma, p 139. Abstr.


Progress 01/01/05 to 12/31/05

Outputs
In the initial year of this project, there have been three studies carried out. One dealt with the quality, safety and shelf-life of liquid goat milk on the U.S. market. The second one investigated the same aspects of goat milk yogurts sold on the market. And the third experiment was designed to enhance the content of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in goat milk and subsequently to determine the effect of CLA on cheese quality and texture. In all these three studies, some new examination methods, such as Petrifilms for pathogen enumeration and Texture Profile Analyzer for cheese body and texture, have been applied to determine the quality and safety of the goat milk products. These studies have almost been completed, awaiting the final analyses of CLA, free fatty acids and amino acids. All other data have been gathered and will be statistically analyzed. Abstracts are being prepared for submission to the American Dairy Science Association annual conference in July 2006. In general, the goat milk products sold on the U.S. market were of high quality, low in bacterial count, free of pathogens, free of antibiotic residues, and had longer than expected shelf-lives. A couple of studies have been proposed for the second year of this project. We will be concentrating on goat milk cheeses. Goat cheeses are the main value-added goat milk products. The production and consumption in the U.S. has increased tremendously in recent years, therefore, the quality and safety of goat cheeses are paramount to the consumer as well as to the manufacturer.

Impacts
This project will develop a comprehensive and applicable data base for goat milk and its products and establish measurements of quality and shelf-life for uniform quality standards. This project should promote the dairy goat industry by encouraging goat processors and store managers to produce and deliver higher quality milk and longer shelf-life products to the consumer. Information on quality and shelf-life characteristics provides a guideline to establish quality standards to enhance profitability. The U.S. dairy goat industry will benefit from this project by increasing profitability of dairy products and the strengthened competitiveness with European counterparts. As a result improved economic return is anticipated for the small farmer engaged in production of goat milk and its products in the U.S.

Publications

  • FEKADU, B., SORYAL, K., ZENG, S., VAN KEKKEN, D., BAH, B. AND VILLAQUIRAN, M. 2005. Changes in goat milk composition during lactation and their effect on yield and quality of hard and semi-hard cheeses. Small Rum. Res. 59:55-63.
  • SORYAL, K., BEYENE, F.A., ZENG, S., BAH, B. AND TESFAI, K. 2005. Effect of goat breed and milk composition on yield, sensory quality, fatty acid concentration of soft cheese during lactation. Small Rum. Res. 58:275-281.
  • ZENG, S.S., SORYAL, K., FEKADU, B. AND VILLAQUIRAN, M. 2005. Predictive models for goat cheese yield using milk composition. J. Anim. Sci. 83(Suppl. 1):151. Abstr.


Progress 01/01/04 to 12/31/04

Outputs
The objectives of this project are: 1) to establish a comprehensive database of dairy goat product safety, quality and shelf-life on the store shelves; 2) to identify the unique values such as CLA of dairy goat products; 3) to develop and implement biological, biochemical and/or physical interventions to control undesirable microbes; 4) to enhance the marketability and profitability of goat milk and dairy products by improving product microbiological and sensory quality, and by prolonging shelf-life of finished products; and 5) to assist store managers and personnel handling goat milk and dairy products by providing information and techniques to maximize product quality and shelf-life. Two experimental protocols (4 experiments) have been submitted for the internal approval at Langston University to commence this project in March 2005. In the first year, we'll be focusing on the quality, safety and shelf-life of liquid goat milk products on the market. In addition, a study will be conducted to investigate seasonal effects on cheese quality and texture. Experimental procedures have been finalized. Materials and supplies have been purchased. A visiting scholar with abundant dairy food experiences has been recruited. A proportion of the funds has been transferred to our 1862-institution collaborator, Oklahoma State University, for them to carry out a part of the project.

Impacts
This project will develop a comprehensive and applicable data base for goat milk and its products and establish measurements of quality and shelf-life for uniform quality standards. This project should promote the dairy goat industry by encouraging goat processors and store managers to produce and deliver higher quality milk and longer shelf-life products to the consumer. Information on quality and shelf-life characteristics provides a guideline to establish quality standards to enhance profitability. The U.S. dairy goat industry will benefit from this project by increasing profitability of dairy products and the strengthened competitiveness with European counterparts. As a result improved economic return is anticipated for the small farmer engaged in production of goat milk and its products in the U.S.

Publications

  • No publications reported this period