Source: STRATACOR, INC. submitted to
NATURAL FLY REPELLENT FOR LIVESTOCK
Sponsoring Institution
National Institute of Food and Agriculture
Project Status
TERMINATED
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
0200581
Grant No.
2004-33610-15084
Project No.
CALK-2004-02639
Proposal No.
2004-02639
Multistate No.
(N/A)
Program Code
8.3
Project Start Date
Sep 1, 2004
Project End Date
Aug 31, 2007
Grant Year
2004
Project Director
Reifenrath, W. G.
Recipient Organization
STRATACOR, INC.
1315 SOUTH 46TH ST., BLDG. 154
RICHMOND,CA 94804
Performing Department
(N/A)
Non Technical Summary
Insects, ticks and mites cost US livestock producers in excess of $3 billion annually. Existing treatments, based on pyrethroids and organophosphates, have only weak repellent activity, permitting the annoyance of landing insects. Furthermore, the toxic effects of these compounds to flies has diminished due to tolerance. We will develop a natural insect repellent for livestock to curb insect-related losses in the dairy cattle, range cattle, confined beef cattle and swine industries and will improve animal care for horses and other companion animals. We will optimize formulations of low-cost, naturally- occuring, environmentally benign actives having high intrinsic repellent activity against flies.
Animal Health Component
100%
Research Effort Categories
Basic
(N/A)
Applied
100%
Developmental
(N/A)
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
3123110113050%
3123310113030%
3123810113020%
Goals / Objectives
The overall Phase II technical objectives will be to optimize the repellent dust and liquid formulations, developed in Phase I, with a combination of laboratory and field tests against the horn fly and stable fly.
Project Methods
The Phase II work plan will be divided into two parts, one for the dust formulation and the second for the liquid formulation. Priority will be given to completing the dust formulation during the first year, with the liquid formulation to follow in the second year. For the dust, the series of tasks will include formulation, evaluation of the kinetics of repellent evaporation, in vitro stable fly repellency assay, determination of substantivity or skin adherence, development/refinement of analytical assay of actives, preparation of pilot scale quantities of the formulation, and laboratory and field evaluation of the formulation at collaborating laboratories at the University of Nebraska, University of California at Riverside, and USDA Gainesville. For the liquid formulation, Phase I work identified vehicles that had "anti-attractant" properties; that is, carriers that reduced the attraction of flies to the host. For this part of the work, skin emanation analysis by LCMS will assist in formulation optimization. Further testing will be analogous to that outlined for the dust formulation.

Progress 09/01/04 to 08/31/07

Outputs
Arthropod repellent formulations, based on economical, low-toxicity, all natural ingredients were developed for cattle and horses to provide relief from stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans), horn flies (Haematobia irritans irritans), and cattle lice (Bovicola bovis, Solenopotes capillatus, and Linoganthus vituli). The repellent also had activity against face flies (Musca autumnalis), house flies (Musca domestica), sand flies (Lutzomyia longipalpis), mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus) and ticks (California black-eyed tick (Ixodes pacificus) and lone star tick (Amblyomma americanum)). Solid formulations having appropriate flow properties were developed for use in dust bags or cattle rubs. Liquid formulations were developed for spray or wipe-on application. Liquid and dust formulations were physically stable. Extraction and assay procedures based on HPLC demonstrated chemical stability of the actives in both types of formulation (over 7 years in the case of the liquid formulation). These formulations can adhere to cattle hair at levels well above those necessary for repellency. Laboratory tests with horn flies showed statistically significant repellent activity at doses as low as 9-18 ug actives/square cm in dust form, with some activity possible at 4.5 ug/square cm. Estimates of actual doses delivered in the field range from 13-18 ug/square cm on up to 65-90 ug/square cm, depending on the number and characteristics of the dust bags employed. Horn fly repellency was demonstrated under actual use conditions in three trials using dust bags, and when tested in comparison to pesticide treatments, gave similar reductions in horn fly numbers (approximately 90%) on pastured cattle. The liquid formulation provided reduction in stable fly counts when applied to the legs of pastured horses and dairy cattle. Using radiolabeled actives and an in vitro skin penetration/evaporation apparatus, the disposition of the actives was determined on clipped cattle skin. Cattle skin absorption of the actives was substantial from the liquid formulation, comparable to that obtained with reference compounds (N,N-Diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET) in ethanol solution and permethrin in emulsifiable concentrate). A pre-registration meeting has taken place with the US EPA for the two formulations, which will be registered as biopesticides, meaning shortened regulatory approval. Negotiations are under way to license issued US and international patents for commercialization.

Impacts
Animal agriculture contributes significantly towards total U.S. farm income, with one estimate at about 50% or approximately 87 billion in 1994 dollars. This revenue is adversely affected by arthropod pests. Traditional methods of pest control have involved the use of topically applied pesticides (pyrethroids and organophosphorus chemicals). Because of the potential impact of these chemicals on the environment and human health and the costs of maintaining the EPA registration, the number of agents for pest control has declined. Reliance on only a few active ingredients has created additional problems with pesticide resistance. Our repellent is based on chemicals which occur naturally in a variety of plants and on human skin. These compounds are commercially available and are competitive in cost with traditional pest control agents. All of the actives have Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) status with the U.S. FDA and are used as food additives. Formulations can provide high repellent activity against the major livestock pests and fly reduction competitive with traditional pesticides. Because these formulations are vapor phase repellents, they reduce the nuisance of fly landing on treated surfaces, as opposed to pesticides where physical contact is required. This results in a higher level of comfort for companion animals. Since the mechanism is repellency rather than toxicity, the potential for development of resistance is greatly reduced. In summary, the Stratacor repellent represents the first effective non-toxic alternative to pesticides for fly control in livestock.

Publications

  • No publications reported this period


Progress 10/01/04 to 09/30/05

Outputs
Arthropod repellent formulations, based on low-toxicity, all natural ingredients, were developed for cattle and horses to provide relief from stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans) and horn flies (Haematobia irritans irritans). The repellent also had activity against house flies (Musca domestica), mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti) and ticks (Ixodes pacificus). Solid formulations having appropriate flow properties were developed for use in dust bags or cattle rubs. These formulations can adhere to cattle hair at levels well above those necessary for repellency. Liquid formulations were developed for spray or wipe-on applications. Procedures were developed for pilot scale preparation of these formulations, with approximately 80 kg of solid formulation and 5-10 gallon of liquid formulation produced in FY05 for field evaluation. Liquid formulations were physically stable at room temperature and 4 degrees C; solid formulations at 20 degrees C and 42 degrees C and under field conditions. Extraction and assay procedures based on HPLC demonstrated chemical stability of the actives in both types of formulation. Laboratory tests of horn fly and stable fly repellency demonstrated repellent activity, but not toxicity, at doses as low as 38 ug actives/square cm in dust form on excised cattle skin and at 0.5 ug actives/square cm in ethanol solution applied to excised pig skin. Field tests of horn fly repellency similarly demonstrated activity at doses as low as 25 ug actives/square cm in dust form. Horn fly repellency was demonstrated under actual use conditions in two trials using dust bags, and when tested in comparison to Co-Ral (coumaphos) pesticide treatment, gave similar reductions in horn fly numbers (approximately 90%) on pastured cattle. The liquid formulation provided reduction in stable fly counts when applied to the legs of pastured horses. Using radiolabeled actives and an in vitro skin penetration/evaporation apparatus, the disposition of the actives was determined on dermatomed (split-thickness) excised Black Angus skin. By testing low doses near the minimum effective dose against horn flies and stable flies, the intrinsic repellency or minimum effective evaporation rate was found to be approximately 60 ng/square cm-h, approximately two orders of magnitude lower than the intrinsic repellency of N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide or DEET against Aedes aegypti mosquitoes (5 ug/square cm-h or 5000 ng/square cm-h). Since DEET is known to be relatively less repellent for flies as compared to mosquitoes, the Stratacor repellent represents a significant advance in repellent technology for livestock.

Impacts
Animal agriculture contributes significantly towards total U.S. farm income (about 50% or 87 billion in 1994 dollars). This revenue is adversely affected by arthropod pests. Traditional methods of control use topically applied pesticides (pyrethroids and organophosphorus chemicals). Because of the potential impact of these chemicals on the environment and human health and the costs of maintaining the EPA registration, the number of agents for pest control has declined. Reliance on only a few active ingredients has created additional problems with pesticide resistance. Our repellent is based on chemicals that occur naturally in a variety of plants and on human skin. These compounds are commercially available and are competitive in cost with traditional pest control agents. All of the actives have Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) status with the U.S. FDA and are used as food additives. Formulations can provide high repellent activity against the major livestock pests and fly reduction competitive with traditional pesticides. Because these formulations are vapor phase repellents, they reduce the nuisance of fly landing on treated surfaces, as opposed to pesticides where physical contact is required. This results in a higher level of comfort for companion animals. Since the mechanism is repellency rather than toxicity, the potential for development of resistance is greatly reduced. In summary, the Stratacor repellent represents the first effective non-toxic alternative to pesticides for fly control in livestock.

Publications

  • No publications reported this period