Source: UNIVERSITY OF ARKANSAS submitted to
IMPACTS OF TRADE AND DOMESTIC POLICIES ON THE COMPETITIVENESS AND PERFORMANCE OF SOUTHERN AGRICULTURE
Sponsoring Institution
National Institute of Food and Agriculture
Project Status
TERMINATED
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
0198570
Grant No.
(N/A)
Project No.
ARK02018
Proposal No.
(N/A)
Multistate No.
S-1016
Program Code
(N/A)
Project Start Date
Oct 1, 2003
Project End Date
Sep 30, 2008
Grant Year
(N/A)
Project Director
Wailes, E. J.
Recipient Organization
UNIVERSITY OF ARKANSAS
(N/A)
FAYETTEVILLE,AR 72703
Performing Department
AGRI ECONOMICS & AGRIBUSINESS
Non Technical Summary
U.S. and foreign domestic and trade policies contribute to the instability and lack of growth in global agricultural markets. Policy distortions, weather and biological risks contribute to inefficient resource allocation, resulting in losses to producer, consumers and taxpayers. This project examines the effects of policy distortions, trade reform proposals and the role of risk and uncertainty on U.S. and global rice trade.
Animal Health Component
90%
Research Effort Categories
Basic
10%
Applied
90%
Developmental
(N/A)
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
6061530301020%
6061820301010%
6101530301025%
6101820301010%
6111530301025%
6111820301010%
Goals / Objectives
1. To determine the impacts of changes in domestic policies on the competitiveness of Southern agriculture. 2. To determine the impacts of international institutions and trade agreements on the competitiveness of Southern agriculture. 3. To determine the impacts of market behavior, performance, and expansion on the competitiveness of Southern agriculture.
Project Methods
Impacts on competitiveness, trade flows, producer incomes, and consumer welfare resulting from changes in U.S. and major rice export competitors and importers domestic agricutlural policies will be determined by the development of new models or modification of existing rice models. Spatial equilibrium and econometric models will be used to assess various trade liberalization proposals in the Doha Round of the WTO negotiations to assess the effect on the competitiveness of the U.S. rice industry. Regional trade agreements will be evaluated to identify trade creation and trade diversion and price effects on the U.S. and global rice trade. Market behavior and performance, including supply and demand response to risk and uncertainty will be studied using stochastic simulation techniques applied to the Arkansas Global Rice Model

Progress 10/01/03 to 09/30/08

Outputs
OUTPUTS: The project developed models to monitor and analyze market and policy events in the global rice economy. Baseline 10-year projections of the major rice producing, consuming and trading nations were developed on the basis of a supply and demand simulation model, AGRM (Arkansas Global Rice Model). This framework provides estimates of production, consumption, trade, prices and stocks based on historical supply and demand relationships, policies, and macroeconomic variables such as population and income growth. The model has been used in the past year to evaluate impacts of alternative bio-fuels policies and the role of policy in explaining the extraordinary high price spikes in global rice prices in 2008. A spatial equilibrium model, RICEFLOW, which estimates country-to-country differentiated rice trade flows by rice type and degree of milling is also maintained. This model is particularly useful to evaluate regional trade agreements and transportation and other transaction cost impacts. Analyis of representative Arkansas rice farms for changes in policy, technology, and market conditions was conducted. Farm level analysis provides an important perspective that policy decision makers and the rice industry need to make sound decisions. Research on the 2008 Food, Conservation and Energy Act proposals has focused on the impact new programs such as whether farmers should opt out of the traditional payment programs into the new ACRE revenue assurance program. More recently, the rice economics research program has also used a computable general equilibrium CGE model of the global rice economy using the GTAP framework to capture impacts of policy changes not only on the rice product market but also related commodity market and input factor markets such as labor and capital. A doctoral dissertation to evaluate the CAFTA-DR free trade agreement for Honduras was completed. A time series model of U.S. rice prices was estimated to evaluate the impact of the 2006 Liberty Link contamination of U.S. rice. PARTICIPANTS: Eric Wailes, Principal investigator Alvaro Durand-Morat, Graduate student Jayson Beckman, Graduate student Linwood Hoffman, Economic Research Service Economist Nathan Childs, Economic Research Service Economist Ranjit Mane, Graduate student Jeffrey Hignight, Graduate student Jennie Popp, Associate Professor James Smartt, Research Associate Kenneth Young, Research Associate Jason Hill, Graduate Student Eddie Chavez, Research Associate Misti Clark, Undergraduate Student Kenton Watkins, Assistant Professor Rob Hogan, Assistant Professor TARGET AUDIENCES: U.S. congressional committees and staffs Rice farmers Rice millers Arkansas policy decision-makers PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Not relevant to this project.

Impacts
The research on the global rice economy and analysis of trade protection has received considerable attention from the World Bank, the United Nations, the U.S. Congress and many policy decision-makers in the U.S. and the rest of the world. Numerous presentations were made in 2008 to present the prospects of trade liberalization and challenges facing the U.S. and global rice economies. Domestic and international (USDA, ERS and FAFRI, Iowa State University and University of Missouri, the World Bank, OECD, FAO, and the Government of Japan) have requested assistance from the Arkansas Global Rice Economics team in developing their rice market analysis. Our analysis is unique due to its recognition of both long and medium grain rice markets, which no other research group conducts. It is unique because we are not constrained to use official government data or policies in our analysis and therefore maintain a greater degree of objectivity. The beneficial outcomes of our models include better production, processing, and consumption decisions by market participants and better policy decision-making by the U.S. and foreign governments. Research using stochastic methods on new provisions in the 2008 farm bill found that Arkansas farmers would not be better off by switching to the new ACRE revenue assurance program away from traditional payment support programs. Rice farms in Arkansas were estimated to have higher revenue under the ACRE program in the range from only 6 to 27 times out of 100 likely scenarios. Analysis of the DR-CAFTA agreement for Honduras found the agreement would have marginally negative effects on economic growth and economic welfare of basic grain and bean producers, despite the back-loading of tariff reform for the sensitive products like rice, maize and beans. However, DR-CAFTA coupled with policies that encourages foreign direct investment and productivity growth in the agricultural sector results in positive economic impacts for the national GDP and specifically the agricultural sector. The Liberty Link contamination analysis found that a significant price depression resulted for U.S. rice prices, however the the duration of the impact was relatively short.

Publications

  • Wailes, Eric. 2008. Challenges for Market Intelligence in an Increasingly Differentiated Global Rice Economy. In P.K. Aggarwal, J.K. Ldha, R.K. Singh, C. Devakumar, and B. Hardy (eds.) Science, Technology, and Trade for Peace and Prosperity. Proceedings of 26th International Rice Research Conference, New Delhi India. Macmillan India Ltd. Pp 597-605.
  • Wailes, Eric. 2008. Rice Industry. In G. Goreham (ed) Encyclopedia of Rural America: the Land and People. 2nd ed. Grey House Publishing. Millerton, NY. Pp. 821-826.
  • Wailes, Eric and Eddie Chavez with FAPRI Staff. World Rice FAPRI 2008 U.S. and World Agricultural Outlook. January 2008, Iowa State University Ames, Iowa p. 169-184.
  • Wailes, Eric and C. Parr Rosson III. 2008. The WTO and U.S. Domestic Support in the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008. Choices. 23(3): 46-48.
  • Wailes, Eric and Eddie Chavez. 2008. Long-term Baseline Supply and Demand Projections of the U.S. and Global Rice Economy, 2007-2017. Proceedings of 32nd Rice Technical Working Group Meeting (abstract), San Diego, CA.
  • Eddie Chavez, Eric Wailes, Bruce Ahrendsen, Bruce Dixon. 2008. Comparative Farm Financial Characteristics, Rice and other selected crops, 2005. Proceedings of 32nd Rice Technical Working Group Meeting (abstract), San Diego, Ca.
  • Hignight, J.A., E.J. Wailes, K.B. Watkins, R. Hogan. 2008. An economic comparison of the alternative farm policies on Arkansas Rice Farms. Proceedings of 32nd Rice Technical Working Group Meeting (abstract), San Diego, CA.
  • Hignight, J.A., E.J. Wailes, K.B. Watkins, T. Griffin. 2008. Comparative Analysis of the 2008 Farm Bill Price-based Counter-cyclical Program and Average Crop Revenue Election (ACRE) Program for Arkansas Representative Panel Farms. Department of Agricultural Economics and Agribusiness Staff Paper SP 02 2008. University of Arkansas.
  • Durand-Morat, Alvaro. 2009. Coping with DR-CAFTA: Assessing the impact of the agreement and designing adjustment programs for sensitive agriculture in Honduras. Ph.D. Dissertation. In press.
  • Li, Yarui. 2008. Liberty Link rice 601 contamination and the impact on U.S. rice exports. M.S. Thesis. University of Arknasas.


Progress 01/01/07 to 12/31/07

Outputs
OUTPUTS: Baseline projections of the U.S. and global rice economy were developed for the years 2007-2016 with the FAPRI consortium. Farm level models were developed to examine alternative legislative proposals for the US farm bill. Analyses were presented at regional, state and national conferences and field days. Research and consultation on the economics and technology of rice fortified with micronutriets was conducted for nutrition policy assessments in the Philippines and China. A study of agricultural policies in Vietnam was conducted. A study on policy constraints on linkages between agriculture, tourism and trade in the U.S. Virgin Islands was conducted. PARTICIPANTS: Misti Clark, undergraduate student;John Barnett, graduate student; Francis Mwaijande, graduate student; Jeffrey Hignight, graduate student; Rob Hogan, project investigator; Bradley Watkins, project investigator TARGET AUDIENCES: Policy deicision-makers, research and extension personnel

Impacts
Policy decision-makers including state and federal elected officials were directly informed and became aware of the impacts of alternative legislative proposals for U.S. farm policy for Arkansas farms. They also learned about attitudes held by Arkansas producers with regard to current and proposed agricultural policies and programs. Farm bill legislative proposals were shaped by research results on farm level productivity and competitiveness impacts.

Publications

  • Clark, M. and Wailes, E.. 2007 Arkansas producer attitudes toward the 2002 Farm Bill and preferences for the 2007 Farm Bill. Discovery Vol 8, Fall 2007 pp 41-49. Univ of Ar, Div. of Agr. http://arkansasagnews.uark.edu/discovery07.2.pdf
  • Hignight, J., Wailes,E., Hogan, R.,and Watkins, B. 2007. Impact of the USDA Farm Bill proposals on Arkansas representative farms. Staff Paper 02 2007. Dept. Agr. Econ. and Agbus. Univ. of Arkansas. http://www.uark.edu/depts/agriecon/pdf_files/Impact_FarmBill_2007.pdf
  • Hignight, J., Wailes, E.,Hogan, R., and Watkins, R. 2007. H.R. 2419 and USDA 2007 Farm Bill Proposal Impacts on Arkansas representative farms. Staff Paper 03 2007. Dept. Agr. Econ. and Agbus. Univ. of Arkansas. http://www.uark.edu/depts/agriecon/pdf_files/HR2419_USDA2007FarmBillP roposal.pdf
  • Hignight, J. and Wailes, E. 2007. Analysis of the Harkin 2007 Farm Bill Commodity Program Proposals for Loan Rates, Counter-Cyclical Revenue Payments and Payment Limits. Staff Paper 04 2007. Dept. Agr. Econ. and Agbus. Univ. of Arkansas. http://www.uark.edu/depts/agriecon/pdf_files/Harkin07_FarmBill.pdf
  • Hignight, J. 2007. An economic comparison of alternative farm policies on Arkansas representative panel farms. M.S. Thesis. Dept. Agr. Econ. and Agbus. Univ. of Arknasas.
  • Barnett, J.H. 2007. Vietnamese Agricultural Policies: The Role of the Province 1982-2004. Ph.D. Diss. Univ. of Arkansas.
  • Mwaijande, F.A. 2007. Understanding Barriers for Agriculture-Tourism Linkages: Setting a policy agenda for agricultural growth. Ph.D. Diss. Univ. of Arkansas.


Progress 01/01/06 to 12/31/06

Outputs
Baseline10-year projections of the major rice producing, consuming and trading nations were developed on the basis of a supply and demand simulation model, AGRM (Arkansas Global Rice Model). This analysis is part of the Iowa State University and University of Missouri FAPRI baseline and policy projections. This framework provides estimates of production, consumption, trade, prices and stocks based on historical supply and demand relationships, policies, and macroeconomic variables such as population and income growth. This framework was used to analyze the impact on the global rice economy from four comprehensive Doha Development round proposals including the G-10, G-20, EU and US. Of these four proposals, trade expands only marginally under the G-10, G-20 and EU proposal. The US proposal would expand trade by 10 percent and improves prices received by exporters because it is the only proposal that substantially expands market access through lowering of tariffs and expansion of TRQs, the primary trade barriers in global rice trade. The use of sensitive product designation in the negotiations was analyzed for global rice trade. Japan, the Philippines and South Korea have and are likely to use this to protect reform of their rice sectors in the Doha Round. A GTAP analysis shows that with reforms, suggested by the 2005 US proposal, but allowing for sensitive product designations would greatly limit the potential welfare gains to the global rice economy. A project to analyze representative Arkansas rice farms for changes in policy, technology and market conditions was also initiated using the FLIPSIM model. Issues that will affect the 2007 Farm Bill and their impact on the rice sector were studied. A survey of Arkansas farmers regarding their perspectives on the agricultural policy, the programs of the 2002 Farm Bill and preferences for the 2007 Farm Bill was conducted. Water policy and projects designed to conserve ground water for Arkansas crop irrigation was studied. The impact of alternative land rental agreements on the incentive to invest in on-farm reservoirs was analyzed. Economic evaluations of two major surface water diversion projects to sustain irrigated agriculture in light of depletion of ground water were conducted.

Impacts
The U.S. rice industry and public policy decision makers use analyses of the impacts of trade and domestic price and income support policies to make informed decisions. These studies contribute to an improvement in understanding the consequences of current and proposed policies.

Publications

  • Food and Agricultural Policy Research Institute. FAPRI 2006 U.S. and World Agricultural Outlook. FAPRI Staff Report 06-FSR 1. http://www.fapri.iastate.edu/outlook2006/text/10Rice.pdf
  • Chavez, E.C. and E.J. Wailes. 2006. Production consumption, trade and price projections of the U.S. and global rice economy, 2005-2006. Proceedings, 31st Rice Technical Working Group Meeting, The Woodlands, TX, February, 2007. http://www.uaex.edu/RTWG/Meetings.htm
  • Mane, Ranjitsinh U. 2007. Impact of the trade reform under the Doha Round of WTO negotiations on global rice trade. M.S. thesis. Department of Agricultural Economics and Agribusiness, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR.
  • Mane, R and E.J. Wailes. 2006. Impacts of trade liberalization results from the Arkansas Global Rice Model. Proceedings, 31st Rice Technical Working Group Meeting, The Woodlands, TX, February, 2007. http://www.uaex.edu/RTWG/Meetings.htm
  • Mane, R. and E. Wailes. 2006. Impact of trade liberalization in rice: assessing alternative proposals. Selected paper presented at the American Agricultural Economics Association annual meeting, Long Beach, CA. July 2006. http://agecon.lib.umn.edu/cgi-bin/pdf_view.pl?paperid=21930&ftype=.pd f
  • Durand-Morat, A. and E. Wailes. 2006. Sensitive product designation in the Doha Round: the case of rice. Proceedings, 31st Rice Technical Working Group Meeting, The Woodlands, TX, February, 2007. http://www.uaex.edu/RTWG/Meetings.htm
  • Wailes, E.J. 2006. Challenges and prospects for U.S. rice policy in the 2007 Farm Bill debate. Proceedings, 31st Rice Technical Working Group Meeting, The Woodlands, TX, February, 2007. http://www.uaex.edu/RTWG/Meetings.htm
  • Wailes, E.J. 2006. The 2007 Farm Bill debate: a balancing act. Arkansas Agriculture. Arkansas Farm Bureau. Vol 3 Issue 1. Little Rock, AR. http://www.arfb.com/publications/ark_agri/2006v3i1/farm_bill.asp
  • Hignight, J. and E.J. Wailes. 2006. Investment in on-farm reservoirs to sustain rice production in Arkansas: the impact of land rental arrangements. Proceedings, 31st Rice Technical Working Group Meeting, The Woodlands, TX, February, 2007. http://www.uaex.edu/RTWG/Meetings.htm
  • Hignight, J., E.J. Wailes, J. Popp, J. Smartt. 2006. Investing in on-farm reservoirs under alternative land tenure arrangements. B.R. Well Rice Research Studies 2005. Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station, Division of Agriculture, Research Series 540, August 2006. http://www.uark.edu/depts/agripub/Publications/researchseries/540-51. pdf
  • Wailes, E.J. and K.L. Young. 2006. Impact of the Bayou Meto Project on the Arkansas Economy. SP 01 2006. Department of Agricultural Economics and Agribusiness, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, January 2005.
  • Hill, J., E. Wailes, M. Popp, J. Popp, K. Young and B. Watkins. 2006. Surface water diversion impacts on farm income and sources of irrigation water: the case of the Grand Prarie in Arkansas. J. Soul and Water Conservation 61(4):185-191.
  • Wailes, E.J. and K.L. Young 2007. Economic analysis of the Grand Prairie Area Demonstration Project. SP 01 2007, Department of Agricultural Economics and Agribusiness, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, January, 2007.


Progress 01/01/05 to 12/31/05

Outputs
Baseline10-year projections of the major rice producing, consuming and trading nations were developed on the basis of a supply and demand simulation model, AGRM (Arkansas Global Rice Model). This analysis is part of the Iowa State University and University of Missouri FAPRI baseline and policy projections. This framework provides estimates of production, consumption, trade, prices and stocks based on historical supply and demand relationships, policies, and macroeconomic variables such as population and income growth. This framework was used to analyze the impact on the global rice economy from the U.S. proposal to the Doha WTO negotiations. A spatial equilibrium model, RICEFLOW, which estimates differentiated rice trade flows by rice type and degree of milling was further developed in 2005 with modifications allowing for an Armington approach. This model is particularly useful to evaluate regional trade agreements and transportation and other transaction cost impacts. Analysis of the CAFTA agreement for rice was conducted and presented. A project to analyze representative Arkansas rice farms for changes in policy, technology and market conditions was also initiated using the FLIPSIM model. Research on the 2005 economic report of the president and budget reconciliation bill examined the impacts of proposed reforms to the 2002 Farm Bill including impacts of reducing payment limitations. A study was completed that examined the effects of decoupled income support payments to U.S. rice producers on their supply response. Another study examined the spatial trade relationships of beef among South African nations. Research using the GTAP computable general equilibrium CGE model generated analyses of the U.S. WTO proposal as well as the CAFTA agreement. The GTAP framework was used to analyze policy changes not only on the rice product market but also on related commodity market and input factor markets such as labor and capital. The GTAP framework also was used to evaluate ex ante economic welfare effects of rates of adoption, segregation costs and import protection for GM rice from China and Bangladesh.

Impacts
The U.S. rice industry and public policy decision makers use analyses of the impacts of trade and domestic price and income support policies to make informed decisions. These studies contribute to an improvement in understanding the consequences of current and proposed policies.

Publications

  • 1.Wailes, Eric J. 2005. Rice global trade, protectionist policies, and the impact of trade liberalization. In Global Agricultural Trade and Developing Countries. Eds. M. Ataman Aksoy and John C. Beghin. World Bank. January, 2005.
  • 2. Durand-Morat, A. and E. Wailes. Trade and protection: the case of GM rice adoption and acceptance. Paper presented at the 9th ICABR International Conference on Agricultural Biotechnology, Ravello, Italy, July 6-10, 2005. Available at: http://www.economia.uniroma2.it/conferenze/icabr2005/papers/Wailes_an d_Durand_paper.pdf
  • 3. Wailes, E.J. and A. Durand-Morat. 2005. Impacts of WTO Policy on U.S. Rice Policy. Selected paper presented at the World Trade Organization Impacts on U.S. Farm Policy Conference. New Orleans, LA. June, 2005.
  • 4. Durand-Morat, A. and E.J. Wailes. 2005. General and Partial Equilibrium Analysis of the Impact of CAFTA on the U.S. Rice Sector. Selected Paper presented at the American Agricultural Economics Association Meeting. Providence, RI. July, 2005. at: http://agecon.lib.umn.edu/cgi-bin/pdf_view.pl?paperid=16263&ftype=.pd f
  • 5. Beckman, J. and E.J. Wailes. 2005. Supply Response of U.S. Rice: An Investigation into Decoupled Payments. Selected Paper presented at the American Agricultural Economics Association Meeting. Providence, RI. July, 2005 at: http://agecon.lib.umn.edu/cgi-bin/pdf_view.pl?paperid=16269&ftype=.pd f
  • 6. Wailes, E. 2005. Analysis of FY 2006 Budget Proposals for Arkansas Crop Farms. SP05 2005. Department of Agricultural Economics and Agribusiness. University of Arkansas, Fayettevillle.


Progress 01/01/04 to 12/30/04

Outputs
Baseline 10-year projections of the major rice producing, consuming and trading nations are developed on the basis of a supply and demand simulation model, AGRM (Arkansas Global Rice Model). This framework provides estimates of production, consumption, trade, prices and stocks based on historical supply and demand relationships, policies, and macroeconomic variables such as population and income growth. The model and results are presented at our website: http://www.uark.edu/campusresources/ricersch/ A spatial equilibrium model, RICEFLOW, which estimates country to country differentiated rice trade flows by rice type and degree of milling was developed in 2003. This model is particularly useful to evaluate regional trade agreements and transportation and other transaction cost impacts. A study of the CAFTA agreement was completed. Reseach has been initiated to analyze representative Arkansas rice farms for changes in policy, technology and market conditions. Farm level analysis provides an important perspective that policy decision makers and the rice industry need to make sound decisions. Research on the 2002 Farm Bill focused on the impact of reducing payment limitations. In 2004, research has begun on developing a computable general equilibrium CGE model of the global rice economy using the GTAP framework maintained at Purdue University to capture impacts of policy changes not only on the rice product market but on related commodity market and input factor markets such as labor and capital.

Impacts
Assessment of domestic, biotechnology and protectionist policies on US agricultural trade will inform public policy decision makers of the consequences of domestic and international policies and need for reforms.

Publications

  • Wailes, E.J. 2004. Prospects and Challenges: Supply and Demand of World Rice. Proceedings, Rediscovering of Rice: History, Culture and Economy, The International Year of Rice 2004 International Symposium, Korea Rural Economics Institute, Seoul, Korea.
  • Wailes, E.J. 2004. Trade barriers. Rice Journal 107(3):20-21.
  • Wailes, E.J. 2004. Trade Liberalization in the Global Rice Economy: Implications of the WTO Doha Round and Regional Free Trade Agreements. Proceedings, I Congresso Latino Americano de Economia Orizicola and Congresso Brazileiro de Economia Orizicola, August, 2004. Wailes, E.J. 2004. Quantitative models of the global rice economy. Proceedings, World Rice Research Conference, November 2004, Tsukuba, Japan.
  • Wailes, E.J., Alvaro, Durand-Morat, Linwood Hoffman, and Nathan Childs. 2004. Tariff Escalation: Impact on U.S. and Global Rice Trade. Selected Paper. AAEA Annual Meeting, Denver, CO. August 1-4.
  • Wailes, E.J. 2004. Analysis of rice trade protection and trade liberalization. Abstract in Proceedings, 30th Rice Technical Working Group Meeting, New Orleans, LA.
  • Durand, A., Beckman, J., Wailes, E., Hoffman, L., and Childs, N. 2004. Trade Adjustment Assistance, Does Rice Qualify? Abstract in Proceedings, 30th Rice Technical Working Group Meeting, New Orleans, LA.


Progress 01/01/03 to 12/31/03

Outputs
An investigation of the biotechnology in US agriculture on competitiveness in global trade was initiated. A study of the effect of drought tolerance in rice has been conducted to examine market impacts and adoption diffusion. A study of protectionist policies in world rice trade was conducted. The impact of complete elimination of all protectionist rice sector policies including import tariffs, export subsidies, and domestic price support programs was measured. Global economic welfare would increase by USD 7.4 billion annually. The US rice sector would benefit by USD 900 million annually.

Impacts
Assessment of biotechnology and protectionist policies on US agricultural trade will inform public policy decision makers of the consequences of domestic and international policies and need for reforms.

Publications

  • ANNOU, M., FULLER, F.H., WAILES, E.J. 2004. Innovation Dissemination and the Market Impacts of Drought-Tolerant Rice. International Journal of Biotechnology. Forthcoming.
  • WAILES, E.J. 2004. Rice global trade, protectionist policies, and the impact of trade liberalization. In Global Agricultural Trade and Developing Countries. Eds. M. Ataman Aksoy and John C. Beghin. World Bank. Forthcoming.
  • WAILES, E.J. 2004. Implications of the WTO Doha Round for the Rice Sector. Proceedings, Rice Conference. FAO, United Nations. At http://www.fao.org/rice2004/en/pdf/wailes.pdf