Source: OREGON STATE UNIVERSITY submitted to
SEED PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT
Sponsoring Institution
National Institute of Food and Agriculture
Project Status
TERMINATED
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
0198296
Grant No.
(N/A)
Project No.
ORE00357A
Proposal No.
(N/A)
Multistate No.
(N/A)
Program Code
(N/A)
Project Start Date
Jul 1, 2003
Project End Date
Sep 30, 2008
Grant Year
(N/A)
Project Director
Young, W. C.
Recipient Organization
OREGON STATE UNIVERSITY
(N/A)
CORVALLIS,OR 97331
Performing Department
CROP AND SOIL SCIENCE
Non Technical Summary
Cool-season grass seed production systems changed dramatically in recent years as residue management by open field burning was restricted. Alternative systems vary depending on the kinds of crops grown, soil type and slope and farm size. Defining management practices for seed growers that are economically viable and environmentally sound is the goal of this research project.
Animal Health Component
100%
Research Effort Categories
Basic
(N/A)
Applied
100%
Developmental
(N/A)
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
2051621106070%
2051631106030%
Goals / Objectives
This project continues to development economically viable and environmentally sound management strategies for production of grass seed crops in the Willamette Valley. Past research efforts have isolated components necessary for the achievement of these goals. Attention must now be given to integrating these results into practical cropping systems. The primary focus of this project will be on annual ryegrass, perennial ryegrass, tall fescue, and fine fescue; these four crop species comprised over 90 percent of Oregon's acreage producing cool-season grass seed crops in 2002. For annual ryegrass, improving stand establishment under non-thermal residue management practices, while using cost-conserving methods of establishment, has been identified as one of the most effective strategies to improve profitability of the crop without compromising the environment. For perennial grasses, improving N fertilization practices and controlling crop lodging are still the most promising management tools for improving their productivity.
Project Methods
1. Determine the effects of crop residue management on stand establishment, growth, development, and yield of subsequent annual ryegrass seed crops. 2. Investigate the potential for improving viability of volunteer established annual ryegrass seed production by herbicide row-spraying. This objective is divided into two parts: a.) Investigate herbicide options for establishing rows in volunteer annual ryegrass seed. b.) Determine annual ryegrass seed yield as affected by different row spacing established in volunteer seed crops using banded-spray herbicides. 3. Determine the optimum N fertilizer rate with the greatest economic return for annual ryegrass, perennial ryegrass, tall fescue and fine fescue seed production under non-thermal residue management practices. 4. Determine effects of newly developed plant growth regulators on lodging and seed production of perennial ryegrass.

Progress 07/01/03 to 09/30/08

Outputs
Activities involved research and educational programs aimed at providing the seed industry alternatives to field burning and improved management practices. On-farm trials were extensively used to assist grass seed growers in developing economically and environmentally responsible spring-applied nitrogen management programs. Multi-year trials were established at eight locations for perennial species (three perennial ryegrass, three tall fescue, and two fine fescue sites) and two locations for annual ryegrass across a wide range of soil and management conditions. In addition, on-farm trials (at three locations) and an AES-sited research study addressed the effects of rate of fall-applied nitrogen for tall fescue seed production was. Other collaborative work evaluated the nitrogen mineralization soil test (Nmin) as a method to refine nitrogen use rates for seed production without reducing seed yield. Several annual ryegrass cropping systems studies provided nonthermal residue management production options for these seed growers. Replicated, on-farm trials evaluated chopping the full straw for surface composting as a low-cost alternative to traditional plowing and cultivation for seedbed preparation. Research also evaluated row-spraying to control the volunteer stand density in the full-straw production option. Further studies defined optimum row spacing for maximum seed yield, and the effect of sheep grazing when employing this option. Also concluded were on-farm and AES-sited trials to investigate the use of foliar active plant growth regulators (PGRs). These products (trinexapac-ethyl and prohexadione-calcium) quickly break down after application and do not have the soil residual characteristics as the previously registered products. Application to stands of perennial ryegrass, Chewings and creeping red fescue, and tall fescue seed fields effectively controlled stem elongation, reduced plant height and reduced crop lodging. These effects resulted in significantly greater seed yields. Data were made available to growers and seed industry representatives at AES field days and county Extension tours at on-farm trial sites. Formal oral presentations were given at various industry conferences and commodity commission meetings. In addition, the annual Seed Production Research report, which summarizes all seed-related activities, was distributed to all (growers and seed industry representatives) within the State. Extension bulletins and newsletters were other publications use to disseminate information. Lastly, the Oregon Seed Extension Program web site (http://cropandsoil.oregonstate.edu/seed-ext/) was used to link to various resources as a means to provide information to the industry.

Impacts
On-farm nitrogen trials generated scientifically valid data useful in regulatory decision-making in the State, and provided growers with information that was more acceptable than previously conducted small plot work. In addition, we demonstrated that normal use rates of spring-applied nitrogen on grass seed crops do not leave excessive residual nitrogen in the soil after harvest. Thus, grass seed crops are not subject to nitrogen leaching losses during the winter months in the Willamette Valley under current fertility management. Four Extension Fertilizer Guides have been updated (annual ryegrass, perennial ryegrass, tall fescue and fine fescue), and four Extension Enterprise Budgets have also been revised. Oregon growers have continued to reduce their dependency on open field burning. This reduction has been due, in part, to grower confidence in full-straw management options that avoid both smoke from burning and dust from tillage. In 2007, only 33,110 acres of Oregon's 476,130 acres of grass seed crops grown in the Willamette Valley were managed with open-field burning (7%). Specific to annual ryegrass: in 2002, 27,244 acres of Oregon's 119,470 acres of annual ryegrass grown for seed were managed with open-field burning (23%) compared to 16,049 acres burned in 2007, 12.5% of current production (128,100 acres).

Publications

  • Gingrich, G.A., Hart, J.M., Horneck, D.A., Young, W.C. and Silberstein, T.B. 2003. Fine Fescue Seed Fertilizer Guide (Western Oregon - West of the Cascades). Oregon State University Extension Service. FG 6-E, Revised August 2003.
  • Young III, W.C., T.B. Silberstein, M.E. Mellbye, G.A. Gingrich, J.M. Hart, and T.G. Chastain. 2003. Spring nitrogen fertilization practices in Oregon's Willamette Valley grass seed crops. pp. 142-146. In Proceedings of the Fifth International Herbage Seed Conference. November 23-26, 2003. The University of Queensland Gatton Campus, Queensland, Australia.
  • Silberstein, T.B, W.C. Young III, T.G. Chastain, and C.J. Garbacik. 2003. Response of perennial ryegrass to spring fertility and plant growth regulator applications. pp. 147-151. In Proceedings of the Fifth International Herbage Seed Conference. November 23-26, 2003. The University of Queensland Gatton Campus, Queensland, Australia.
  • Chastain, T.G., W.C. Young III, C.J. Garbacik, and T.B. Silberstein. 2003. Seed partitioning and yield responses to trinexapac-ethyl in perennial ryegrass. pp. 104-108. In Proceedings of the Fifth International Herbage Seed Conference. November 23-26, 2003. The University of Queensland Gatton Campus, Queensland, Australia.
  • Garbacik, C.J., T.G. Chastain, W.C. Young III, and T.B. Silberstein. 2003. Root productivity and seed production in cool-season grasses. pp. 137-141. In Proceedings of the Fifth International Herbage Seed Conference. November 23-26, 2003. The University of Queensland Gatton Campus, Queensland, Australia.
  • Gislum. Rene, P. Rolston, J.M. Hart, R. Chynoweth, B. McCloy, and W.C. Young III. 2007. Economical optimal nitrogen (ECO-N) application rate is all that matters for the growers. pp. 206-210. In Trygve S. Aamlid, Lars T. Havstad, and Birte Boelt (eds.), Seed production in the northern light, Proc. Sixth International Herbage Seed Conference, Gjennestad, Norway. June 18-20, 2007. Bioforks Fokus, As, Norway.
  • Hart, J.M., P. Rolston, M.E. Mellbye, T.B. Silberstein, W.C. Young III, B. McCloy G.A. Gingrich, N.W. Christensen, and Rene Gislum. 2007. Comparison of soil N tests for prediction of spring N rate ins perennial ryegrass seed production. pp. 239-243. In Trygve S. Aamlid, Lars T. Havstad, and Birte Boelt (eds.), Seed production in the northern light, Proc. Sixth International Herbage Seed Conference, Gjennestad, Norway. June 18-20, 2007. Bioforks Fokus, As, Norway.
  • Silberstein, T.B., M.E. Mellbye, W.C. Young III, and T.G. Chastain. 2007. Using seed moisture to determine optimum swathing time in annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) seed production. pp. 270-273. In Trygve S. Aamlid, Lars T. Havstad, and Birte Boelt (eds.), Seed production in the northern light, Proc. Sixth International Herbage Seed Conference, Gjennestad, Norway. June 18-20, 2007. Bioforks Fokus, As, Norway.
  • Rolston, P.M, and W.C Young. 2007. Tall fescue seed production. Tall Fescue On-line Monograph. Retrieved September 19, 2007, from Oregon State University Forage Information System (http://forages.oregonstate.edu/is/tfis/book.cfm?PageID=366&chapter=3 ion=0).
  • Hart, J.M., D.A. Horneck,.M.E. Mellbye, G.A. Gingrich, W.C. Young III, and T.B. Silberstein. 2003. Potassium nutrition in perennial ryegrass. pp. 118-122. In Proceedings of the Fifth International Herbage Seed Conference. November 23-26, 2003. The University of Queensland Gatton Campus, Queensland, Australia.
  • Hart, J.M., M.E. Mellbye, W.C. Young III, and T. Silberstein. 2003. Nutrient Management Guide for Annual Ryegrass Grown for Seed (Western Oregon). Oregon State University Extension Service. EM 8854-E, December 2003.
  • Mellbye, M.E., J.M. Hart, D.A. Horneck, W.C. Young III, and T. Silberstein. 2003. Annual Ryegrass Seed Fertilizer Guide (Western Oregon). Oregon State University Extension Service. FG 5-E, Revised December 2003.
  • Ball, Don, Garry Lacefield, Dave Nelson, Steve Schmidt, Carl Hoveland, and William Young III. 2004. Tall Fescue-Endophyte Publications Developed Through University/Seed Industry Cooperation. In Proceeding of the 5th International Symposium on Neotyphodium/Grass Interactions. Fayetteville, AR. May 23-26, 2004.
  • Orthel, K.D., T.G. Chastain, C.J. Garbacik, and W.C. Young III. 2004. Spring Irrigation Management of Tall Fescue Seed Crops in Oregon's Willamette Valley. ASA Agronomy Abstracts, Seattle, WA. October 30 - November 4, 2004.
  • King, C.M., T.G. Chastain, C.J. Garbacik, and W.C. Young III. 2004. Spring Irrigation Management of Perennial Ryegrass Seed Production. ASA Agronomy Abstracts, Seattle, WA. October 30 - November 4, 2004.
  • Schumacher, D.D., T.G. Chastain, C.J. Garbacik, and W.C. Young III. 2004. Response of Fine Fescue Cultivars to Residue Management Practices in the Willamette Valley. ASA Agronomy Abstracts, Seattle, WA. October 30 - November 4, 2004.
  • Lee, S.K., T.G. Chastain, C.J. Garbacik, and W.C. Young III. 2004. Decreasing Shattering Losses by Application of AVG in Perennial ryegrass. ASA Agronomy Abstracts, Seattle, WA. October 30 - November 4, 2004.
  • Hart, J.M., M.E. Mellbye, D.A. Horneck, G.A. Gingrich, W.C. Young III, and T.B. Silberstein. 2005. Tall Fescue Grown for Seed (Western Oregon) Fertilizer Guide. Oregon State University Extension Service. FG 36-E, Revised August 2005.
  • Hart, J.M., M.E. Mellbye, D.A. Horneck, G.A. Gingrich, W.C. Young III, and T.B. Silberstein. 2005. Perennial Ryegrass Grown for Seed (Western Oregon) Fertilizer Guide. Oregon State University Extension Service. FG 46-E, Revised August 2005.
  • Mueller-Warrant, George, Gerald Whittaker and William Young III. 2006. Spatial Display of Agronomic Data While Preserving Grower Confidentiality. Twenty-Sixth Annual ESRI International Users Conference, August 7-11, 2006, San Diego, CA.
  • Young III, W.C., M.E. Mellbye, T.B. Silberstein, G.A. Gingrich, A.M. Craig, and L.L.Blythe. 2007. Endophyte fungus levels in perennial ryegrass and tall fescue varieties grown for seed in Oregon, USA - implications for responsible grass straw use as livestock feed. pp. 275-276. In Proceeding of the 6th International Symposium Fungal Endophytes of Grasses. Christchurch, NZ. March 25-28, 2007. New Zealand Grassland Assoicationm Dunedin, NZ.
  • Young III, W.C., T.B. Silberstein, T.G. Chastain, and C.J. Garbacik. 2007. Response of creeping red fescue (Festuca rubra L.) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) to spring nitrogen fertilizer and plant growth regulator applications in Oregon. pp. 201-205. In Trygve S. Aamlid, Lars T. Havstad, and Birte Boelt (eds.), Seed production in the northern light, Proc. Sixth International Herbage Seed Conference, Gjennestad, Norway. June 18-20, 2007. Bioforks Fokus, As, Norway.


Progress 01/01/06 to 12/31/06

Outputs
Research and educational programs continue to provide the seed industry with economically viable and environmentally sound management strategies for production of grass seed crops. Multi-year on-farm trials assessing spring-applied nitrogen management programs at eight locations for perennial species (three perennial ryegrass, three tall fescue, and two fine fescue) and two locations for annual ryegrass have recently been concluded. Two extension fertilizer guides have been updated (perennial ryegrass and tall fescue), and additional revisions for the other species is underway. In addition, on-farm trials (at three locations) and an AES-sited research study addressing the effects of rate of fall-applied nitrogen rate for tall fescue seed production has recently been completed. On-going trials are evaluating the nitrogen mineralization soil test (Nmin) as a method to refine nitrogen use rates for seed production without reducing seed yield. A new trial was initiated in 2006 on perennial ryegrass to address the effect of fall-applied nitrogen rate. A long-term annual ryegrass cropping systems study was established in the fall 2005 to continue the expansion nonthermal residue management production options for seed growers. Replicated, on-farm trials are evaluating chopping the full straw for surface composting as a low-cost alternative to traditional plowing and cultivation for seedbed preparation. Research is also underway to evaluate row-spraying to control the volunteer stand density in the full-straw production option. Objectives include defining optimum row spacings for maximum seed yield, and the effect of sheep grazing when employing this option. A revised Enterprise Budget for annual ryegrass grown in the Willamette Valley is currently in review. We continue to summarize data from experiments recently completed evaluating a new group of foliar active plant growth regulators (PGRs). These products (trinexapac-ethyl and prohexadione-calcium) quickly break down after application and do not have the soil residual characteristics as the previously registered products. We have shown that application to stands of perennial ryegrass could effectively control rapid stem elongation, reduced plant height and reduced crop lodging. Use of these products also resulted in significantly greater seed yields. Additional data has since been collected on Chewings and creeping red fescue, and tall fescue seed fields.

Impacts
Nitrogen rate trials are generating scientifically valid data useful in regulatory decision-making in the state, and provided growers with cost-conserving information. In addition, we are demonstrating that normal use rates of spring-applied nitrogen on grass seed crops do not leave excessive residual nitrogen in the soil after harvest. Thus, grass seed crops are not subject to nitrogen leaching losses during the winter months in the Willamette Valley under current fertility management. Increasingly, Oregon's annual ryegrass seed growers are managing more acres without open-field burning. Currently, only 20 percent of this crop acreage is burned. This reduction has been due, in part, to grower confidence in full-straw management options that avoid both smoke from burning and dust from tillage. In 1999, Novartis Crop Protection Inc. (now Syngenta), the manufacturer of trinexapac-ethyl, was granted an EPA registration to use Palisade 1EC on perennial ryegrass grown for seed Oregon, Washington and Idaho. In 2000, the Palisade 1EC label was expanded to allow its use on fine fescue seed fields, and in 2001 its use of tall fescue was allowed. These later label expansions are Special Local Need (SLN 24c) uses granted by the Oregon Department of Agriculture. A second PGR, Apogee DF (prohexadione-calcium), manufactured by BASF Corp. was EPA-approved in 2001 for use on all grasses grown for seed.

Publications

  • Zapiola, M.L., T.G. Chastain, C.J. Garbacik, T.B. Silberstein, and W.C. Young III. 2006. Trinexapac-ethyl and Open-Field Burning in Creeping Red Fescue Seed Production. Agron. J. 98:1427-1434.


Progress 01/01/05 to 12/31/05

Outputs
Research and educational programs continue to provide the seed industry with economically viable and environmentally sound management strategies for production of grass seed crops. Multi-year on-farm trials assessing spring-applied nitrogen management programs at eight locations for perennial species (three perennial ryegrass, three tall fescue, and two fine fescue) and two locations for annual ryegrass have recently been concluded. Two extension fertilizer guides have been updated (perennial ryegrass and tall fescue), and additional revisions for the other species is underway. In addition, on-farm trials (at three locations) and an AES-sited research study addressing the effects of rate of fall-applied nitrogen rate for tall fescue seed production has recently been completed. On-going trials are evaluating the nitrogen mineralization soil test (Nmin) as a method to refine nitrogen use rates for seed production without reducing seed yield. A long-term annual ryegrass cropping systems study was established in the fall 2005 to continue the expansion nonthermal residue management production options for seed growers. Replicated, on-farm trials are evaluating chopping the full straw for surface composting as a low-cost alternative to traditional plowing and cultivation for seedbed preparation. Research is also underway to evaluate row-spraying to control the volunteer stand density in the full-straw production option. Objectives include defining optimum row spacings for maximum seed yield, and the effect of sheep grazing when employing this option. A revised Enterprise Budget for annual ryegrass grown in the Willamette Valley is currently in review. We continue to summarize data from experiments recently completed evaluating a new group of foliar active plant growth regulators (PGRs). These products (trinexapac-ethyl and prohexadione-calcium) quickly break down after application and do not have the soil residual characteristics as the previously registered products. We have shown that application to stands of perennial ryegrass could effectively control rapid stem elongation, reduced plant height and reduced crop lodging. Use of these products also resulted in significantly greater seed yields. Additional data has since been collected on Chewings and creeping red fescue, and tall fescue seed fields.

Impacts
Nitrogen rate trials are generating scientifically valid data useful in regulatory decision-making in the state, and providing growers with cost-conserving information. In addition, we are demonstrating that normal use rates of spring-applied nitrogen on grass seed crops do not leave excessive residual nitrogen in the soil after harvest. Thus, grass seed crops are not subject to nitrogen leaching losses during the winter months in the Willamette Valley under current fertility management. Increasingly, Oregon's annual ryegrass seed growers are managing more acres without open-field burning. Currently, only 20 percent of this crop acreage is burned. This reduction has been due, in part, to grower confidence in full-straw management options that avoid both smoke from burning and dust from tillage. In 1999, Novartis Crop Protection Inc. (now Syngenta), the manufacturer of trinexapac-ethyl, was granted an EPA registration to use Palisade 1EC on perennial ryegrass grown for seed in Oregon, Washington and Idaho. In 2000, the Palisade 1EC label was expanded to allow its use on fine fescue seed fields, and in 2001 its use of tall fescue was allowed. These later label expansions are Special Local Need (SLN 24c) uses granted by the Oregon Department of Agriculture. A second PGR, Apogee DF (prohexadione-calcium), manufactured by BASF Corp. was EPA-approved in 2001 for use on all grasses grown for seed.

Publications

  • Orthel, K.D., T.G. Chastain, C.J. Garbacik, and W.C. Young III. 2004. Spring Irrigation Management of Tall Fescue Seed Crops in Oregon's Willamette Valley. ASA Agronomy Abstracts, Seattle, WA. October 30 - November 4, 2004.
  • King, C.M., T.G. Chastain, C.J. Garbacik, and W.C. Young III. 2004. Spring Irrigation Management of Perennial Ryegrass Seed Production. ASA Agronomy Abstracts, Seattle, WA. October 30 - November 4, 2004.
  • Zapiola, M.L., T.G. Chastain, W.C. Young III, C.J. Garbacik, and T.B. Silberstein. 2004. Trinexapac-ethyl and Open-Field Burning in Creeping Red Fescue SeedProduction. ASA Agronomy Abstracts, Seattle, WA. October 30 - November 4, 2004.
  • Schumacher, D.D., T.G. Chastain, C.J. Garbacik, and W.C. Young III. 2004. Response of Fine Fescue Cultivars to Residue Management Practices in the Willamette Valley. ASA Agronomy Abstracts, Seattle, WA. October 30 - November 4, 2004.
  • Lee, S.K., T.G. Chastain, C.J. Garbacik, and W.C. Young III. 2004. Decreasing Shattering Losses by Application of AVG in Perennial ryegrass. ASA Agronomy Abstracts, Seattle, WA. October 30 - November 4, 2004.
  • Hart, J.M., M.E. Mellbye, D.A. Horneck, G.A. Gingrich, W.C. Young III, and T.B. Silberstein. 2005. Tall Fescue Grown for Seed (Western Oregon) Fertilizer Guide. Oregon State University Extension Service. FG 36-E, Revised August 2005.
  • Hart, J.M., M.E. Mellbye, D.A. Horneck, G.A. Gingrich, W.C. Young III, and T.B. Silberstein. 2005. Perennial Ryegrass Grown for Seed (Western Oregon) Fertilizer Guide. Oregon State University Extension Service. FG 46-E, Revised August 2005.


Progress 01/01/04 to 12/31/04

Outputs
Research and educational programs are underway to provide the seed industry with economically viable and environmentally sound management strategies for production of grass seed crops. Multi-year on-farm trials assessing spring-applied nitrogen management programs at eight locations for perennial species (three perennial ryegrass, three tall fescue, and two fine fescue) and two locations for annual ryegrass have recently been concluded. Updating extension fertilizer guides for these species is underway. In addition, on-farm trials (at three locations) and an AES-sited research study addressing the effects of rate of fall-applied nitrogen rate for tall fescue seed production has recently been initiated. In addition, annual ryegrass cropping systems studies continue to expand nonthermal residue management production options for seed growers. Replicated, on-farm trials are evaluating chopping the full straw for surface composting as a low-cost alternative to traditional plowing and cultivation for seedbed preparation. Research is also underway to evaluate row-spraying to control the volunteer stand density in the full-straw production option. Objectives include defining optimum row spacings for maximum seed yield, and the effect of sheep grazing when employing this option. We are summarizing data from experiments recently completed evaluating a new group of foliar active plant growth regulators (PGRs). These products (trinexapac-ethyl and prohexadione-calcium) quickly break down after application and do not have the soil residual characteristics as the previously registered products. We previously shown that application to stands of perennial ryegrass could effectively control rapid stem elongation, reduced plant height and reduced crop lodging. Use of these products also resulted in significantly greater seed yields. Additional data has since been collected on Chewings and creeping red fescue, and tall fescue seed fields.

Impacts
Nitrogen rate trials are generating scientifically valid data useful in regulatory decision-making in the state, and provided growers with cost-conserving information. In addition, we are demonstrating that normal use rates of spring-applied nitrogen on grass seed crops do not leave excessive residual nitrogen in the soil after harvest. Thus, grass seed crops are not subject to nitrogen leaching losses during the winter months in the Willamette Valley under current fertility management. Increasingly, Oregon's annual ryegrass seed growers are managing more acres without open-field burning. Currently, only 23 percent of this crop acreage is burned. This reduction has been due, in part, to grower confidence in full-straw management options that avoid both smoke from burning and dust from tillage. In 1999, Novartis Crop Protection Inc. (now Syngenta), the manufacturer of trinexapac-ethyl, was granted an EPA registration to use Palisade 1EC on perennial ryegrass grown for seed Oregon, Washington and Idaho. In 2000, the Palisade 1EC label was expanded to allow its use on fine fescue seed fields, and in 2001 its use of tall fescue was allowed. These later label expansions are Special Local Need (SLN 24c) uses granted by the Oregon Department of Agriculture. A second PGR, Apogee DF (prohexadione-calcium), manufactured by BASF Corp. was EPA-approved in 2001 for use on all grasses grown for seed.

Publications

  • Silberstein, T.B, W.C. Young III, T.G. Chastain, and C.J. Garbacik. 2003. Response of perennial ryegrass to spring fertility and plant growth regulator applications. pp. 147-151. In Proceedings of the Fifth International Herbage Seed Conference. November 23-26, 2003. The University of Queensland Gatton Campus, Queensland, Australia.
  • Chastain, T.G., W.C. Young III, C.J. Garbacik, and T.B. Silberstein. 2003. Seed partitioning and yield responses to trinexapac-ethyl in perennial ryegrass. pp. 104-108. In Proceedings of the Fifth International Herbage Seed Conference. November 23-26, 2003. The University of Queensland Gatton Campus, Queensland, Australia.
  • Garbacik, C.J., T.G. Chastain, W.C. Young III, and T.B. Silberstein. 2003. Root productivity and seed production in cool-season grasses. pp. 137-141. In Proceedings of the Fifth International Herbage Seed Conference. November 23-26, 2003. The University of Queensland Gatton Campus, Queensland, Australia.
  • Hart, J.M., D.A. Horneck,.M.E. Mellbye, G.A. Gingrich, W.C. Young III, and T.B. Silberstein. 2003. Potassium nutrition in perennial ryegrass. pp. 118-122. In Proceedings of the Fifth International Herbage Seed Conference. November 23-26, 2003. The University of Queensland Gatton Campus, Queensland, Australia.
  • Ball, Don, Garry Lacefield, Dave Nelson, Steve Schmidt, Carl Hoveland, and William Young III. 2004. Tall Fescue-Endophyte Publications Developed Through University/Seed Industry Cooperation. In Proceeding of the 5th International Symposium on Neotyphodium/Grass Interactions. Fayetteville, AR. May 23-26, 2004.
  • Mellbye, M.E., J.M. Hart, D.A. Horneck, W.C. Young III, and T. Silberstein. 2003. Annual Ryegrass Seed Fertilizer Guide (Western Oregon). Oregon State University Extension Service. FG 5-E, Revised December 2003.
  • Hart, J.M., M.E. Mellbye, W.C. Young III, and T. Silberstein. 2003. Nutrient Management Guide for Annual Reygrass Grown for Seed (Western Oregon). Oregon State University Extension Service. EM 8854-E, December 2003.
  • Young III, W.C., T.B. Silberstein, M.E. Mellbye, G.A. Gingrich, J.M. Hart, and T.G. Chastain. 2003. Spring nitrogen fertilization practices in Oregon's Willamette Valley grass seed crops. pp. 142-146. In Proceedings of the Fifth International Herbage Seed Conference. November 23-26, 2003. The University of Queensland Gatton Campus, Queensland, Australia.


Progress 01/01/03 to 12/31/03

Outputs
Research and educational programs are underway to provide the seed industry with economically viable and environmentally sound management strategies for production of grass seed crops. Multi-year on-farm trials assessing spring-applied nitrogen management programs at eight locations for perennial species (three perennial ryegrass, three tall fescue, and two fine fescue) and two locations for annual ryegrass have recently been concluded. Updating extension fertilizer guides for these species is underway. In addition, on-farm trials (at three locations) and an AES-sited research study addressing the effects of rate of fall-applied nitrogen rate for tall fescue seed production has recently been initiated. In addition, annual ryegrass cropping systems studies continue to expand nonthermal residue management production options for seed growers. Replicated, on-farm trials are evaluating chopping the full straw for surface composting as a low-cost alternative to traditional plowing and cultivation for seedbed preparation. Research is also underway to evaluate row-spraying to control the volunteer stand density in the full-straw production option. Objectives include defining optimum row spacings for maximum seed yield, and the effect of sheep grazing when employing this option. We summarizing data from experiments recently completed evaluating a new group of foliar active plant growth regulators (PGRs). These products (trinexapac-ethyl and prohexadione-calcium) quickly break down after application and do not have the soil residual characteristics as the previously registered products. We previously shown that application to stands of perennial ryegrass could effectively control rapid stem elongation, reduced plant height and reduced crop lodging. Use of these products also resulted in significantly greater seed yields. Additional data has since been collected on Chewings and creeping red fescue, and tall fescue seed fields.

Impacts
Nitrogen rate trials are generating scientifically valid data useful in regulatory decision-making in the state, and provided growers with cost-conserving information. In addition, we are demonstrating that normal use rates of spring-applied nitrogen on grass seed crops do not leave excessive residual nitrogen in the soil after harvest. Thus, grass seed crops are not subject to nitrogen leaching losses during the winter months in the Willamette Valley under current fertility management. Increasingly, Oregon's annual ryegrass seed growers are managing more acres without open-field burning. Currently, only 23 percent of this crop acreage is burned. This reduction has been due, in part, to grower confidence in full-straw management options that avoid both smoke from burning and dust from tillage.

Publications

  • No publications reported this period