Source: PURDUE UNIVERSITY submitted to
NUTRITIONAL IMPACTS ON SOW LACTATION AND GESTATION
Sponsoring Institution
National Institute of Food and Agriculture
Project Status
TERMINATED
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
0198028
Grant No.
(N/A)
Project No.
IND010998
Proposal No.
(N/A)
Multistate No.
(N/A)
Program Code
(N/A)
Project Start Date
Oct 1, 2008
Project End Date
Sep 30, 2013
Grant Year
(N/A)
Project Director
Richert, B.
Recipient Organization
PURDUE UNIVERSITY
(N/A)
WEST LAFAYETTE,IN 47907
Performing Department
Animal Science
Non Technical Summary
The rapid growth in feed grains based ethanol production and vegetable or animal fat bio-diesel has drastically affected the cost of feed (doubled-tripled) for U.S. livestock and poultry producers. At the same time, the boom in bio-fuel production has provided a large supply of by-products that, to some extent, may substitute for corn and soybean meal in swine feed rations. This project will provide new data to help fill the large void in information regarding the sow's ability to utilize bio-energy by-products in gestation and lactation and will lead to the development of cereal grain free sow diets.
Animal Health Component
(N/A)
Research Effort Categories
Basic
(N/A)
Applied
(N/A)
Developmental
(N/A)
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
3023510101080%
3013510101020%
Goals / Objectives
This project will investigate the utilization of second generation bio-energy by-products in gestation and lactation sow diets. The effect that these feed by-products create shifts in dietary omega n6:n3 ratios and can be countered by supplemental fish oils impact on reproductive performance and cull sow carcass characteristics will also be assessed. The balance between these reproductive phases of gestation and lactation and the feedstuffs supplying the nutrients needs to be evaluated with the potential to create a high by-product based diet that will support a high level of sow productivity. The objectives of this project are: 1) To evaluate the effect of bio-energy by-products in sow gestation and lactation diets on sow reproductive performance; 2) To evaluate the interactive effect of the bio-energy by-products and supplemental polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega n3's) on sow reproductive performance; and 3) To develop and evaluate a zero cereal grain, all by-product based, gestation and lactation diet on sow performance.
Project Methods
General Approach: For all objectives, litter size and birth and weaning weights, weekly sow feed intake, sow body weights , backfat and loin muscle depth changes, milk composition, piglet survival rate, days to estrus post-weaning and subsequent litter size will be the major response criteria used to evaluate the sow experiments. In all experiments sows will be limit fed to maintain body condition during gestation and fed ad libitum during lactation. All sows will be fed to meet or exceed their nutrient requirements (NRC, 1998). A subset of sows (10/trt) will be harvested to determine these dietary effects on cull sow pork quality. By-product inclusion rates will be evenly spaced to determine linear and quadratic statistical differences as each by-product is increased in the diet. Specific Procedures: Objective 1 will utilize a series of experiments to evaluate the effect of feeding increasing levels of fractionated distiller's by-products: high protein distiller's dried grains (Exp. 1), germ (Exp. 2), and hulls (Exp. 3); and glycerol (Exp. 4) in gestation and lactation diets on sow performance. These experiments will utilize 120 bred gilts and/or sows in each experiment (30 sows/trt). Experiment 1, 2, and 3 will have sows start on 1 of 4 distillers by-product dietary treatments designed to evaluate the maximum inclusion rates of each of these by-products which will be fed continuously for 2 parities. Individual feed by-product levels utilized will be dictated based on the by-product composition and the highest inclusion level for each by-product will be the level at which nutritional deficiencies or excesses may impact sow performance. Experiment 4 will utilize 120 sows and gilts (30/trt) to evaluate the inclusion rates of glycerol in sow lactation diets. A crude glycerol will be included at rates of 0, 2.5, 5, and 10% of the diet. Treatments will started at approximately 112 days of gestation and continue through lactation. All sows will have litter size standardized to 10 or more pigs. Objective 2 will evaluate the effect of feeding high levels of distillers dried grains plus solubles (DDGS) and supplemental omega n3 fatty acids (EPA and DHA) in gestation and lactation diets on sow performance. This experiment will utilize 160 bred gilts or sows (40 sows/trt). Dietary treatments will be: 1) Control; 2) DDGS (40% in gestation:20% in lactation); 3) DDGS + 0.5% protected fish oil; 4) DDGS + 1.0% protected fish oil. Each of these treatments will start at weaning for sows or 1 week prior to breeding for the gilts and continue through 2 parities. Objective 3 will evaluate the use of a 100% by-product based, cereal grain-free, gestation and lactation diet on sow productivity. This experiment will utilize 90 bred gilts and sows (30 sows/trt). Sows start on 1 of 3 dietary treatments designed to evaluate a 50 or 100% by-product based diet starting at day 7 post-breeding through gestation, lactation and subsequent rebreeding period. Individual by-product inclusions will be dictated by the by-product composition and will be blended together to replace 50 or 100% of the corn and choice white grease in the control diet.

Progress 10/01/08 to 09/30/13

Outputs
Target Audience: The primary audience reached during this current year for efforts related to this HATCH project were scientists, graduate students, and technical service providers for the swine industry through scientific meeting presentations. Through these information multipliers, the US and global pork producers have been exposed to the results of this research. Changes/Problems: There was difficulty in acquiring both additional funding and actual sow numbers to conduct all 3 objectives with sows. Therefore use of grow-finish pigs was required to evaluate the proposed concepts in 1 of the objectives. What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided? This research project provided opportunities for 3 graduate students to present their work as oral or poster abstracts at scientific meetings related to this project. This training advanced both their scientific knowledge and public presentation skills. Additionally, 1 undergraduate student conducted the high by-product feeding study as an undergraduate research project that provided her with invaluable training and experience prior to considering graduate school. How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest? The results of these trials have been presented at scientific meetings of the American Association of Animal Sciences and Meat Science. Additionally, there was financial leveraging with the National Pork Board to accomplish the sow study and those results have been made available for all pork producers through their research website links. What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals? Nothing Reported

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? The rapid growth in feed grains based ethanol production and vegetable or animal fat bio-diesel has drastically affected the cost of feed (doubled-tripled) for U.S. livestock and poultry producers. At the same time, the boom in bio-fuel production has provided a large supply of by-products that, to some extent, may substitute for corn and soybean meal in swine feed rations. When feeding dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), we found that the gestation diet could contain at least 30% DDGS while the lactating sow diet could not have higher than 15% DDGS without impacting sow productivity. Unique to this project it was found that the cull sows from feeding the 30% followed by 15% DDGS in gestation and then lactation diets caused consumers to reduce their willingness to buy the fresh bratwurst and breakfast sausages from these sows in half, from 81% to 42%. As a model before testing in sows, grow-finish pigs were used to evaluate enzymes and the pig’s adaptability to high by-product based diets. It was found that utilization of this ethanol by-product by swine could be improved with the addition of enzymes (mannanase and glucanase), reducing diet costs and improving pork producer profitability. In an evaluation of the adaptation of the pig to high by-product diets, it was found that 100% corn replacement was not feasible with current knowledge of the feed stuffs. All these studies have improved our understanding by the pork industry in ways to increase the use of by-product feedstuffs and some of the potential limitations or pitfalls that might exist with their use. The following is the research activities related to the objectives of this project on by-product use in the swine industry. Objective 1) To evaluate the effect of bio-energy by-products in sow gestation and lactation diets on sow reproductive performance. The effect of feeding the DDGS by-product to the sow herd is not well researched. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect feeding dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) on gestation and lactation sow performance and cull sow meat product quality. The study utilized 90 sows allocated to three gestation diets and then subdivided within gestation treatment to 3 lactation treatments in a factorial approach of 9 treatments with 0, 15, or 30% DDGS in each phase. Individual sow performance was recorded throughout the study. Average adjusted litter size at day 2 was similar for all treatments at 11.6 pigs/litter. Average number pigs weaned were similar for all treatments at 10.2 pigs/litter. Feeding either 15 or 30 percent DDGS in gestation increased sow lactation feed intake by an average of 7.7 percent. However, when either 15 or 30% level of DDGS was fed during lactation sow feed intake decreased by 3.1 percent which corresponded to a 5.4 percent decrease in litter weight gain during lactation. The feeding of 30% DDGS during lactation increased sow weight loss, decreasing sow weaning weights, which may impact subsequent reproductive performance due to body tissue reserve losses. Cull sow shoulders were made into bratwurst and breakfast links to evaluate consumer acceptance of the meat products from these cull sows. Consumers initial decision to purchase or likelihood of purchase favored the fresh bratwurst and breakfast links from sows not fed any DDGS during gestation or lactation, with 80.5 percent of the consumers definitely or probably would purchase the control bratwurst compared to only 42.5 percent of the consumers would purchase the bratwurst from sows fed 30 percent DDGS during gestation and lactation. The fresh product oxidative rancidity linearly increased with time and DDGS level fed such that a 5 day shelf life was all that may exist for products from the highest DDGS feeding levels. Producers can feed up to 30 percent DDGS in gestation and 15 percent DDGS in lactation with minimal impact on sow performance. However, this level of DDGS in the diet has a negative impact on consumer’s acceptance of fresh pork sausage products and could reduce producer revenue and potentially reduce pork product demand. Objective 2) To evaluate the interactive effect of the bio-energy by-products and supplemental polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega n3’s) on sow reproductive performance. No supplemental research funding was successfully received to conduct the research under objective 2. Objective 3) To develop and evaluate a zero cereal grain, all by-product based, gestation and lactation diet on sow performance. It was evident that to fully utilize a high by-product based diet in swine we would need to investigate other technologies, like enzymes, to aide in the pigs digestion of the feedstuffs and improve the potential success of by-product feeding. An economical alternative to sow research was to first test these objectives in the growing-finishing pig. The DDGS product brings into the diet a large amount of fiber and yeast cell walls from the fermentation process which may be detrimental to swine due to swine’s lack of enzymes to digest these feed fractions, supplemental enzymes may aide the digestion process. The first of two studies was conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding high levels of DDGS during the grower pig phase with supplemental beta-mannanase on pig performance. Two-hundred twenty eight pigs (initial weight = 112.2 lb) were fed increasing levels of 2 thermal stable beta-mannanase enzymes (TSM1 and TSM2) in 3 – 14 day periods in a corn-soybean meal-DDGS based diet. Dietary treatments were a negative control with no added fat and then each source of mannanase at 0.02, 0.04 or 0.06 (only for TSM1) MU/kg. Overall, inclusion of both mannanases (TSM1 or TSM2) improved growth rate and feed efficiency in grower pigs by about 3 percent. A second study was conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding high levels of DDGS (30 percent) during the grower pig phase with supplementing 2 enzymes (beta-mannanase and beta-glucanase). Two-hundred fifty-two pigs (initial weight = 57.3 lb) were fed increasing levels of glucanase in a basal diet that contained the previously determined level for mannanase in 2 – 21 day periods. Dietary treatments were a negative control with no added fat or enzymes (T1) and then treatments 2-6 had a constant level of beta-mannanase at 0.06 MU/kg plus increasing levels beta-glucanase; T2=0 MU/kg, T3=0.044 MU/kg, T4=0.088 MU/kg, T5=0.132 MU/kg, and T6=0.176 MU/kg of beta-glucanase. Overall, increasing levels of beta-glucanase linearly improved growth rate and feed efficiency in grower pigs by 3 to 5 percent, with performance levels maximized at 0.132 MU/kg beta-glucanase (T5). To further test the possibility of by-product feedstuff use and limits in swine diets a pilot study using 20 grow-finish pigs was conducted to test if 100% of the corn in the grow-finish pig’s diet could be replaced with by-products as a prelude to a sow study. It was clear from the very beginning of this pilot study that the grower pig had reduced feed intake which led to reduced rate of gain for the no-corn pigs in the first month of the study. This reduced feed intake and rate of gain for the no-corn fed pigs continued for most of the 4 month study, culminating in pigs that were 21 pounds lighter at marketing at the end of the study. However, the feed efficiency was only slightly worse in the beginning, was similar in the middle, and slightly better by the end of the study. This indicated that the pigs digestive tract may need time to acclimate to a high by-product based diet that contains significantly more fiber. These grow-finish pig experiments lead to the concerns that the possibility may not exist for a 100% by-product feedstuff based sow lactation diets and still get similar productivity, even with some supplemental enzymes. However, in gestating sows that are limit fed, a 100% by-product based diet may be possible.

Publications

  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2013 Citation: Richert, B., S. Radcliffe, and J. Ferrel. 2013. Potential of mannanase and glucanase enzymes in swine feeding programs. Midwest Swine nutrition conference. pp 43-48.


Progress 10/01/11 to 09/30/12

Outputs
OUTPUTS: The Eastern corn belt has had a growth in ethanol plants and resultant increase in the availability of the ethanol by-product, corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS). In the U.S., ethanol plants will consume over 40 percent of the corn produced and provide over 40 million tons of DDGS for livestock feeding. The current record high feed costs have led to high inclusions of the DDGS in swine diets (30 to 60 percent) due to its relatively lower price to corn and soybean meal. The DDGS product often is an affordable alternative feedstuff to be fed in limited amounts to swine; however it also brings into the diet a large amount of fiber and yeast cell walls from the fermentation process. Both of these components of DDGS may be detrimental to swine performance due to swine's lack of enzymes to digest these feed fractions, therefore reducing the nutritive value of the feedstuff in swine diets. Secondarily in the this bio-energy environment is the fact that animal fat is increasingly being used for bio-diesel production and is becoming more expensive to be included in swine diets during high energetic demand times like lactation or grower pig time periods. So ways to improve energy release from these by-product based diets is also important. A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding high levels of DDGS (30 percent) during the grower pig phase with supplemental enzymes (beta-mannanase and beta-glucanase) on pig performance. This was done as a screening step before feeding the enzymes to sows in lactation. The grower pig is in a very energy dependant phase of growth much like the lactating sow is under extreme energy demands as well during lactation. The grower pigs were fed increasing levels of glucanase in a basal diet that contained a previously determined level for mannanase in 2 - 21 day periods for a total of 42 days. Two-hundred fifty-two pigs (initial weight = 26.0 kg) were used to evaluate the effect of increasing levels of glucanase in a diet with a fixed level of a thermal stable beta-mannanase enzyme, in a corn-soybean meal-DDGS based diet on pig growth, feed efficiency, and overall performance during the grower period. Pigs were allocated in a randomized complete block design of mixed gender pens, stratified by litter and initial body weight to six treatments, with seven pens/treatment. Dietary treatments were a negative control with no added fat or enzymes (T1) and then treatments 2-6 had a constant level of beta-mannanase at 0.16 MU/kg plus increasing levels beta-glucanase; T2=0 MU/kg, T3=0.044 MU/kg, T4=0.088 MU/kg, T5=0.132 MU/kg, and T6=0.176 MU/kg of beta-glucanase. Individual pig weight and pen feed disappearance were recorded weekly and reported at the end of each 21 day period. PARTICIPANTS: Collaborators included graduate student Zach Rambo and Dr. Scott Radcliffe at Purdue University and Jon Ferrel at ChemGen Corp. TARGET AUDIENCES: The results of this project were presented as an abstract at the National Animal Science meetings in July of 2012 to colleagues and industry leaders. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.

Impacts
The feeding of the glucanase enzyme in combination with the mannanase enzyme did further improve the grower pig performance during this study. During day 0-21 average daily gain significantly increased with the 0.132 MU/kg level of beta-glucanase over the negative control diet and numerically higher growth rate than the diet with only beta-mannanase with growth rate increased by 5.2 and 1.8 percent, respectively. This increased gain was primarily driven by a tendency for a linear increase in feed efficiency (5.3 percent) with increasing concentrations of beta-glucanase. During the second 21 day period there was no change in average daily gain but feed efficiency significantly improved (3.5 percent) in a linear fashion with increasing concentrations of beta-glucanase. Overall, increasing levels of beta-glucanase linearly improved growth rate and feed efficiency in grower pigs for the 42 day period by about 3 to 5 percent, with performance levels maximized at 0.132 MU/kg beta-glucanase (T5). Early responses to the enzymes during the first 21 days are promising and may support improved sow performance during the relatively short sow lactation period of 18-24 days. These data suggest there may be an added benefit to including both beta-mannanase and beta-glucanase enzymes in swine diets during times of high energetic demand due to different compounds being cleaved in the diet leading to an additive improvement in efficiency of nutrient use to support improved growth rate during the study. A follow-up study with lactating sows and high levels of DDGS to test if these results are consistent with grower pig performance observations is being planned.

Publications

  • No publications reported this period


Progress 10/01/10 to 09/30/11

Outputs
OUTPUTS: The Eastern corn belt has had a recent growth in ethanol plants and resultant increase in the availability of the ethanol by-product, corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), which has led to high inclusions of the DDGS in swine diets. The growth in ethanol plants will consume over 40 percent of the corn produced in the United States and will provide over 40 million tons of DDGS for livestock feeding. The potential effect of feeding the DDGS by-product to the sow herd is not well researched. The DDGS product often is an affordable alternative feedstuff to be fed in limited amounts to swine, however it also brings into the diet a large amount of fiber and yeast cell walls from the fermentation process. Both of these components of DDGS may be detrimental to swine performance due to swine's lack of enzymes to digest these feed fractions, therefore reducing the nutritive value of the feedstuff in swine diets. Secondarily in the this bio-energy environment is that animal fat is increasingly being used for bio-diesel production and is becoming more expensive to be included in swine diets during high energetic demand times like lactation or grower pig time periods. So ways to improve energy release from these by-product based diets is also important. A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding high levels of DDGS during the grower pig phase with supplemental enzymes (beta-mannanase) on pig performance. This was done as a screening step before feeding the enzymes to sows in lactation. The grower pig is in a very energy dependant phase of growth much like the lactating sow is under extreme energy demands as well during lactation. The grower pigs were fed increasing levels of mannanase from 2 sources in 3 - 14 day periods for a total of 42 days. Two-hundred twenty eight pigs (initial weight = 50.9 kg) were used to evaluate the effect of two strains of thermal stable beta-mannanase enzyme (TSM1 and TSM2), titrated at two or three concentrations, in a corn-soybean meal-DDGS based diet on pig growth, feed efficiency, and overall performance during the grower period. Pigs were allocated in a randomized complete block design of mixed gender pens, stratified by litter and initial body weight to six treatments, with eight pens/treatment. Dietary treatments were a negative control with no added fat and then each source of mannanase at 0.02, 0.04 or 0.06 (only for TSM1) MU/kg. Individual pig weight and pen feed disappearance were recorded at the end of each 14 day period. PARTICIPANTS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period. TARGET AUDIENCES: This information has been disseminated to both peers through a national scienctific meeting as an abstract and to the target audience of pork producers through presentations at pork producer meetings and conferences. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.

Impacts
The feeding of the mannanase enzymes did improve the grower pig performance during this study. During day 0-14 average daily gain significantly linearly increased with increasing concentrations of both mannanase enzymes (TSM1 and TSM2) inclusion rates, with the highest inclusion rates increasing growth rate by 9.4 and 11.5 percent above the control for each enzyme. Interestingly, this increased gain was primarily driven by significantly increased feed intake with increasing concentrations of mannanase TSM2 but by a tendency for increased feed efficiency with increasing concentrations of mannanase TSM1. During the second 14 day period feed intake and feed efficiency tended to improve with increasing concentration of TSM2. During the final 14 day period feed intake tended to increase at the highest concentrations of both mannanases, TSM1 and TSM2. Overall, inclusion of both mannanases (TSM1 or TSM2) numerically improved growth rate and feed efficiency in grower pigs for the 42 day period by about 3 percent. Early responses to the enzymes during the first 14 days are promising and may support improved sow performance during the relatively short sow lactation period of 18-20 days. These data suggest there may be slight differences in the enzymes cleaving locations of the compounds creating slightly different compounds as one enzyme seemed to stimulate feed intake while the other improved efficiency of nutrient use to support improved growth rate during the first 14 day period of the study. A follow-up study with lactating sows and high levels of DDGS to test if these results are consistent with grower pig performance observations is underway.

Publications

  • No publications reported this period


Progress 10/01/09 to 09/30/10

Outputs
OUTPUTS: The recent growth in ethanol plants and resultant increase in the availability of dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) ethanol by-product has led to high inclusions of the DDGS in swine diets. The growth in ethanol plants will consume over 1/3 of the corn produced in the United States and will provide over 35 million tons of DDGS for livestock feeding. The potential effect of feeding the DDGS by-product to the sow herd is not well researched. The DDGS product often is an affordable alternative feedstuff to be fed in limited amounts to swine, however it also brings into the diet a large amount of unsaturated fatty acids (primarily 18:2n6) which may be detrimental to swine performance and product quality. A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding DDGS during gestation and lactation on sow performance and cull sow carcass yield, tissue fatty acid composition, and cull sow meat products quality. The gestation and lactation performance results were reported previously. The study utilized 90 sows (PIC C22) of similar weight and body condition allocated to three gestation diets at the start of the experiment and then subdivided within gestation treatment to 3 lactation treatments in a factorial approach of 9 treatments. The gestation diets were: 1) control, standard corn-soybean meal, 0 percent DDGS; 2) 15 percent DDGS and, 3) 30 percent DDGS. The lactation diets also contained 0, 15 or 30 percent DDGS. Data were analyzed as a 3 x 3 factorial arrangement with replicate group included as a blocking factor using the GLM Procedure of SAS. Sows were individually fed to body condition during gestation. Lactation and post-weaning feed intakes were fed as near ad libitum as possible. Individual sow feed intakes, body weights, and backfat thickness were recorded from post-breeding, throughout gestation and lactation and post-weaning. Sow farrowing and lactation performance were also recorded (total born, born alive, number weaned; litter birth, adjusted d 2, and weaning weights, and days of lactation). Cull sows were then harvested 8 days post weaning at a commercial slaughter facility where approximately 5 kg of shoulder lean and 3 kg of fat were collect from each individual sow. The individual sows lean and fat were ground and blended by treatment to make bratwurst and breakfast links to evaluate consumer acceptance and cooking characteristics of the meat products from these cull sows. These results will be shared at 2 national meetings, animal science society meetings and reciprocal meat science meetings as abstracts and the basis for an extension publication being written on DDGS use in sow diets impact on pork quality. PARTICIPANTS: Mickey Latour, Purdue University Allan Schinckel, Purdue University TARGET AUDIENCES: Target Audiences were pork producers, nutritionists, and pork processing industry. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.

Impacts
Effects of feeding increased levels of DDGS and subsequently elevated levels of dietary unsaturated fatty acids impacted cull sow carcass composition and product quality. Feeding either 15 or 30 percent DDGS in gestation increased cull sow fat iodine value (IV) by about 3.5 units (69 to 72 or 73 IV) while lactation DDGS feeding had little impact on tissue IV. Consumer's evaluated both fresh and cooked bratwurst and breakfast links made from the cull sows fed the nine different DDGS diets. Consumers initial decision to purchase or likelihood of purchase favored the fresh bratwurst and breakfast links from sows not fed any DDGS during gestation or lactation, with 80.5 percent of the consumers definitely or probably would purchase the control bratwurst compared to only 42.5 percent of the consumers would purchase the bratwurst from sows fed 30 percent DDGS during gestation and lactation. The fresh breakfast links followed a similar pattern to the bratwurst in consumer acceptance. However, there were no significant differences on the panelist willingness to purchase the product if bratwurst or breakfast links were cooked. As the fresh product was stored over a 15 day shelf life, the oxidative rancidity linearly increased with time and DDGS level fed such that a 5 day shelf life was all that may exist for products from the highest DDGS feeding levels before the product becomes unacceptable to the consumer. These results provide a difficult dilemma for the producer in deciding how much DDGS to feed to their sows. Producers can feed up to 30 percent DDGS in gestation and 15 percent DDGS in lactation with minimal impact on sow performance and providing significant feed cost savings. However, the feeding of 15-30 percent DDGS in the diet has a negative impact on consumer's acceptance of fresh pork sausage products and could reduce the price the producer would receive for the cull sow at market time. Follow-up studies with more sows and levels of DDGS to test if these results are consistent with producer performance observations and commercial cull sow sausage product quality is needed.

Publications

  • No publications reported this period


Progress 10/01/08 to 09/30/09

Outputs
OUTPUTS: The eastern Midwest has recently experienced a major growth in ethanol plants and as a result, an increase in the availability of dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS). The growth in ethanol plants will consume nearly 1/3 of the corn produced in the United States and thus will provide nearly 35 million tons of DDGS. The potential effect of feeding the DDGS by-product to the sow herd is not well researched. The DDGS product often is an affordable alternative feedstuff to be fed in limited amounts to swine, however it also brings into the diet a large amount of unsaturated fatty acids (primarily 18:2n6) which may be detrimental to swine performance and product quality. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) on gestation and lactation sow performance and cull sow carcass yield, tissue fatty acid composition, and meat product quality. The gestation and lactation performance results will be reported here. This study utilized 90 sows (PIC C22) of similar weight and body condition were allocated to three gestation diets at the start of the experiment and then subdivided within gestation treatment to 3 lactation treatments in a factorial approach of 9 treatments. The gestation diets were: 1) control, standard corn-soybean meal, 0 percent DDGS; 2) 15 percent DDGS and, 3) 30 percent DDGS. The lactation diets also contained 0, 15 or 30 percent DDGS. Data were analyzed as a 3 x 3 factorial arrangement with replicate group included as a blocking factor using the GLM Procedure of SAS. Sows were individually fed to body condition during gestation. Lactation and post-weaning feed intakes were fed as near ad libitum as possible. Individual sow feed intakes, body weights, and backfat thickness were recorded post-breeding, mid-gestation, prefarrow, d 0 of lactation, at weaning, and d 8 post-weaning. Sow farrowing and lactation performance were also recorded (total born, born alive, number weaned; litter birth, adjusted d 2, and weaning weights, and days of lactation). Average adjusted litter size at day 2 was similar for all treatments at 11.6 pigs/litter. Average number pigs weaned were similar for all treatments at 10.2 pigs/litter with similar survival rates at 88.9 percent. These results are being shared at 2 national animal science society meetings as abstracts and the basis for an extension publication being written on DDGS use in sow diets. The data from this project have also led a larger collaborative study with a leading swine nutrition company. PARTICIPANTS: Mickey Latour, Purdue University, Department of Animal Sciences; Allan Schinckel, Purdue University, Department of Animal Sciences. National Pork Board supported the project with funding. TARGET AUDIENCES: Swine Producers; Swine Nutritionists and Consultants. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.

Impacts
Feeding either 15 or 30 percent DDGS in gestation increased sow lactation feed intake by an average of 7.7 percent. However, when either level of DDGS was fed during lactation sow ADFI numerically decreased by 3.1 percent which corresponded to a 5.4 percent decrease in litter weight gain during lactation. The feeding of 30% DDGS during lactation increased sow weight loss, decreasing sow weaning weights, which may impact subsequent reproductive performance due to body tissue reserve losses. Effects of feeding increased levels of DDGS and subsequently elevated levels of unsaturated fatty acids on cull sow carcass composition and product quality is still being researched. These results support the feeding of up to 30 percent DDGS during gestation of the sow with minimal effects on the sow and litter. However, 15 percent DDGS during lactation may be too high based on the reduced lactation feed intake and piglet litter weight gain. The follow-up cooperative study with more sows will test if these results are consistent with producer performance observations and if this shift in sow fatty acid intakes from the DDGS will impact the sow subsequent reproduction.

Publications

  • No publications reported this period


Progress 10/01/07 to 09/30/08

Outputs
OUTPUTS: This activity was related to the revised project objective 2. The response to specific dietary fatty acids in lactating sows has not been thoroughly evaluated and select fatty acids may improve the sow's immune system and therefore support greater lactation and rebreeding performance. The feeding of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) may provide similar benefits. Treatments were: 1) control, 2) Trt. 1 +0.3% CLA, 3) Trt. 1 + 0.6% CLA. Sows were fed the diets an average of 5 days pre-farrowing, throughout lactation and during the subsequent rebreeding period. Lactation feed intake, sow and litter performance and subsequent litter size was recorded. Feeding 0.6% CLA in this sow lactation diet increased weanling pig and litter weights and increased piglet survival from 90 to 95 percent. However, feeding either 0.3 or 0.6% CLA decreased sow lactation feed intake by nearly 400 grams per day (7 percent). The results of this work are being shared as an abstract at a national Animal Sciences meeting next year. PARTICIPANTS: Mickey Latour, Purdue University, Animal Sciences Allan Schinckel, Purdue University, Animal Sciences TARGET AUDIENCES: Swine Producers Swine Nutritionists and Consultants PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.

Impacts
The improvement in litter and piglet weaning weight is one of the primary sow lactation performance criteria that drives farm productivity. The heavier the pig at weaning, the easier they are to start on feed post-weaning and a less complex and expensive feed can be used soon when the pigs are larger at weaning. Additionally, the 0.4 more pigs weaned per litter is worth approximately 14 dollars per litter in profitability. While it is desirable to increase piglet weaning weights and improve litter survival rate, the decreased sow feed intake is a concern. When sow feed intake is decreased, sow lactation weight loss usually increases and subsequent litter size is reduced. In this study the feed intake was reduced nearly 0.4 kg per day when either level of CLA was fed, however sow lactation weight loss only increased by 1 kg and did not have any effect on subsequent litter size. The use of CLA in sow diets might provide some of the same effects as the omega fatty acids (DHA and EPA) to improve sow immunity, potentially improving piglet survival rate and growth rate. There continues to be a need for further research in this exciting area of using specific fatty acids to improve health and productivity of swine.

Publications

  • No publications reported this period


Progress 10/01/06 to 09/30/07

Outputs
OUTPUTS: This activity was related to objective 3 of this project. The response to dietary acids in weanling pigs has been inconsistent over several years and may relate to the actual disease pressure present in the environment. To remove this variable a water acidification program that had been successful in the past with nursery pigs was tested under a Salmonella challenge study. Salmonella is one of the main causative agents of enteric disease in weanling pigs and provides a good model to test alternatives to antibiotics. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of water acidification, a water delivered probiotic, and dietary antibiotic on the growth performance, intestinal health and microbial shedding of weanling pigs prior to and following a Salmonella enterica var. Typhimurium challenge. Treatments were: 1) negative control (NC), 2) Trt. 1 + water supplied direct fed microbial (DFM; Bioplus DP) in drinking water at 109 cfu/L (Enterococcus faecium, Bacillus subtillus, Bacillus licheniformis), 3) Trt. 1 +; 2.58 mL/L of a propionic acid based blend through the drinking water (PA blend; KemSan), and 4) Trt. 1 + in feed antibiotic (carbadox, 55 ppm). Pigs were challenged intra-nasally with Salmonella typhimurium on d 6 post-weaning. Pigs were harvested (22 pigs/d) on d 6 (prior to challenge), 8, 10 and 14 post-weaning for isolation of salmonella and sampling of the intestine for histology and immune response proteins analysis. The results of this work have been shared at 2 scientific animal science meetings and a national and Indiana pork producer meeting. PARTICIPANTS: Dr. Scott Radcliffe, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907. Dr. Marcos Rostagno, USDA ARS Livestock Behavior Research Unit - Animal Well-being, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 TARGET AUDIENCES: Fellow animal scientists and swine veterinarians are the first targeted audience to help disseminate this information through abstract presentations and journal articles. The second target was pork producers through seminars at local and national meetings.

Impacts
Water delivered direct fed microbial (DFM) or acid blend (PA) and in feed carbadox significantly improved ADG on d 2-4 post-challenge compared to NC pigs. Water supplied DFM tended to increase G:F from d 0-5 pre-challenge compared to NC pigs. Water supplied DFM increased duodenal villus height on d 4 post-challenge compared to pigs receiving carbadox or NC pigs. Water delivered PA blend tended to decrease Enterobacteriaeace counts in the cecum on d 0 and 2 post-challenge compared to the DFM treatment. The proportion of pigs shedding salmonella in the feces was decreased 100 and 50 percent by DFM and PA blend treatments, respectively, on d 5 post-challenge. The water delivered PA and DFM treatments had a positive effect on growth performance and intestinal morphology following a salmonella challenge. The ability of DFM to populate the pig's intestinal tract with beneficial bacteria prior to a Salmonella challenge improved the rate of nursery pig recovery and reduced fecal shedding of Salmonella. Water acidification also had benefits to reducing overall enteric pathogen loads and decreasing Salmonella shedding. The use of water delivered DFM and acids can work as a partial replacement for in-feed antibiotics in nursery pigs with typical US diet formulations. There continues to be a need for further research in finding alternatives to dietary antibiotics in nursery pig diets, with the need to evaluate combinations of alternative strategies as an antibiotic replacement. The alternatives tested here do provide a benefit over no supplementation, but do not completely replace the positive effect of antibiotics for the nursery pig.

Publications

  • Walsh, M.C., D.M. Sholly, R.B. Hinson, S.A. Trapp, A.L. Sutton, J.S. Radcliffe, J.W. Smith II, and B.T. Richert. 2007. Effects of Acid LAC and Kem-Gest acid blends on growth performance and microbial shedding in weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 85:459-467.
  • Walsh, M.C., D.M. Sholly, R.B. Hinson, K.L. Saddoris, A.L. Sutton, J.S. Radcliffe, R. Odgaard, J. Murphy, and B.T. Richert. 2007. Effects of water and diet acidification with and without antibioitics on weanling pig growth and microbial shedding. J. Anim. Sci. 85:1799-1808.
  • Walsh, M.C., K.L. Saddoris, D.M. Sholly, R.B. Hinson, A.L. Sutton, A.L. Applegate, B.T. Richert, and J.S. Radcliffe. 2007. The effects of direct fed microbials delivered through the feed and/or in a bolus at weaning on growth performance and gut health. Livestock Sci. 108:254-257.


Progress 10/01/05 to 09/30/06

Outputs
This activity was related to objective 3 of this project. The digestive tract of early-weaned pigs has not reached its full potential and is still relatively immature at weaning. As a consequence, young pigs have insufficient pancreatic amylase and intestinal disaccharides activity along with insufficient hydrochloric acid secretion. Also, the abrupt change from a liquid diet of sow milk to a solid cereal based diet at weaning causes digestive upsets and can result in poor growth performance at this critical growth juncture and increases the susceptibility to intestinal infections from pathogenic organisms. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary acidification and diet buffering capacity on the growth performance of weanling pigs compared to antibiotic supplemented diets. A study utilizing 192 weanling pigs (avg. 19.1 d of age) was conducted with the pigs assigned to one of three dietary treatments:1) Basal control diet (NC); 2) Diet 1 + 55 ppm carbadox (CB); 3) Dietary acid (DA): diet 1 + 0.4% organic acid based blend (fumaric, lactate, citric, propionic, and benzoic acids) for d 0 to 14 followed by 0.2% inorganic acid based blend (phosphoric, fumaric, lactic, and citric acids) for d 14 to 28. Each dietary treatment was formulated with either limestone or calcium sulfate (reduced buffering capacity) as a calcium source to change the buffering capacity of the diet. Pigs were allotted based on genetics, sex, and initial BW (Avg.=5.9 kg) and were housed at 6 or 7 pigs/pen. Pen feed intake and individual BW were recorded weekly. Treatments were fed throughout the trial in two phases: d 0-14 and d14-28. During phase 1, pigs fed CB had greater ADG (P<.10) and BW (P<.03) than pigs fed the NC with pigs fed DA being intermediate. During phase 2 and overall, pigs fed CB had greater ADG (P<.005) than pigs fed NC and DA (d 0-28 ADG: 298 vs 252 and 268 g/d, respectively). Pigs fed CB had greater ADFI (P<.04) during phase 2 and overall than pigs fed the NC with pigs fed the DA being intermediate to both. On d 28, pigs fed CB were heavier than pigs fed NC or DA (14.3 vs 12.9 and 13.4 kg respectively; P<.0013). Overall, feed efficiency (G:F) was greater (P<.05) for pigs fed CB and DA than pigs fed the NC. During phase 1, pigs fed diets with limestone as a calcium source tended to have greater ADG (P<.09) than pigs fed diets with calcium sulfate. During phase 2, pigs fed calcium sulfate as a calcium source had greater G:F (P<.05) than pigs fed limestone. Overall, there was no effect of calcium source on pig growth performance. In conclusion, pigs fed CB were 1.4 kg heavier and pigs fed DA were 0.5 kg heavier at d 28 post-weaning than the NC pigs. Alteration in dietary buffering capacity had its greatest influence on growth performance during phase 2 when the simplest diet was fed.

Impacts
The use of diet acidification can work as a partial replacement for in-feed antibiotics in nursery pigs with typical US diet formulations, recovering about 1/3 of the antibiotic response in nursery pigs. The buffering capacity of the diet does not seem to be a limiting factor in the dietary acids effectiveness as an antibiotic replacement. However, lowering the diets buffering capacity when simple corn-soybean meal diets are fed can improve feed efficiency. There continues to be a need for further research in finding alternatives to dietary antibiotics in nursery pig diets, with the need to evaluate combinations of alternative strategies as an antibiotic replacement.

Publications

  • Walsh, M., D. Sholly, K. Saddoris, R. Hinson, A. Yager, A. Sutton, S. Radcliffe, B. Harmon, and B. Richert. 2005. Effects of diet acidification and buffering capacity on weanling pig growth. J. Anim. Sci. 82:137 (suppl. 1) abstract.


Progress 10/01/04 to 09/30/05

Outputs
This activity was directly related to objective 3 of this project. One of the issues affecting the swine industry is the loss in production efficiency from the lag in growth by young pigs at weaning. Young pigs are very susceptible to gastrointestinal disorders and digestive disturbances as a result of their immature digestive system. This leads to an increase in the prevalence of post weaning scours which leads to retarded growth, increased mortality, and additional medical costs. In the past, this problem has been combated through the use of sub-therapeutic doses of antibiotics in feed which improve growth rate by 16.4% in weanling pigs. However, increasing public concern in relation to food safety issues and antibiotic resistance has prompted the swine industry to look for alternatives to the use of antibiotics in nursery pig diets. The objectives of this study are to evaluate the efficiency of organic and inorganic acid based blends as alternatives to antibiotics and their possible additive effects on weanling pig growth performance and microbial shedding. Two hundred ten weanling pigs were used in a 35 d trial to evaluate the effects of a dietary acid and/or antibiotics in nursery pig diets. Pigs (18.3 d of age) were assigned to three dietary trts: 1) Basal control diet (NC); 2) Diet 1 + 55 ppm carbadox (CB); 3) Diet 1 + 38.6 ppm Tiamulin + 441 ppm Chlortetracycline (CTC) d 0-7 followed by 110 ppm CTC d 7-35 (TC). These three trts were factored with or without a diet acidification (DA); .4% organic acid based blend (fumaric, lactate, citric, propionic acid, benzoic acid) for d 0-7 followed by .2% inorganic acid based blend (phosphoric, fumaric, lactic, citric acid) for d 7-35. Pigs were allotted based on genetics, sex, and initial BW (Avg=5.6 kg) with 7 pigs/pen. Pen FI and individual BW was recorded weekly. Three diet phases were fed: d 0-7, 7-21, 21-35. Feces were collected on d 6, 20 and 33 (3 pigs/pen) for measurement of pH and E.coli. During phase 1, ADG, ADFI, G:F and d 7 BW for pigs fed CB and TC were greater than pigs fed NC (P<.04). During phase 2 pigs fed CB and TC had greater ADG and ADFI and d 21 BW (P<.01) than pigs fed NC. During phase 3, CB fed pigs had greater ADG (P<.06) and ADFI (P<.06) than NC fed pigs. Overall, pigs fed CB and TC had greater ADG (P<.004; 315 and 303 vs 270 g/d respectively), ADFI (P<.01) and d 35 BW (16.74 and 16.23 vs 15.08 kg respectively; P<.002) than pigs fed NC. Pigs receiving DA tended to have greater G:F (P<.09) than pigs receiving no DA during phases 2 and 3 and overall ADG tended (P<.07) to improve with DA and NC or TC diets, but decreased when DA was added to the CB diets. Pigs fed CB shed lower counts of E.coli on d 33 compared with pigs fed TC or NC (P<.0001). Pigs fed CB and TC tended to have lower fecal pH on d 6 compared to pigs fed NC (P<.002). Pigs fed DA had lower fecal pH on d 6 and lower E.coli shedding on d 33 compared to pigs receiving no DA (P<.10). DA tended to increase growth performance above NC and TC diets alone. However, overall growth performance was greatest when CB was fed alone and not with DA.

Impacts
The use of dietary acidification tended to increase growth performance above that of the negative control and tiamulin + chlortetracycline diets alone. However, overall growth performance was greatest when carbadox was fed alone and not with dietary acidification. These results demonstrate the potential for the individual use of dietary acidification to improve nursery pig growth performance and may further improve pig performance when these pigs are already being fed an antibiotic.

Publications

  • No publications reported this period


Progress 10/01/03 to 09/29/04

Outputs
In an effort to screen possible treatments for a large sow study, a nursery pig study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of using acids to improve pig performance. This study utilized 205 pigs in a 34 d nursery trial to evaluate the effects of diet and water acidification on weanling pig growth and microbial shedding. Pigs (19.2 d of age) were assigned to one of three dietary treatments: 1) Basal control diet (NC); 2) Diet 1 + 55 ppm carbadox (CB); 3) Dietary acid (DA); diet 1 + .4% organic acid based blend (fumaric, lactate, citric, propionic, and benzoic acids) for d 0-7 followed by .2% inorganic acid based blend (phosphoric, fumaric, lactic, and citric acids) for d 7-34. These three diets were factored with or without water acidification (WA) of 2.48 mL/L of a propionic acid based blend (KEM SANTM). Pigs were allotted based on genetics, sex, and initial BW (Avg=5.54 kg) with 6 or 7 pigs/pen. Pen FI and individual BW were recorded weekly. Treatments were fed in three phases: d 0-7, 7-21, 21-34. Feces were collected on d 6, 20 and 33 (3 pigs/pen) for measurement of pH and E.coli. No treatment effects were observed during phase 1. During phase 2, pigs fed CB had greater ADG and G:F than pigs fed DA and tended to have greater ADG than pigs fed NC. During phase 3 and overall, pigs fed CB had greater ADG (overall; 389 vs 348 and 348 g/d, respectively), ADFI and d 34 BW (18.8 vs 17.3 and 17.3 kg, respectively) than pigs fed NC and DA. Phase 3 G:F was greater for pigs fed DA than pigs fed NC. Phase 3 ADG was improved by WA across all diets, while WA increased ADFI only in pigs fed CB and NC but not DA. Pigs receiving no WA had greater overall G:F than pigs receiving WA. Feeding CB tended to reduce E.coli on d 33 compared with pigs fed DA. Pigs fed DA tended to have lower fecal pH than pigs fed CB on d 20. Pigs receiving WA tended to have lower fecal pH than pigs receiving no WA on d 33. In conclusion, pigs fed CB were 1.5 kg heavier at d 34 post-weaning than both NC and DA. The combination of DA with WA resulted in decreased ADFI and overall growth performance, while all other treatment combinations improved pig growth above the NC alone. The use of WA in this study indicates that it has a greater potential to improve pig performance in a diet containing no antibiotics than dietary acidification and will be the focus of an upcoming sow study to evaluate water acidification to improve sow productivity and reduce microbial transfer from the sow to the piglet pre-weaning.

Impacts
The addition of water acidification improved the performance of the weanling pigs fed the negative control diet, such that these pigs were nearly 2 lb heavier than the negative control pigs without water acidification, recovering 50% of the lost performance relative to a positive antibiotic control. The separate use of either dietary and water acidification has the potential to increase nursery pig performance and may further improve pig performance when these pigs are already being fed an antibiotic based on the results of this study. However, over acidification with both water and dietary acids will decrease pig feed intake and growth performance.

Publications

  • Walsh, M., D. Sholly, K. Saddoris, R. Hinson, A. Sutton, S. Radcliffe, B. Harmon, R. Odgaard, J. Murphy, and B. Richert. 2004. Effects of diet and water acidification on weanling pig growth and microbial shedding. J. Anim. Sci. 82 (Suppl. 1):137.
  • Walsh, M.C., B.T. Richert, A.L. Sutton, J.S. Radcliffe, R. Odgaard. 2004. Past, present, and future uses of organic and inorganic acids in nursery pig diets. Amer. Assoc. Swine Vet. Pp 155-158.


Progress 10/01/02 to 09/30/03

Outputs
This project is new this year, so only a small amount of work has been accomplished to date. A preliminary sampling of nursing piglets has been completed to evaluate the presence of E.Coli and salmonella. Twenty-four nursing piglets (2/litter) had fresh fecal samples collected to determine concentration of E.coli and the presence of salmonella. The average fecal E.coli concentration was 19.85 nlog CFUs/g and salmonella was observed in 8.3% of the pigs. Two nursery pig studies have been completed to evaluate the effectiveness of two dietary acid supplementations on pig performance and microbial shedding. This step is essential before attempting to potentially use acids from lactation through the nursery phase later in this project. Experiment 1 utilized 180 weanling pigs and Experiment 2 utilized 300 weanling pigs to evaluate the use of an organic acid blend (OA) and inorganic acid based blend (IA) in nursery pig diets (18 d of age). Both experiments had dietary treatments fed throughout the 35-d trial in three phases; phase1 (d 0-7), phase 2 (d 7-21), and phase 3 (d 21-35). Pigs were assigned to one of five dietary treatments in Experiment 1: 1) Basal diet, 2) Diet 1 + 50 ppm carbadox, 3) Diet 1 + 0.4% OA, 4) Diet 1 + 0.2% IA, 5) Diet 1 + 0.4% OA and 0.2% IA (OA/IA). There were no differences (P<.05) in ADG among the dietary treatments at any time during the study. The ADFI (d 0-35) for pigs fed the OA/IA diet tended to be lower (P<.10) than the ADFI of pigs fed all other treatments. The G:F of pigs fed Diet 1 tended to be lower (P<.10) than for pigs fed the carbadox diet. There was no effect of treatment on the presence of fecal salmonella (P<.10). On d-6, pigs fed Diet 1 had lower E. coli counts than pigs fed any other treatment (P<.05). At d 34, the E. coli counts for pigs fed the carbadox (P<.05) diet and the negative control (P<.10) were higher than pigs fed the OA/IA diet. Pigs were assigned to one of six dietary treatments in Experiment 2; Diets 1-4 from Experiment 1 and Diet 5) Sequence 1; Diet 3 for 7 d followed by Diet 4 for 28 d, and Diet 6) Sequence 2; Diet 4 for 7 d followed by Diet 3 for 28 d. There was no effect (P<.05) of treatment on ADG, ADFI, or G:F during phase 1. During phase 2, ADFI of sequence 1 was higher than sequence 2 (P<.05) and tended to be higher than the OA diet (P<.10). Pigs fed carbadox tended (P<.10) to have greater ADFI than pigs fed OA and sequence 2 treatments. During phase 3 and overall, pigs fed carbadox and sequence 1 diets had higher ADG than all other treatments (P<.05) and higher ADFI than all other acid treatments (P<.05), and tended to have higher ADFI than Diet 1(P<.10). In Experiment 1, the growth performance of pigs fed the OA and IA diets were similar to each other and the carbadox-fed pigs, however, OA and IA were lower in Experiment 2. Additionally, adding both OA and IA acids at these levels to the nursery pig diet reduced feed intake and pig growth rate in Experiment 1. In Experiment 2, pigs fed the acid sequence 1 diet had similar growth performance to pigs fed carbadox and this novel dietary acid sequence may have merit as a replacement for antibiotics in the nursery phase.

Impacts
The use of a novel dietary acid sequence of a blend of organic acids followed by inorganic acids provided similar pig growth performance and reduced fecal E.coli concentrations compared to carbadox. This dietary acidification program may provide a viable alternative to antibiotics in nursery pig diets.

Publications

  • No publications reported this period