Source: ROCKY MOUNTAIN RESEARCH STATION submitted to
BIOLOGICAL AND PHYSICAL SYSTEMS RESPONSES TO STRATEGIES FOR RESTORING FOREST HEALTH AND MANAGING FUELS IN WILDLAND-URBAN INTERFACE
Sponsoring Institution
Forest Service/USDA
Project Status
TERMINATED
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
0197479
Grant No.
(N/A)
Project No.
RMRS-4156-3
Proposal No.
(N/A)
Multistate No.
(N/A)
Program Code
(N/A)
Project Start Date
Jul 1, 1997
Project End Date
Jan 7, 2005
Grant Year
(N/A)
Project Director
Edminster, C. B.
Recipient Organization
ROCKY MOUNTAIN RESEARCH STATION
240 WEST PROSPECT ROAD
FORT COLLINS,CO 80526-2098
Performing Department
SW FOREST SCIENCE COMPLEX - FLAGSTAFF, AZ
Non Technical Summary
(N/A)
Animal Health Component
100%
Research Effort Categories
Basic
(N/A)
Applied
100%
Developmental
(N/A)
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
1230699107080%
1230699200020%
Goals / Objectives
This RWU in the process of recharting
Project Methods
This RWU is in the process of recharting

Progress 10/01/06 to 09/30/07

Outputs
Research sites on 5 wildfires across the Intermountain West documented that 3-year post-fire mortality of ponderosa pine trees could be correctly classified using a simple two variable model. This knowledge provides more accurate predictions of whether trees damaged in wildfires are likely to die, and can be used in developing post-fire management strategies such as salvage logging. Operational fuels management research areas are part of the national study of the Consequences of Fire and Fire Surrogate Treatments supported in part by the Joint Fire Science Program and implemented by southwestern National Forests and Southwest Fire Use Training Academy. Improved predictive models of fire behavior are being developed in collaboration with Los Alamos National Laboratory to support forest fuels reduction activities, wildfire mitigation efforts, and planning for prescribed burns. The physics processed-based models represent combustion, heat transfer, aerodynamic drag, and turbulence with a computational fluid-dynamics model that represents airflow is being expanded and validated for use in areas of heterogeneous fuels complexes and complex topographic settings typical of southwestern forest conditions. Understanding of the biological, ecological, and physiological responses and processes associated with forest health restoration and wildland-urban interface fuels treatments provides resource managers with information on the likely effects of treatments being analyzed, planned and implemented. Studies integrate the effects of a variety of disturbance processes including native and invasive forest insects, native and invasive forest diseases, and wildfire on both the vegetative components and soils components of the forest ecosystems.

Impacts
Results of studies provide critically needed information for the planning, analysis, implementation, and monitoring of alternative management strategies for forest restoration and fuels management. Research areas are proving to be of great value for communicating comparative effects of treatments in numerous demonstration tours for those interested or participating in community-based forest partnerships. Research results guide forest fuels management in priority areas surrounding communities and for community wildfire protection planning. Improved wildland fire models also provide managers with improved tools for planning community wildfire protection projects, wildfire risk assessments, and informing operational wildfire behavior models.

Publications

  • Sieg, C.H.; McMillin, J.D.; Fowler, J.F.; Allen, K.K.; Negron, J. F.; Wadleigh, L. L.; Anhold, J. A.; and Gibson, K. E. 2006. Best Predictors for Postfire Mortality of Ponderosa Pine Trees in the Intermountain West. Forest Science 52(6): 718-728.
  • Van Arsdel, E.P.; Geils, B.W.; Zambino. P.J. 2006. Epidemiology for hazard rating of white pine blister rust. In: Guyon, J. (comp.). 2006. Proceedings of the 53rd Western International Forest Disease Work Conference; 2005 August 26-29; Jackson, WY. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Region: 49-64.
  • Wampler, Christina Rae. 2007. Effects Of Forest Thinning Treatments On Mammals In A Southwestern Mixed Coniferous Forest. M.S. Thesis: New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM. 83 pp.
  • Mooney, K.A.; Geils, B.W.; Linhart, Y.B. 2006. Linking parasitic plant-induced host morphology to tritrophic interactions. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 99(6)1133-1138.
  • Neal, Suzanne M. 2007. Tree thinning treatments alter soil properties, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and understory plant communities. M.S. Thesis. Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ. 73 pp.
  • Ramsfield, T.D., D.J. Kriticos, D.R. Vogler, and B.W. Geils. 2007. Western Gall Rust-A Threat to Pinus Radiata in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science 37(2): 143-152.
  • Rogstad, A., T. Degomez, and C.H. Sieg. 2007. Invasive plants in Arizona's forests and woodlands: Climate change and variability in southwest ecosystem series. 5 p. http://cals.arizona.edu/pubs/natresources/az1436.pdf
  • Severson, K.E. and C.H. Sieg. 2006. The Nature of Eastern North Dakota: Pre-1880 Historical Ecology. North Dakota State University Institute of Regional Studies, Fargo, ND. ISBN 978-0-911042-65-852195. http://www.ndsu.nodak.edu/ndsu/heiraas/ndirs/publications.htm
  • Bailey, J.D. and R.K. Speer. 2007. Understory vegetation responses to group selection thinning and prescribed fire at the Southwest Plateau Fire and Fires Surrogate sites. IN: Proceedings of the 8th Biennial Colorado Plateau Meeting (Van Riper et al. eds.) IN PRESS
  • Chen et al. 2005. Fuel reduction treatment and wildfire influence on Carabid and Tenebrionid community assemblages in the ponderosa pine forest of Northern Arizona, USA. Forest Ecology and Management 225: 168-177.
  • Cunningham, P., and Linn, R.R. 2007. Numerical simulations of grass fires using a coupled atmosphere-fire model: Dynamics of fire spread. Journal of Geophysical Research 112: 1-17. http://www.agu.org/pubs/crossref/2007/2006JD007638.shtml
  • Faiella, S.M. and J.D. Bailey. 2007. Fluctuations in fuel moisture across restoration treatments in semi-arid ponderosa pine forests of northern Arizona, USA. Intl J. Wildl. Fire 16:119127.
  • Fowler, J.F., N.L. Stanton, and R.L. Hartman. 2007. Distribution of Hanging Garden Vegetation Associations on the Colorado Plateau, USA. J. Bot. Res. Inst. Texas 1(1): 585-607.
  • Hoffman, C., R. Mathiasen, and C.H. Sieg. 2007. Dwarf mistletoe effects on fuel loadings in ponderosa pine forests in northern Arizona. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 37: 662-670.
  • Iniguez, J.M. 2006. Landscape Fire History and Age Structure Patterns in the Sky Islands of Southeastern Arizona. Ph.D. Dissertation: University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ. 185 pp.
  • Jenkins, S.E. 2007. Fire-related deposition at Kendrick Mountain, Arizona: Characterization and implications for fire history reconstructions. M.S. Thesis, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ. 139 p.
  • Kearns, H. S. J.; Jacobi, W. R. 2006. Modeling the potential distribution of white pine blister rust in the central Rocky Mountains. In Guyon, J.C. comp. Proceedings of the 53rd Western International Forest Disease Work Conference; 2005 September 26-30; Jackson, WY. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Region, Ogden UT.
  • Linn, R., Winterkamp, J., Edminster, C., Colman, J., and Smith, W. 2007. Coupled influences of topography and wind on wildland fire behaviour. International Journal of Wildland Fire 16: 183-195.
  • McDowell, N.G., H.D. Adams, J.D. Bailey, and T.E. Kolb. 2007. The role of stand density on growth efficiency, leaf area index and resin flow in southwestern ponderosa pine forests. Can. J. For. Res. 37:343-355.


Progress 10/01/05 to 09/30/06

Outputs
Operational fuels management research areas are part of the national study of the Consequences of Fire and Fire Surrogate Treatments supported in part by the Joint Fire Science Program and implemented by southwestern National Forests and Southwest Fire Use Training Academy. Improved predictive models of fire behavior are being developed in collaboration with Los Alamos National Laboratory to support forest fuels reduction activities, wildfire mitigation efforts, and planning for prescribed burns. The physics processed-based models represent combustion, heat transfer, aerodynamic drag, and turbulence with a computational fluid-dynamics model that represents airflow is being expanded and validated for use in areas of heterogeneous fuels complexes and complex topographic settings typical of southwestern forest conditions. Understanding of the biological, ecological, and physiological responses and processes associated with forest health restoration and wildland-urban interface fuels treatments provides resource managers with information on the likely effects of treatments being analyzed, planned and implemented. Studies integrate the effects of a variety of disturbance processes including native and invasive forest insects, native and invasive forest diseases, and wildfire on both the vegetative components and soils components of the forest ecosystems. A regional study of the effectiveness of silvicultural treatments in mitigating the extreme impacts of wildfire is providing the basis for further developing and implementing fuels and restoration treatments in the Southwest. The study is further being used to guide the development of a study of fuels management alternatives in southwestern mixed conifer forests.

Impacts
Results of studies provide critically needed information for the planning, analysis, implementation, and monitoring of alternative management strategies for forest restoration and fuels management. Research areas are proving to be of great value for communicating comparative effects of treatments in numerous demonstration tours for those interested or participating in community-based forest partnerships. Regional assessment of burn severities in recent wildfires indicates that burn severity was greatest in untreated areas. The most effective treatment to reduce burn severity was thinning smaller trees followed by intensive treatment of thinning debris either by removal or prescribed fire. This information guides forest fuels management in priority areas surrounding communities and for community wildfire protection planning. Improved wildland fire models also provide managers with improved tools for planning community wildfire protection projects, wildfire risk assessments, and informing operational wildfire behavior models. Studies of insect, disease, and invasive species roles in forest health provide important information to forest managers in developing forest health restoration, fuels management, and prescribed fire management programs and sustaining ecosystem services.

Publications

  • Hart, Stephen C., DeLuca, Thomas H., Newman, Gregory S., MacKenzie, M. Derek, and Boyle, Sarah I. 2005. Post-fire vegetative dynamics as drivers of microbial community structure and function in forest soils. Forest Ecology and Management 220: 166-184.
  • Hoffman, C.M. 2005. Dwarf mistletoe effects on fuel loadings in ponderosa pine forests in northern Arizona. Master of Science thesis: Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ. 80 pp.
  • Allender, C.J.H. 2006. Genetic Analysis of Three Bark Beetle Species From Ponderosa Pine Forests of Arizona. Master's thesis. Northern Arizona University. 56pp.
  • Clancy, K.M., Palermo, B.L., and Koch, G.W. 2006. Do Ectomycorrhizal Mutualists Influence Douglas-fir Resistance to Defoliation by the Western Spruce Budworm? Pages 120-123 in Clancy, K.M., et al., editors. Proceedings IUFRO Kanazawa 2003 Forest Insect Population Dynamics and Host Influences.
  • Clancy, K.M., Palermo, B.L., and Koch, G.W. 2006. Effects of Ortet Genotype and Western Spruce Budworm Defoliation on Foliar Nutrients in Douglas-fir Clones. Pages 36-44 in Clancy, K.M., et al., editors. Proceedings IUFRO Kanazawa 2003 Forest Insect Population Dynamics and Host Influences.
  • Converse, S. J., Block, W.M,. and White, G.C. 2006. Small mammal population and habitat responses to forest thinning and prescribed fire. Forest Ecology and Management 228: 263-273.
  • Cram, D., Baker, T., and Boren, J. 2006. Wildland fire effects in silviculturally treated vs. untreated stands of New Mexico and Arizona. Research Paper RMRS-RP-55. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. 28 p.
  • DeGomez, T. E., Hayes, C. J., Anhold, J. A., McMillin, J. D., Clancy, K. M., and Bosu, P. P. 2006. Evaluation of insecticides for protecting southwestern ponderosa pines from attack by engraver beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae). Journal of Economic Entomology 99 (2): 393-400.
  • Dickson, B.G. 2006. Multi-scale response of avian communities to prescribed fire: implications for fuels management and restoration treatments in southwestern ponderosa pine forests. Ph.D. dissertation: Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO. 168 pp.
  • Dickson, B.G., Prather, J.W., Xu, Y., Hampton, H.M., Aumack, E.N., and Sisk, T.D. 2006. Mapping the probability of large fire occurrence in northern Arizona, USA. Landscape Ecology 21: 747-761.
  • Edelman, A.J., and Koprowski, J.L. 2005. Kleptoparasitic behavior and species richness at Mt. Graham Red Squirrel middens. Pages 395-398 in Gottfried, G.J., B.S. Gebow, L.G. Eskew, and C.B. Edminster, compilers. Connecting Mountain Islands and Desert Seas: Biodiversity and Management of the Madrean Archipelago II. 2004 May 11-15; Tucson, AZ. Proceedings P-36. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station.
  • Kamata, Naoto, Liebhold, Andrew M., Quiring, Dan T., Clancy, Karen M. (editors). 2006. IUFRO Kanazawa 2003 Proceedings: Forest Insect Population Dynamics and Host Influences. Kanazawa, Japan, 14-19 September 2003.
  • Kearns, H.S.J., Burns, K.S. 2005. Distribution, incidence, and severity of white pine blister rust on the Medicine Bow National Forest. Bio. Eval. R2-06-01. Golden, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Region, Renewable Resources. 18 pp.
  • Kolb, T.E., Guerard, N., Hofstetter, R.W., and Wagner, M.R. 2006. Attack preference of Ips pini on Pinus ponderosa in northern Arizona: tree size and bole position. Agricultural and Forest Entomology 8(4): 1-9.
  • Koprowski, J.L. 2005. Management and conservation of tree squirrels: the importance of endemism, species richness, and forest condition. Pages 245-250 in Gottfried, G.J., B.S. Gebow, L.G. Eskew, and C.B. Edminster, compilers. Connecting Mountain Islands and Desert Seas: Biodiversity and Management of the Madrean Archipelago II. 2004 May 11-15; Tucson, AZ. Proceedings P-36. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station.
  • Mathiasen, R.L., Olsen, W.K., and Edminster, C.B. 2006. Site index curves for white fir in the southwestern United States developed using a guide curve method. Western Journal of Applied Forestry 21(2): 87-93.
  • McDowell, N.G., Adams, H.D., Bailey, J.D., Hess, M., and Kolb, T.E. 2006. Homeostatic maintenance of ponderosa pine gas exchange in response to stand density changes. Ecological Applications 16(3): 1164-1182.
  • Mitchell, J.E., Ffolliott, P.F., and Patton-Mallory, M. 2006. Back to the Future: Forest Service Rangeland Research and Management. Rangelands 27(3): 19-28.
  • Monney, Kailen A., and Linhart, Yan B. 2006. Contrasting cascades: insectivorous birds increase pine but not parasitic mistletoe growth. Journal of Animal Ecology 75: 350-357.
  • Mooney, Kailen A. 2006. The disruption of an ant-aphid mutualism increases the effects of birds on pine herbivores. Ecology 87(7): 1805-1815.
  • Parker, T.J., Clancy, K.M., and Mathiasen, R.L. 2006. Interactions among fire, insects, and pathogens in coniferous forests of the interior western United States and Canada. Agricultural and Forest Entomology 8: 167-189.
  • Sabo, Kyla E. 2006. Overstory and understory production in varying stand structural types in northern Arizona ponderosa pine forests. Master of Science thesis: Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ. 98 pp.
  • Shepperd, W.D., Edminster, C.B., and Mata, S.A. 2006. Long-term seedfall, establishment, survival, and growth of natural and planted ponderosa pine in the Colorado Front Range. Western Journal of Applied Forestry 21(1): 19-26.


Progress 10/01/04 to 09/30/05

Outputs
Initial post-treatment inventories on areas for study of the effects of uneven-aged forest management methods that restore stand structure and provide effective fuels management in Southwestern ponderosa pine have been completed on the Coconino and Kaibab National Forests. These operational fuels management research areas are part of the national study of the Consequences of Fire and Fire Surrogate Treatments supported in part by the Joint Fire Science Program and implemented by the National Forests and Southwest Fire Use Training Academy. Improved predictive models of fire behavior are being developed in collaboration with Los Alamos National Laboratory to support forest fuels reduction activities, wildfire mitigation efforts, and planning for prescribed burns. The FIRETEC model combines physics models that represent combustion, heat transfer, aerodynamic drag, and turbulence with a computational fluid-dynamics model that represents airflow and interaction with terrain and different vegetation fuels. Understanding of the biological, ecological, and physiological responses and processes associated with forest health restoration and wildland-urban interface fuels treatments provides resource managers with information on the initial likely effects of treatments being analyzed, planned and implemented. One study demonstrates the link of ponderosa pine physiological condition on the parasitic dwarf mistletoe. Another study demonstrates the positive effects of ecological restoration on soil microbial communities. Native insects and pathogens have been demonstrated to have beneficial impacts for biologically controlling invasive leafy spurge. Unfortunately, another invasive species, Dalmatian toadflax has been shown to invade areas disturbed by wildfire. The short-term effects of post-fire conditions on the germination and seedling success of diffuse knapweed have been demonstrated. The beneficial effects of forest thinning and low intensity prescribed fire on ponderosa pine water stress and bark beetle resistance have also been documented. A major study of the potential for spread and infestation of white pine blister rust has resulted in a predictive model of this disease applicable to the central Rocky Mountains and is been refined for use in the Southwest. The end result will be a predictive system with applicability to a large multi-regional landscape. The dire consequences of catastrophic forest damage from multiple wildfires, insect and drought caused forest tree mortality, and nonnative competing squirrel species on endangered Mount Graham red squirrel populations in a sky-island mountain range is leading to the need for a potential implementation of a captive breeding program.

Impacts
Results of studies provide critically needed information for the planning, analysis, implementation, and monitoring of alternative management strategies for forest restoration and fuels management. Research areas are proving to be of great value for communicating comparative effects of treatments. Regional assessment of burn severities in recent wildfires indicates that burn severity was greatest in untreated areas. The most effective treatment to reduce burn severity was thinning smaller trees followed by intensive treatment of thinning debris either by removal or prescribed fire. This information guides forest fuels management in priority areas surrounding communities and for community wildfire protection planning under the Healthy Forests Restoration Act. Improved wildland fire models also provide managers with improved tools for planning community wildfire protection projects and wildfire risk assessments. Studies of insect, disease, and invasive species roles in forest health provide important tools to forest managers in developing forest health restoration, fuels management, and prescribed fire management programs.

Publications

  • Balice, R.G., Johnson, S.D., Graves, T.L., and Bennett, K.D. 2005. Modeling the risks of wildfire ignitions and early development. Los Alamos National Laboratory. Report LA-UR-05-3322.
  • Balice, Randy G., Koch, Steven W. 2004. A wildfire behavior modeling system at Los Alamos National Laboratory for operational applications. LA-14017. Los Alamos, NM: U.S. Department of Energy. 32pp.
  • Balice, Randy G., Johnson, Scot D., Bennett, Kathryn D., Graves, Todd L., Donald, Sunil, Broxton, Patrick D., and Chiu, Wai Fung. 2005. A preliminary probabilistic wildfire risk model for Los Alamos National Laboratory. Los Alamos National Laboratory Report LA-UR-05-3321. 38 pp.
  • Bickford, Christopher. 2005. Host physiological condition regulates parasitic plant performance: Arceuthobium vaginatum subsp. cryptopodum on Pinus ponderosa. Northern Arizona University: M.S. Thesis. 59 pp.
  • Bickford, Christopher P., Kolb, Thomas E., and Geils, Brian W. 2005. Host physiological condition regulates parasitic plant performance: Arceuthobium vginatum subsp. Cryptopodum on Pinus ponderosa. Oecologia 146: 179-189.
  • Boyle, Sarah I. 2002. Impact of ecological restoration on soil microbial communities in Pinus Ponderosa ecosystems in northern Arizona. Northern Arizona University: M.S. Thesis. 121 pp.
  • Boyle, Sarah I., Hart, Stephen C., Kaye, Jason P., and Waldrop, Mark P. 2005. Restoration and canopy type influence soil microflora in a ponderosa pine forest. Soil Science Society of America Journal 69: 1627-1638.
  • Breshears, David D., Cobb, Neil S., Rich, Paul M., Price, Kevin P., Allen, Craig D., Balice, Randy G., Romme, William H., Kastens, Jude H., Floyd, Lisa M., Belnap, Jayne, Anderson, Jesse J., Myers, Orrin B., and Meyer, Clifton W. 2005. Regional vegetation die-off in response to global-change-type drought. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 102: 15144-15148.
  • Condie, Gene W. 2005. Insects and pathogens on native spurges in northern Arizona: Potential native biocontrol agents for leafy spurge. University of Arizona: M.S. Thesis. 51 pp.
  • Dodge, Rita Suzanne. 2004. Dalmatian Toadflax (Linaria Dalmatica) response to wildfire and native species revegetation in ponderosa pine forest. Northern Arizona University: M.S. Thesis. 115 pp.
  • Faiella, Shawn M. 2005. Fire, fuel and structural dynamics in treated and untreated ponderosa pine forests of northern Arizona. Northern Arizona University. M.S. Thesis. 133 p.
  • Gardner, Shelley L., Oswald, Brian P., Farrish, Kenneth W., and Edminster, Carl. 2003. Community classification within three vegetative zones of the east side of the Jemez Mountains, New Mexico. The New Mexico Journal of Science 43: 25-39.
  • Geils, Brian W., compiler. 2004. Proceedings of the 51st Annual Western International Forest Disease Work Conference. 18-22 August 2003, Grants Pass, OR. 184 pp.
  • Goodwin, Karen. 2005. Modeling natural regeneration of ponderosa pine on the Coconino National Forest in Arizona. Northern Arizona University: Ph.D. Dissertation. 129 pp.
  • Hampton, Haydee M., Aumack, Ethan N., Prather, John W., Xu, Yaguang, Dickson, Brett G., and Sisk, Thomas D. 2005. Demonstration and test of a spatial decision support system for forest restoration planning. Pages 47-68 in van Riper, Charles and Madson, David J., eds. The Colorado Plateau II: Biophysical, Socio-economic, and Cultural Research. University of Arizona Press: Tucson, AZ.
  • Kearns, Holly S. 2005. White pine blister rust in the central Rocky Mountains: Modeling current status and potential impacts. Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO: Ph.D. Dissertation. 242 pp.
  • Koprowski, J.L., Alanen, M.I., and Lynch, A.M. 2005. Nowhere to run and nowhere to hide: Response of endemic Mt. Graham red squirrels to catastrophic forest damage. Biological Conservation 126: 491-498.
  • Landis, Andrew G., and Bailey, John D. 2005. Reconstruction of age structure and spatial arrangement of pinon-juniper woodlands and savannas of Anderson Mesa, northern Arizona. Forest Ecology and Management 204: 221-236.
  • Linn, Rodman, Winterkamp, Judith, Colman, Jonah J., Edminster, Carleton, and Bailey, John D. 2005. Modeling interactions between fire and atmosphere in discrete element fuel beds. International Journal of Wildland Fire 14: 37-48.
  • Linn, Rodman, and Cunningham, Philip. 2005. Numerical simulations of grass fires using a coupled atmosphere - fire model: Basic fire behavior and dependence on wind speed. Journal of Geophysical Research 110: 19 pp.
  • Loftin. Samuel R., and Balice, Randy G. 2005. Los Alamos National Laboratory wildland fire management program update 2005. LA-UR-05-6626. 14 pp.
  • McKelvey, Stephen R. 2004. Comparison of two methods of site index curve construction for white fir in the Southwest. Northern Arizona University: M.S. Thesis. 90 pp.
  • Olberding, Susan Deaver, Mitchell, John E., and Moore, Margaret M. 2005. "Doing the best we could with what we had": USFS range research in the Southwest. Society for Range Management June: 29-36.
  • Noon, B.R., and Dickson, B.G. 2004. Managing the wild: should stewards be pilots? Invited essay. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 2(9):496-497.
  • Saab, Victoria A., and Powell, Hugh D.W., editors. 2005. Fire and Avian Ecology in North America. Studies in Avian Biology No. 30. Cooper Ornithological Society. 193 pp.
  • Silva, Umberto S. 2004. Validation metric for wildfire modeling. New Mexico State University: M.S. Thesis. 72 pp.
  • Skov, Kjerstin R.; Kolb, Thomas E.; Wallin, Kimberly F. 2005. Difference in radial growth response to restoration thinning and burning treatments between young and old ponderosa pine in Arizona. Western Journal of Applied Forestry 20 (1): 36-43.
  • Wallin, K.F., Kolb, T.E., Skov, K.R., and Wagner, M.R. 2003. Effects of crown scorch on ponderosa pine resistance to bark beetles in northern Arizona. Environmental Entomology 32 (3): 652-661.
  • Wolfson, Barbara Satink. 2004. Effects of post-fire conditions on germination and seedling success of Centaurea diffusa in northern Arizona. Northern Arizona University: M.S. Thesis. 95 p.
  • Wolfson, B.A.S., Kolb, T.E., Sieg, C.H., and Clancy, K.M. 2005. Effects of post-fire conditions on germination and seedling success of diffuse knapweed in northern Arizona. Forest Ecology and Management 216: 342-358.
  • Zausen, Gregory L. 2005. Long-term effects of thinning and prescribed burning on ponderosa pine water stress and bark beetle resistance in northern Arizona. Northern Arizona University: M.S. Thesis. 82 pp.
  • Zausen, G.L., Kolb, T.E., Bailey, J.D., Wagner, M.R. 2005. Long-term impacts of stand management on ponderosa pine physiology and bark beetle abundance in northern Arizona: A replicated landscape study. Forest Ecology and Management 218: 291-305.


Progress 07/01/97 to 01/07/05

Outputs
OUTPUTS: This project has been terminated. This research of this particular problem will continue in RMRS Project 4157-3

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications


    Progress 10/01/03 to 09/30/04

    Outputs
    Treatments on areas for study of the effects of uneven-aged forest management methods that restore stand structure and provide effective fuels management in Southwestern ponderosa pine have been completed on the Coconino and Kaibab National Forests. These operational fuels management research areas are part of the national study of the Consequences of Fire and Fire Surrogate Treatments supported in part by the Joint Fire Science Program and implemented by the National Forests and Southwest Fire Use Training Academy. Improved predictive models of fire behavior are being developed in collaboration with Los Alamos National Laboratory to support forest fuels reduction activities, wildfire mitigation efforts, and planning for prescribed burns. The FIRETEC model combines physics models that represent combustion, heat transfer, aerodynamic drag, and turbulence with a computational fluid-dynamics model that represents airflow and interaction with terrain and different vegetation fuels. The western spruce budworm is the most important insect defoliator of Douglas-fir causing growth loss and even death of the tree. Induced susceptibility whereby budworm defoliation alters foliar nutrients that makes trees more favorable for insect feeding has been experimentally demonstrated. Results indicate that susceptible Douglas-fir trees become a better source of food for budworm caterpillars with consecutive years of defoliation, but resistant trees do not. A synthesis of published scientific literature provides guidelines for measurements that are most useful in predicting whether or not trees will survive following wildfire or prescribed burning. Measuring the percentage of a tree's crown that was scorched or consumed, known as crown scorch volume, was the most effective and most popular technique in predicting mortality following fire for ponderosa pine and Douglas-fir species. Accurate and efficient techniques for measuring damage to cambium and roots are harder to identify and are being studied in replicated experiments. High elevation forests in the Southwest are threatened by a multitude of insect outbreaks. Engelmann spruce and corkbark fir forests throughout Arizona and New Mexico, have incurred outbreaks of spruce beetle, western balsam bark beetle, Geometrid defoliators, and spruce aphid. These insect outbreaks for the most part are natural disturbance agents along with stand-replacing fire events. Spruce aphid is an exotic insect that may disrupt the natural disturbance regimes in the high elevation forests, threatening the persistence of Engelmann spruce in forests of the interior West. Since 1995, there have been four spruce aphid outbreaks in five mountain ranges in the Southwest, two of which each damaged over 150,0000 acres. A guide to the genus Ribes (currants) in the Southwest and the rust fungi that infect them, including diagnostic vegetative features and their geographical and ecological distribution has been published as a tool in evaluating blister rust hazard for ecologically important white pines.

    Impacts
    Results of studies provide critically needed information for the planning, analysis, implementation, and monitoring of alternative management strategies for forest restoration and fuels management. Research areas are proving to be of great value for communicating comparative effects of treatments. Regional assessment of burn severities in recent wildfires indicates that burn severity was greatest in untreated areas. The most effective treatment to reduce burn severity was thinning smaller trees followed by intensive treatment of thinning debris either by removal or prescribed fire. This information guides forest fuels management in priority areas surrounding communities and for community wildfire protection planning under the Healthy Forests Restoration Act. Improved wildland fire models also provide managers with improved tools for planning community wildfire protection projects. Studies of insect and disease roles in forest health provide important tools to forest managers in: 1) selecting naturally genetically resistant trees to spruce budworm defoliation to provide the next generation of seedlings to produce healthier future forests; 2) understanding exotic spruce aphid population dynamics and damage to evaluate impacts on disturbance regimes in high elevation forests of the Southwest to assess effects on timber and recreation resources, predict effects on habitats of threatened and endangered species, and prescribe treatments for promoting forest health; 3) evaluating blister rust hazard to ecologically important white pines from associated Ribes.

    Publications

    • Steed, Brytten E.; Wagner, Michael R. 2004. Importance of log size on host selection and reproductive success of Ips pini (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in ponderosa pine slash of northern Arizona and western Montana. Forest Entomology 97 (2): 436-450.
    • Van Arsdel, Eugene P.; Geils, Brian W. 2004. The Ribes of Colorado and New Mexico and their rust fungi. Report FHTET 04-13. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Health Technology Enterprise Team. 32 pp.
    • Wallin, Kimberly F.; Kolb, Thomas E.; Skov, Kjerstin R.; Wagner, Michael R. 2004. Seven-year results of thinning and burning restoration treatments on old ponderosa pines at the Gus Pearson Natural Area. Restoration Ecology 12 (2): 239-247.
    • Webb, M. Diana; Balice, Randy G. 2004. A real-time wildfire model for Los Alamos, New Mexico. Int. J. Technology Transfer and Commercialisation 3(2): 226-242.
    • Wienk, Cody L; Hull Sieg, Carolyn; McPherson, Guy R. 2004. Evaluating the role of cutting treatments, fire and soil seed banks in an experimental framework in ponderosa pine forests of the Black Hills, South Dakota. Forest Ecology and Management 192: 375-393.
    • Gottfried, Gerald J.; Ffolliott, Peter F.; DeBano, Leonard F. 2002 [2003] Forest watershed management in the southwestern United States. Annals of Arid Zone. 40 (3/4): 279-303.
    • Gottfried, Gerald J.; Neary, Daniel G. 2003. Preliminary assessment of sediment measurements at the weir basins at Workman Creek, central Arizona. Hydrology and Water Resources in Arizona and the Southwest 33: 103-111.
    • Gottfried, Gerald J.; Neary, Daniel G.; Ffolliott, Peter F. Snowpack-runoff relationships for forested mid-elevation watersheds and a high-elevation watershed in Arizona. In: Elder, K.., ed. Proceedings of the 71st Western Snow Conference; 2003 April 21-24; Scottsdale, AZ. Western Snow Conference: 49-58.
    • Gottfried, Gerald J.; Neary, Daniel G.; Baker, Malchus B., Jr.; Ffolliott, Peter F. 2003 Impacts of wildfires on hydrologic processes in forest ecosystems: two case studies. In: Proceedings of the First Interagency Conference on Research on the Watersheds. Benson, AZ; 2003 October 27-30.Tucson, AZ: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service: 668-673.
    • Jemison, Roy; Gottfried, Gerald J. 2003. Compilers. Hydrology and Water resources in Arizona and the Southwest. Vol. 33. 120 p.
    • Kearns, H.S.J.; Jocobi, W.R.; Sullivan, K.; Geils, B.W. 2004. Is the alternate host for white pine blister rust present in Colorado: In: Geils, B.W., comp. Proceedings of the 51st Western International Forest Disease Work Conference; 2003 August 18-22; Grants Pass, OR. Flagstaff, AZ: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station: 71-72.
    • Mooney, Kailen A. 2001. The life history of Dasypyga Alternosquamella Ragonot (Pyralidae) feeding on the southwestern dwarf mistletoe (Atceuthobium vaginatum) in Colorado. Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 55 (4): 140-143.
    • Mooney, Kailen A. 2002. Quantifying avian habitat use in forests using track-plates. Journal of Field Ornithology 73 (4): 392-398.
    • Mooney, Kailen A. 2003. Promylea Lunigerella Glendella Dyar (Pyralidae) feeds on both conifers and parasitic dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium spp.): one example of food plant shifting between parasitic plants and their hosts. Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 57 (1): 47-53.
    • Moore, Margaret M.; Huffman, David W.; Fule, Peter F.; Covington, W. Wallace; Crouse, Joseph E. 2004. Comparison of historical and contemporary forest structure and composition on permanent plots in southwestern ponderosa pine forests. Forest Science 50 (2): 162-176.
    • Muir, John A.; Robinson, Donald C.E.; Geils, Brian W. 2004. Characterizing the effects of dwarf mistletoe and other diseases for sustainable forest management. BC Journal of Ecosystems and Management 3 (2): 1-7.
    • Bataineh, Mohammad M. 2004. Community classification in the Davis Mountains sky islands: Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws) and adjacent communities. Stephen F. Austin State University: M.S. Thesis. 71pp.
    • Beatty, Jerome S.; Mathiasen, Robert L. 2003. Dwarf mistletoes of ponderosa pine. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service Forest Insect & Disease Leaflet 40. 8 pp.
    • Clancy, Karen M.; Chen, Zhong; Kolb, Thomas E. 2004. Foliar nutrients and induced susceptibility: genetic mechanisms of Douglas-fir resistance to western spruce budworm defoliation. Can. J. For. Res. 34: 939-949.
    • Converse, Sarah J.; Dickson, Brett G.; White, Gary C.; Block, William M. 2004. Estimating small mammal abundance on fuels treatment units in southwestern ponderosa pine forests. In: van Riper III, C., Cole, K.L., eds. The Colorado Plateau: Cultural, Biological, and Physical Research. Tucson, AZ: The University of Arizona Press. 113-120 p.
    • Crisp, Debra L. 2004. Survival and recruitment of bull thistle (Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Tenore) after pile burning and litter removal. Northern Arizona University: M.S. Thesis. 86 pp.
    • Neary, Daniel G.; Gottfried, Gerald J.; Ffolliott, Peter F.; DeBano, Leonard F.; Baker, Malchus B., Jr. 2003. Forest Service watershed management research in the Southwest. First Interagency Conference on Research on the Watersheds: In: Proceedings of the First Interagency Conference on Research on the Watersheds. Benson, AZ; 2003 October 27-30.Tucson, AZ: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service: 286-291.
    • Neary, Daniel G.; Ffolliott, Peter F.; Gottfried, Gerald J. 2003. Post-wildfire peak flows in Arizona montane forests: some case studies. Hydrology and Water Resources in Arizona and the Southwest 33: 99-102.
    • Neary, Daniel G.; Gottfried, Gerald J.; Ffolliott, Peter F. 2003. Post-wildfire watershed flood responses. 2nd International Wildland Fire Ecology and Fire Management Congress and 5th Symposium on Fire and Forest Meteorology. Orlando, FL; 2003 November 16-20. 7 pp. (CD-ROM).
    • Oswald, Brian P.; Bataineh, Mohammad; Rountree, Amanda. 2004. First record of Clitoria Mariana (Leguminosae) in western Texas. SIDA 21 (1): 507-508.
    • Parker, Thomas J; Mathiasen, Robert L. 2004. A comparison of rating systems for dwarf mistletoe-induced witches' brooms in ponderosa pine. Western Journal of Applied Forestry 19 (1): 1-6.
    • Rountree, Amanda L. 2004. Plant community changes 30 years after a wildfire in a northern Arizona ponderosa pine forest. M.S. Thesis, Stephen F. Austin State University, Nacogdoches, TX.
    • Shaw, David C.; Watson, David M.; Mathiasen, Robert L. 2004 Comparison of dwarf mistletoes (Arceuthobium spp., Viscaceae) in the western United States with mistletoes (Amyema spp., Loranthaceae) in Australia - ecological analogs and reciprocal models for ecosystem management. Australian Journal of Botany 52: 481-498.
    • Skov, Kjerstin R.; Kolb, Thomas E.; Wallin, Kimberly F. 2004. Tree size and drought affect ponderosa pine physiological response to thinning and burning treatments. Forest Science 50 (1): 81-91.
    • Dickson, Brett G.; Block, William M.; Sisk, Thomas D. 2004. Conceptual framework for studying the effects of fuels treatments on avian communities in ponderosa pine forests of northern Arizona. In: van Riper III, C., Cole, K.L., eds. The Colorado Plateau: Cultural, Biological, and Physical Research. Tucson, AZ: The University of Arizona Press. 193-200 p.
    • Ecological Restoration Institute. 2004. Controlling invasive species as part of restoration treatments. Working Papers in Southwestern Ponderosa Pine Forest Restoration. No. 8. Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ. 5 pp.
    • Ffolliott, Peter F.; Gottfried, Gerald J. 2003. Contributions of snow research of forested watershed management in the southwestern United States. In: McGurk, B., ed. Proceedings of the 71st Western Snow Conference, 2003 April 21-24, Scottsdale, AZ. 29-38 p.
    • Fowler, James F.; Sieg, Carolyn Hull. 2004. Postfire mortality of ponderosa pine and Douglas-fir: a review of methods to predict tree death. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-132. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. 25 pp.
    • Frank, Katrina L. 2003. Meteorological factors in the long range transport of white pine blister rust in the western United States. University of Delaware: Ph.D. Dissertation. 88 pp.
    • Frank, Katrina L; Kalkstein, Laurence S.; Geils, Brian W.; Thistle, Harold; Van Arsdel, Eugene P. 2004. Could white pine blister rust spread by atmospheric transport from California to New Mexico? In: Geils, B.W., comp. Proceedings of the 51st Western International Forest Disease Work Conference; 2003 August 18-22; Grants Pass, OR. Flagstaff, AZ: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station: 63-65.
    • Garnett, Gregg N.; Mathiasen, Robert L.; Chambers, Carol L. 2004. A comparison of wildlife use in broomed and unbroomed ponderosa pine trees in northern Arizona. Western Journal of Applied Forestry 19 (1): 42-46.
    • Geils, Brian W. 2004. How blister rust spreads. Nutcracker Notes: Whitebark Pine Ecosystem Foundation. Spring/Summer 2004 (6): 7-12.
    • Korb, Julie E.; Covington, W.W.; Fule, Peter Z. 2003. Sampling techniques influence understory plant trajectories after restoration: An example from ponderosa pine restoration. Restoration Ecology 11 (4): 504-515.
    • Lynch, Ann M. 2004. Fate and characteristics of Picea damaged by Elatobium abietinum (Walker) (Homoptera: Aphididae) in the White Mountains of Arizona. Western North American Naturalist 64 (1): 7-17.


    Progress 10/01/02 to 09/30/03

    Outputs
    Pre-treatment sampling has been completed and post-treatment sampling has been completed or is underway for several studies of various restoration and fuels management alternatives implemented on research and demonstration project areas in Arizona and New Mexico. Results show significant reductions tree densities and shifts in size distributions toward larger trees. Understory productivity is often reduced in the very near term after thinning and burning treatments are implemented, but productivity generally increases within a year after treatment. In some cases significant increases in invasive species result in the short-term and are an important component in post-treatment monitoring. All thinning treatments substantially reduced the predicted potential for passive and active crown fires. A regional assessment of previously treated areas and their resilience to wildfire disturbance demonstrates the importance of complete treatment including thinning and resulting thinning debris. Prompt treatment of slash fuels increases is required either with prescribed fire or by mechanical means. Multi-disciplinary pre-treatment sampling has been continued on study sites in Arizona and New Mexico study sites for the national network of Fire and Fire Surrogate Treatments study. A smaller scale parallel study is underway in pinyon-juniper stands in north central Arizona. Thinning treatments have been completed and prescribed burning treatments are well underway. The Lakes Fire destroyed one ponderosa pine study area on the Santa Fe National Forest, but that study area is now part of the rapid response initiative supported in part by the Joint Fire Science Program to examine post-wildfire effects in areas where a significant amount of information is available on pre-fire conditions. Statistical tools have been developed to evaluate the relationships between observed fire effects and characteristics identifiable in pre-fire multispectral and terrain data. The FIRETEC model, a physics-based simulation tool of coupled atmospheric and wildfire behavior being developed through collaboration of Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Forest Service, represents a significant advancement in exploring and understanding the effects and interactions of complex physical and environmental conditions on fire behavior and fire effects in forested ecosystems in the Southwest.

    Impacts
    Results are providing critically needed information for the planning, analysis, implementation, and monitoring of alternative management strategies. The regional assessment of burn severities in recent wildfires, examining areas that received previous fuels management and thinning treatments to determine the most effective, indicates burn severity was greatest in untreated areas. The most effective treatment was a thinning of smaller trees followed by intensive treatment of thinning debris either by removal or prescribed fire. Results emphasize the need for a complete fuels management treatment, thinning plus timely debris treatment. Information is being used in implementing forest fuels management in priority areas surrounding communities and other developments. Advantages of the FIRETEC model as a research tool include, simulation of the physical processes involved in wildland fire, flexibility to be used at various scales from groups of trees to landscapes, and integral formulation of the interactions of fire, complex living and dead fuels, atmosphere, and topography. The level of resolution embodied in the FIRETEC model allows research and development in wildfire mitigation strategies to be conducted at a level of detail in time and space not available in existing operational models. Methods for automated classification of Landsat TM and ETM pre-fire and post-fire data provide more cost-effective and accurate information on fire perimeter, burn severity, and vegetation mortality to guide site rehabilitation efforts especially in areas of high environmental values.

    Publications

    • Hornbeck, J.H.; Reyher, D.J.; Sieg, C.H.; Cook, Reed W. 2003. Conservation assessment for groundcedar and stiff clubmoss in the Black Hills National Forest, South Dakota and Wyoming. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Region, Black Hills National Forest, Custer, SD. 39 p. Available at http://www.fs.fed.us/r2/blackhills/projects/planning/assessments/grou ndcedar_clubmoss.pdf
    • Hornbeck, J.H.; Reyher, D.J.; Sieg, C.H.; Cook, Reed W. 2003. Conservation assessment for southern maidenhair fern and stream orchid in the Black Hills National Forest, South Dakota and Wyoming. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Region, Black Hills National Forest, Custer, SD. 45 p. Available at http://www.fs.fed.us/r2/blackhills/projects/planning/assessments/maid enhair_orchid.pdf
    • Kirby, Donald R.; Lym, Rodney G.; Sterling, John J.; Sieg, Carolyn Hull. 2003. Observation: leafy spurge control in western prairie fringed orchid habitat. Journal of Range Management 56: 466-473.
    • Linn, Rodman; Reisner, Jon; Colman, Jonah J.; Winterkamp, Judith. 2002. Studying wildfire behavior using FIRETEC. International Journal of Wildland Fire 11: 233-246.
    • Linn, Rodman R.; Reisner, Jon M.; Winterkamp, Judith L.; Edminster, Carl. 2002. Utility of a physics-based wildfire model such as FIRETEC. In: Viegas, D. X., ed. Forest Fire Research and Wildland Fire Safety: Proceedings of the IV International Conference on Forest Fire Research; Luso Coimbra, Portugal; 2002 November 18-23. Millpress, Rotterdam, Netherlands: p. 101, CD-ROM 7 p.
    • McKown, Brad; Koch, Steven W.; Balice, Randy G.; Neville, Paul. 2003. Land cover map for the eastern Jemez region. LA-14029. Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM. 92 p. Available on CD-ROM.
    • Medler, Michael J.; Ofren, Roy. 2002. Evaluating the relationships between fire induced canopy mortality and pre-fire multispectral patterns. Geocarto International 16: 81-88.
    • Miller, Jay D.; Nyhan, John W.; Yool, Stephen R. 2003. Modeling potential erosion due to the Cerro Grande Fire with a GIS-based implementation of the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation. International Journal of Wildland Fire 12: 85-100.
    • Neary, Daniel G.; Gottfried, Gerald J. 2002. Fires and floods: post-fire watershed responses. In: Viegas, D. X., ed. Forest Fire Research and Wildland Fire Safety: Proceedings of the IV International Conference on Forest Fire Research; Luso Coimbra, Portugal; 2002 November 18-23. Millpress, Rotterdam, Netherlands: p. 203, CD-ROM 7 p.
    • Neary Daniel G.; Gottfried, Gerald J.; DeBano, Leonard F.; Tecle, Aregai. 2003. Impacts of fire on watershed resources. Journal of the Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science 35:23-41.
    • Baker, Malchus B., Jr.; Ffolliott, Peter F.; Neary, Daniel G.; Gottfried, Gerald J. 2003. Contributions of watershed research to supply in the Colorado River Basin. In: Watershed Management for Water Supply Systems: AWRA 2003 International Congress. 2003 June 29-July 2; New York, NY. Washington, DC: American Water Resources Association. CR-ROM 6 p.
    • Bressler, Eddy. 2003. Genetic structure and variation of isolated Douglas-fir populations in southwestern North America and northern Mexico. Northern Arizona University. M.S. Thesis. 95 p.
    • Brown, Peter M. 2003. Fire, climate, and forest structure in ponderosa pine forests of the Black Hills. Dissertation. Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO. 103 p.
    • Flather, C.H.; Sieg, C.H.; Knowles, M.S.; McNees, J. 2003. Criterion 1: Conservation of biological diversity. Indicator 8: The number of forest dependent species that occupy a small portion of their former range. In: Darr, D., compiler. Technical document supporting the 2003 national report on sustainable forests. USDA Forest Service, Washington, DC: 19 p. Available at http://www.fs.fed.us/research/sustain/
    • Gottfried, Gerald J.; Ffolliott, Peter F.; Baker, Malchus B., Jr. 2003. Assessing long-term changes in Arizona forests and woodlands using historical data. In: Forests at Work: Proceedings of the Society of American Foresters 2002 National Convention: 2002 October 5-9; Winston-Salem, NC. Bethesda, MD: Society of American Foresters. p. 286-291.
    • Gottfried, Gerald J.; Neary, Daniel G. 2002. Hydrology of the Upper Parker Creek Watershed, Sierra Ancha Mountains, Arizona. Hydrology and Water Resources in Arizona and the Southwest. 32:5-18.
    • Sieg, C.H.; Flather, C.H.; Barstatis, N.; Knowles, M.S. 2003. Criterion 1: Conservation of biological diversity. Indicator 9: Population levels of representative species from diverse habitats monitored across their range. In: Darr, D., compiler. Technical document supporting the 2003 national report on sustainable forests. USDA Forest Service, Washington, DC: 62 p. Available at http://www.fs.fed.us/research/sustain/
    • Sieg, C. H.; King, R. M.; Van Dyke, F. 2003. Exercise 12. Creating a stage- based deterministic PVA model - the western prairie fringed orchid. In: F. Van Dyke and contributors. A workbook of practical exercises in conservation biology. McGraw Hill, New York. p. 91-99.
    • Flather, C.H.; Ricketts, T. H.; Sieg, C.H.; Knowles, M.S.; Fay, J.P.; McNees, J. 2003. Criterion 1: Conservation of biological diversity. Indicator 6: The number of forest dependent species. In: Darr, D., compiler. Technical document supporting the 2003 national report on sustainable forests. USDA Forest Service, Washington, DC: 32 p. Available at http://www.fs.fed.us/research/sustain/
    • Flather, C.H.; Ricketts, T.H.; Sieg, C.H.; Knowles, M.S.; Fay, J.P. 2003. Criterion 1: Conservation of biological diversity. Indicator 7: The status (threatened, rare, vulnerable, endangered, or extinct) of forest dependent species at risk of not maintaining viable breeding populations, as determined by legislation or scientific assessment. In: Darr, D., compiler. Technical document supporting the 2003 national report on sustainable forests. USDA Forest Service, Washington, DC: 27 p. Available at http://www.fs.fed.us/research/sustain/
    • Hornbeck, J.H.; Sieg, C. H.; Reyher, D. J. 2003. Conservation assessment for bloodroot in the Black Hills National Forest, South Dakota and Wyoming. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Region, Black Hills National Forest, Custer, SD. 38 p. Available at http://www.fs.fed.us/r2/blackhills/projects/planning/assessments/bloo droot.pdf
    • Hornbeck, J.H.; Sieg, C.H.; Reyher, D.J. 2003. Conservation assessment for autumn willow in the Black Hills National Forest, South Dakota and Wyoming. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Region, Black Hills National Forest, Custer, SD. 42 p. Available at http://www.fs.fed.us/r2/blackhills/projects/planning/assessments/autu mn_willow.pdf
    • Hornbeck, J.H.; Sieg, C.H.; Reyher, D.J. 2003. Conservation assessment for great-spurred violet in the Black Hills National Forest, South Dakota and Wyoming. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Region, Black Hills National Forest, Custer, SD. 33 p. Available at http://www.fs.fed.us/r2/blackhills/projects/planning/assessments/grea t_spurred_violet.pdf
    • Sieg, C. H.; King, R. M.; Van Dyke, F. 2003. Exercise 13. The concept and use of elasticity in population viability analysis. In: F. Van Dyke and contributors. A workbook of practical exercises in conservation biology. McGraw Hill, New York. p. 101-108.
    • Sieg, C. H.; King, R. M.; Van Dyke, F. 2003. Exercise 14. Using stochastic models to incorporate spatial and temporal variability. In: F. Van Dyke and contributors. A workbook of practical exercises in conservation biology. McGraw Hill, New York. p. 109-113.
    • Sieg, C. H.; King, R. M.; Van Dyke, F. 2003. Exercise 15. Conservation and management issues and applications in population viability analysis. In: F. Van Dyke and contributors. A workbook of practical exercises in conservation biology. McGraw Hill, New York. p. 115-122.
    • Sieg, C. H.; Phillips, B.; Moser, L. 2003. Exotic and Noxious Plants. In: Friederici, P., ed. Restoration Handbook for Southwestern Ponderosa Pine Forests. Island Press, Washington, D.C. p. 251-267.
    • Tecle, Aregai; Ffolliott, Peter F.; Baker, Malchus B., Jr.; DeBano, Leonard F.; Neary, Daniel G.; Gottfried, Gerald J. 2003. Future outlook of watershed management. Journal of the Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science. 35:81-87.


    Progress 10/01/01 to 09/30/02

    Outputs
    Pre-treatment and post-treatment sampling has been completed for several studies of various restoration and fuels management alternatives implemented on research and demonstration project areas. Results show significant reductions tree densities and shifts in size distributions toward larger trees with a more generally unimodal normal size distribution. Understory productivity has increased, but in some cases with significant increases in invasive species in the short-term. All thinning treatments substantially reduce the predicted potential for passive and active crown fires. Prompt treatment of slash fuels increases is required either with prescribed fire or by mechanical means. Genetic investigations of overstory treatments suggest that clumpy spatial structure of old and younger residual trees should be maintained and an emphasis should be placed on maintaining and promoting age diversity in residual stands. Also, multi-disciplinary pre-treatment sampling has been continued through a year of extreme drought on study sites in Arizona and New Mexico for the national network of Fire and Fire Surrogate Treatments study. A parallel study is being established in pinyon-juniper stands. Treatments were delayed due to extreme fire danger conditions during the 2002 field season and the need to accomplish treatments through service contracts after timber sales proved economically unfeasible. The Lakes Fire destroyed one study area on the Santa Fe National Forest. Long-term studies of stand dynamics of pinyon-juniper woodlands indicate an average increase in density of over one tree per acre per year and significant increases in tree canopy cover and height. Effects of fire and of rehabilitation treatments in the Cerro Grande Fire are being studied in a network of permanent plots established before the fire. Results thus far show straw mulch cover is frequently greater than 25 percent, seeded grasses have approximated pre-fire understory vegetation cover, seeded grasses may be competing with native grasses, serious soil pedestaling and micro-site erosion was evident in high severity burn conditions. Methods for automated classification of Landsat TM and ETM pre-fire and post-fire data provide more cost-effective and accurate information on fire perimeter, burn severity, and vegetation mortality to guide site rehabilitation efforts, especially in areas of environmental values.

    Impacts
    (N/A)

    Publications

    • Gottfried, Gerald J. 2002. Management of the pinyon-juniper woodlands of the southwestern United States. In: Frochot, H.; Collet, C.; Balandier, P., compilers. Popular summaries from the fourth international conference on forest vegetation management; 2002 June 07-21; Nancy. France. Champenoux, France: Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique: 130-132.
    • Gottfried, Gerald J.; Ffolliott, Peter F.; Baker Jr, Malchus B. 2002. Assessing long-term stand change in Arizona using historical inventory data. In: Forestry at the great divide: Proceedings of the Society of American Foresters 2001 national convention; 2001 September 13-17; Denver, CO, USA. Bethesda, MD/USA: Society of American Foresters: 380-385.
    • Gottfried, Gerald J.; Neary, Daniel G.; Ffolliott, Peter F. 2002. Snowpack-runoff relationships for mid-elevation snowpacks on the Workman Creek watersheds of central Arizona. Res. Pap. RMRS-RP-33. Fort Collins, CO/USA: U. S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station: 9 p.
    • Hof, J.; Sieg, C. H.; Bevers, M. 2002. Topography-based dispersal: habitat location for the western prairie fringed orchid. In: Hof, J.; Bevers, M. eds., Spatial optimization in ecological applications. New York, NY/USA: Columbia University Press: 125-141.
    • Balice, Randy G.; Koch, Steven W.; Loftin, Sam; Nyhan, Jack; Valerio, Patrick; Fenton, George H. 2002. A wildfire behavior model for the Los Alamos region and an evaluation of options for mitigating fire hazards. In: Technology Development, Evaluation, and Application FY2000 Progress Report LA-13901-PR. Los Alamos, NM/USA: Los Alamos National Laboratory, Environment, Safety and Health Division: 4-7.
    • Ffolliott, Peter F.; Baker Jr., Malchus B.; Edminster, Carleton B.; Dillon, Madelyn C.; Mora, Karen L., eds. 2001. Land stewardship through watershed management: Perspectives for the 21st Century. New York, NY: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers: 137 p.
    • Ffolliott, Peter F.; Gottfried, Gerald J. 2002. Dynamics of a pinyon-juniper stand in northern Arizona: a half-century history. Res. Pap. RMRS-RP-35. Fort Collins, CO/USA: U. S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station: 10 p.
    • Garnett, Gregg N. 2002. Wildlife use of witches' brooms induced by dwarf mistletoe in ponderosa pine forests of northern Arizona. Northern Arizona University: M.S. Thesis. 75 p.
    • Kolanoski, Kristin M. 2002. Genetic variation of ponderosa pine in northern Arizona: implications for restoration. Northern Arizona University: M.S. Thesis. 147 p.
    • Martinez, Gabriel B. 2002. Influence of residential development on breeding birds in ponderosa pine forests of northern Arizona. University of Arizona: M.S. Thesis. 63 p.
    • Miller, Jay D.; Yool, Stephen R. 2002. Mapping forest post-fire canopy consumption in several overstory types using multi-temporal Landsat TM and ETM data. Remote Sensing of Environment. Volume 82(October): 481-496.
    • Parker, Thomas J. 2001. Bird communities in dwarf mistletoe infested ponderosa pine forests. Northern Arizona University: M.S. Thesis. 90 p.
    • Soeth, James R. 2002. Environmental effects of prescribed burning with case studies from the Pleasant Valley Ranger District. LaSalle University: Ph.D. Dissertation. 272 p.