Source: NORTH DAKOTA STATE UNIV submitted to
BREEDING AND GENETICS OF FLAX
Sponsoring Institution
National Institute of Food and Agriculture
Project Status
TERMINATED
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
0195652
Grant No.
(N/A)
Project No.
ND01515
Proposal No.
(N/A)
Multistate No.
(N/A)
Program Code
(N/A)
Project Start Date
Mar 3, 2003
Project End Date
Sep 30, 2008
Grant Year
(N/A)
Project Director
Hammond, J. J.
Recipient Organization
NORTH DAKOTA STATE UNIV
(N/A)
FARGO,ND 58105
Performing Department
PLANT SCIENCES
Non Technical Summary
ND produces over 90% of the flaxseed in the USA. The value of the flaxseed crop in ND is estimated at $45M/year. In recent years, the US has been a net importer of flaxseed. At present, the only flax breeding and genetics program in the US is at the N.D. Agricultural Experiment Station. The value and markets for flaxseed as a healthy food continues to develop. A recent news release indicated that a major baby food manufacturer will be adding an enriched Omega-3 product. Research with flaxseed as a feed for beef animals has generated renewed interest recently.
Animal Health Component
100%
Research Effort Categories
Basic
(N/A)
Applied
100%
Developmental
(N/A)
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
2031842108090%
2121842108010%
Goals / Objectives
1. Develop and evaluate genetic material to improve yield potential while maintaining resistance to pests, maintaining oil content and oil quality and maintaining other agronomic characteristics for potential cultivars. 2. Develop and maintain populations with useful genetic variability.
Project Methods
The primary objective is to develop and evaluate genetic material to improve yield potential while maintaining resistance to pests, maintaining oil content and oil quality and maintaining other agronomic characteristics for potential cultivars. Since producers have historically planted later than would be expected to produce greatest yields, a part of the breeding effort will be devoted to evaluation at a delayed seeding date. With the interest in flax as a human food, a minor effort will continue to evaluate material with a yellow seed coat color which is preferred for "eye appeal". Goals are to develop flax cultivars with desirable agronomic characteristics; seed yielding ability; quantity and quality of oil; tolerance to wilt and pasmo; and resistance to known North American races of rust. The breeding program will be divided into two major parts: 1) rust resistance for two genes conditioning resistance (M3 P3), and 2) use of other genes for resistance (either as one gene or multiple). The two parts would require different groups of crosses. In addition, a minor effort will be to continue to evaluate golden (yellow-seeded) flax as preferred in the human food market. Most of the breeding program will follow a pedigree breeding scheme (Kenaschuk, 1975).

Progress 03/03/03 to 09/30/08

Outputs
OUTPUTS: The regional flax nursery was seeded at six locations in ND, with both early and late seeding at Fargo, for yield and other agronomic evaluations. A nursery was planted on historic 'Plot 30' for wilt tolerance. PVP application was completed and submitted for 'Carter'. Initial review required a rewrite and was resubmitted in 2006. No follow up requests were made in 2007. The PVP application was finalized and awarded in 2008. In 1998 the USDA-ARS discontinued research in flax, regional responsibility for coordinating an advance variety trial for the North Central Region (including Canada) was transferred to my leadership. In 2008 only North Dakota, one location in South Dakota and one location at Morden, Manitoba were seeded. In the near future a discussion must occur on the plans for the future of regional testing. A new program to evaluate the potential of increasing the ALA content of flaxseed has been initiated. Limited funds were obtained to initiate crossing in the greenhouse 2005-2006. Additional crosses were made in the field in 2006. Generation advance and additional crossing were made in 2007. Additional funds were obtained from SBARE to continue evaluation of high ALA materials in 2008. SDSU requested to grow the regional nursery again in 2008 after stopping flax evaluation in 2007. Since 2002 the project has released 3 cultivars (Nekoma and York in 2002 and Carter in 2004). Carter was the first cultivar from the ND program to seek PVP which was finalized in 2008. PARTICIPANTS: James Hammond (PI) Lyle Lindberg (support - now retired) TARGET AUDIENCES: Citizens of ND, Flax growers, ND oilseed council, Flax Institute of the United States, Oil processors represent the target audiences of the project. Efforts are made to increase the awareness of the unique properties of flax and flaxseed products with web pages and personal interaction in person, email, phone calls and surface mail. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Not relevant to this project.

Impacts
Activities: Ten location-date of seeding trials were established in 2008 in the upper Midwest as part of the continuing regional testing. Growing and harvest conditions in ND prevented trials at Carrington and late seeded at Fargo from being harvested. Other trials were analyzed for yield, plant height, flowering date, maturity, lodging, wilt tolerance, rust resistance, pasmo tolerance, oil content, and fatty acid distribution. Events: No requests were made for participation in field days, workshops, or training. Service: Numerous email, phone calls, and surface mail requests were answered for flax as a healthy food. This was inn addition to the normal request by producers for information on the selection of varieties and other production practices. Products: Plant breeding is a long-term effort. No new varieties were released in 2008. The Flax Institute web site (http://www.ndsu.nodak.edu/flaxinst/) is continually updated. The 2008 Flax Institute was hosted in Fargo, ND March 26-28. The 2010 Flax Institute is in the planning stage. J.J. Hammond was elected president and Hans Kandel Vice President of the Flax Institute of United States. Dr. J.F Carter has retired after serving 30 years as President of the institute. Impact: North Dakota is the primary production area for flax in the United States. This project has developed flax varieties that are higher yielding with disease resistance, high oil content, and high linolenic acid content. The demand for flax seed is increasing. Production of flax in North Dakota appears to be stabilizing at about 750,000 acres. Great interest in flax as a healthy food continues nationally and internationally.

Publications

  • Hammond, J. J. 2008. Cooperative flax trials in the spring flax region 2007. Plant Sciences Dept., NDSU and SDSU Fargo, ND and Brookings, SD.
  • Hammond, J.J. and Carena, M.. 2008. A Breeding Plan for Molecular Markers. CSSA abstract 658-8 (CD-ROM).
  • Nelson, Heather H., Longpacker, Jennifer L., Christensen, Brock, McClean, Michael D., Hammond, J.J., Marsit, Carmen, Bueno, Raphael, Sugarbaker, David, and Kelsey, Karl T. 2008. Chromosome Xq27 harbors a mesothelioma susceptibility locus associated with patient survival. International Mesothelioma Interest Group International Conference, Sept 25-27.


Progress 10/01/06 to 09/30/07

Outputs
OUTPUTS: The regional flax nursery was seeded at six locations in ND, with both early and late seeding at Fargo, for yield and other agronomic evaluations. A nursery was planted on historic 'Plot 30' for wilt tolerance. PVP application was completed and submitted for 'Carter'. Initial review required a rewrite and was resubmitted in 2006. No follow up requests were made in 2007. In 1998 the USDA-ARS discontinued research in flax, regional responsibility for coordinating an advance variety trial for the North Central Region (including Canada) was transferred to my leadership. In 2007 only North Dakota and one location at Morden, Manitoba were seeded. In the near future a discussion must occur on the plans for 2008 and later. A new program to evaluate the potential of increasing the ALA content of flaxseed has been initiated. Limited funds were obtained for initiate crossing in the greenhouse 2005-2006. Additional crosses were made in the field in 2006. Generation advance and additional crossing were made in 2007. Request for funding is in progress to continue this research. SDSU reduced the effort in flax evaluation in 2007. TARGET AUDIENCES: Citizens of ND, Flax growers, ND oilseed council, Flax Institute of the United States, Oil processors represent the target audiences of the project. Efforts are made to increase the awareness of the unique properties of flax and flaxseed products with web pages and personal interaction in person, email, phone calls and surface mail.

Impacts
North Dakota is the primary production area for flax in the United States. This project develops flax varieties that are higher yielding with disease resistance, high oil content, and high linolenic acid content. The demand for flax seed is increasing. Production of flax in North Dakota in 2006 was down slightly from 800,000 acres in 2005. Activities: The regional nursery consisting of 9 locations-date of seeding trials was analyzed for yield, plant height, flowering date, maturity, lodging, wilt tolerance, rust resistance, pasmo tolerance, oil content and fatty acid distribution. Events: No requests were made for participation in field days, workshops or training. Service: Numerous email, phone calls and surface mail requests were answered for flax as a healthy food. In addition to the normal request of producers for information on the selection a varieties and other production practices. Products: Plant breeding is a long-term effort. No new varieties were released in 2007. The Flax Institute web site (http://www.ndsu.nodak.edu/flaxinst/ ) is continual updated. Plans for the 2008 Flax Institute in Fargo, ND March 26-28 are being finalized.

Publications

  • Hammond, J. J., and Kathleen Grady. 2007. Cooperative flax trials in the spring flax region 2006. Plant Sciences Dept., NDSU and SDSU Fargo, ND and Brookings, SD.


Progress 10/01/04 to 09/30/05

Outputs
The regional flax nursery was seeded at six locations in ND, with both early and late seeding at Fargo, for yield and other agronomic evaluations. A nursery was planted and evaluated on historic 'Plot 30' for wilt tolerance. N0010 was named 'Carter' and released in 2004. Seed of 'Carter' was increased for distribution. PVP application was completed and submitted. Initial review required a rewrite and was resubmitted. In 1998 the USDA-ARS discontinued research in flax, regional responsibility for coordinating an advance variety trial for the North Central Region (including Canada) was transferred to my leadership. Late 2005 Dr. Rufus Chaney, USDA/ARS, requested that we remake crosses for Cd evaluation. Materials were planted in an attempt to make the crosses again in the winter greenhouse 2005-2006. A new program to evaluate the potential of increasing the ALA content of flaxseed has been initiated. Limited funds were obtained to initiate crossing. Additional crosses were made in the field in 2006. Apparently SDSU will be reducing the effort in flax evaluation in 2007. The number of locations evaluating the regional nursery will decrease again.

Impacts
North Dakota is the primary production area for flax in the United States. This project develops flax varieties that are higher yielding with disease resistance, high oil content, and high linolenic acid content. The demand for flax seed is increasing. Production of flax in North Dakota in 2006 was down slightly from 800,000 acres in 2005.

Publications

  • Hammond, J. J., and Kathleen Grady. 2006. Cooperative flax trials in the spring flax region 2005. Plant Sciences Dept., NDSU and SDSU Fargo, ND and Brookings, SD.
  • Helms, T.C., and J.J. Hammond. 2006. Genetic Gain Equations With Correlated Genotype X Environment Effects. Crop Sci. 46: 1137-1142.
  • Anton Schorno, Frank Manthey, Clifford Hall III, Dennis Wiesenborn, and James Hammond. 2006. Immature and Off-Colored Seed Affects Oil Quality in Milled Flaxseed. Proceeding FI of US March 2006.


Progress 10/01/03 to 09/30/04

Outputs
The regional flax nursery was seeded at six locations in ND, with both early and late seedings at Fargo, for yield and other agronomic evaluations. A nursery was planted and evaluated on historic 'Plot 30' for wilt tolerance. Two yellow-seeded lines were continued in 2003. One line N0010 was named 'Carter' and released. In 1998 the USDA-ARS discontinued research in flax, regional responsibility for coordinating an advance variety trial for the North Central Region (including Canada) was transferred to my leadership. Results of the World Collection Cd evaluation was completed - crosses were made for planting in 1999-2000. As a result of poor water quality, crosses planned for the fall greenhouse were not successful. Several crosses were completed in the spring greenhouse 2000. Dr. Chaney has agreed to assist in the genetic evaluation of Cd uptake in flax. Crosses made in the spring greenhouse were not seeded in the field in 2001. They will sent to Dr. Chaney for growing in growth chambers and analyzed for Cd content. The results have not been completed to date. In early June 2004 the seed was returned to Fargo as a result of lack of funds by Dr. Chaney they were never grown in his lab. Plans are being made to grow the material in the greenhouse in the winter of 2004-2005.

Impacts
North Dakota is the primary production area for flax in the United States. This project develops flax varieties that are higher yielding with disease resistance, high oil content, and high linolenic acid content. The demand for flax seed is increasing. Increased production continued in 2004.

Publications

  • Hammond, J. J., J. F. Miller, and J. B. Rasmussen. 2003. Registration of 'Nekoma' Flax. Crop Sci. 44:1022.
  • Hammond, J. J., and Kathleen Grady. 2004. Cooperative flax trials in the spring flax region. 2003. Plant Sciences Dept., NDSU and SDSU Fargo, ND and Brookings, SD.
  • Schormo, Anton, Frank Manthey, Dennis Wiesenborn, Clifford Hall III, and James Hammond. 2004. Proc 60th Flax Institute. March 2004, Fargo, ND.
  • Hammond,J. J., J. F. Miller, and G. D. Statler. 2004. Registration of 'York' Flax. Crop Sci. 44:1022-1023.


Progress 10/01/02 to 09/30/03

Outputs
Regional trials were grown at 6 locations in North Dakota in 2003. In addition the trial was seeded both early and late at Fargo and on historic Plot 30 for wilt evaluation. All regional entries from 2002 were evaluated with 11 races of flax rust during the spring greenhouse in 2003 in cooperation with GS Statler. The year 2003 was very favorable for flax production in ND. Two yellow-seeded lines were evaluated for the second time in all trials in the regional nursery in 2003. Visual observations suggest that one of the lines (N0010) may be worthy of release. A total of 28 lines and 2 checks were evaluated in pre-regional tests in ND and Canada. Material from this test should be selected for advancing to the 2004 regional nursery. Results of the Cd evaluation of F1 crossed material has not been completed to date. Progress on developing low Cd lines is progressing very slow. No accessions were increased in the assistance in maintaining the flax collection. Limited new material is being submitted for evaluation in the regional trials. Material from Canadian programs are being released for production without evaluation in ND. Questions from ND growers imply that production is or will be occurring in ND. We do not have data from ND to answer production questions. In addition we did not have the material for crossing to assist in flax improvement.

Impacts
North Dakota is the primary production area for flax in the United States. This project develops flax varieties that are higher yielding with disease resistance, high oil content, and high linolenic acid content. The demand for flax seed is increasing. A very large increase in production occurred in 2002. Increased production continued in 2003.

Publications

  • Hammond, J.J., and K. Grady. 2003. Cooperative flax trials in the spring flax region. 2002. Plant Sciences Dept., Fargo, ND.
  • Hammond, J.J. , J. F. Miller, and G. D. Statler. 2004. Registration of York Flax. Crop Sci 44:3
  • J. J. Hammond, J.J., J. F. Miller, J. B. Rasmussen. 2004. Registration of Nekoma Flax. Crop Sci 44:3.