Source: OREGON STATE UNIVERSITY submitted to
GENOMICS AND GENETICS OF NUTRITIONALLY IMPORTANT TRAITS IN SUNFLOWER
Sponsoring Institution
National Institute of Food and Agriculture
Project Status
TERMINATED
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
0195550
Grant No.
2003-35300-13108
Project No.
ORE00476-T
Proposal No.
2003-00713
Multistate No.
(N/A)
Program Code
52.1
Project Start Date
Sep 15, 2003
Project End Date
Sep 14, 2006
Grant Year
2003
Project Director
Knapp, S. J.
Recipient Organization
OREGON STATE UNIVERSITY
(N/A)
CORVALLIS,OR 97331
Performing Department
CROP AND SOIL SCIENCE
Non Technical Summary
ITEM 23: Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) oil is one of the most widely produced and consumed edible oils in the world. This research focuses on enhancing the nutritional characteristics of sunflower oil by manipulating natural genetic variants in wild and domesticated sunflowers and on developing tools and resources for manipulating nutritional traits in hybrid sunflower breeding programs. The objectives of this research are to identify genes for modifying the vitamin E and saturated fat profiles of sunflower oil. Sunflower naturally produces a broader range of vitamin E profiles than other crop plants. This research focuses on understanding the genetic basis for the genetic variability in addition to producing genetically stable lines with diverse vitamin E profiles. The nutritional characteristics of sunflower oil will be enhanced by manipulating genes that reduce saturated fat and increase monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fats. The purpose of this research is to enhance the nutritional characteristics of sunflower oil.
Animal Health Component
50%
Research Effort Categories
Basic
50%
Applied
50%
Developmental
(N/A)
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
20118441080100%
Knowledge Area
201 - Plant Genome, Genetics, and Genetic Mechanisms;

Subject Of Investigation
1844 - Sunflower;

Field Of Science
1080 - Genetics;
Goals / Objectives
ITEM 21 (OBJECTIVES): Our long-term goal is to genetically enhance cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) by identifying and manipulating genes and phenotypic and quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlying biologically and economically important traits. The present proposal focuses on enhancing the nutritional characteristics of sunflower oil by manipulating genes in the glycerolipid and tocopherol biosynthetic pathways and on the development of tools and resources for manipulating tocopherol and fatty acid profiles in hybrid breeding programs through marker-assisted selection (MAS). Our specific objectives are to: (i) develop elite inbred lines with novel tocopherol profiles and enhance the utility of tocopherol composition mutants (tph1, tph2, and tph3) in hybrid breeding programs; (ii) develop a deeper understanding of the genetics of QTL affecting oleic acid synthesis and methods for predicting oleic acid concentrations in low-, mid-, and high-oleic hybrids; and (iii) develop elite inbred lines with reduced saturated fatty acids and enhance the utility of saturated fatty acid mutants in hybrid breeding programs.
Project Methods
ITEM 22 (APPROACH): The basic approach in each study is to identify candidate genes for mutant loci and QTL underlying novel tocopherol and fatty acid phenotypes. Candidates for nearly every structural gene in the tocopherol and glycerolipid synthesis pathways have been isolated and will be genetically mapped using single-strand conformational polymorphisms, single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), or other DNA polymorphisms. RT-PCR and cDNA microarray analyses will be performed to identify genes that are up- or down-regulated in mutant and wildtype lines. Coding regions of candidate genes will be sequenced from wildtype and mutant lines to identify DNA polymorphisms and develop SNP markers that distinguish mutant from wildtype lines. The latter will be genotyped in populations segregating for mutant loci or QTL or both. Finer and denser genetics maps of regions flanking economically important loci will be developed by isolating and sequencing bacterial artificial chromosomes, identifying DNA polymorphisms in DNA up- or downstream of target loci, and developing new DNA markers as necessary. Finally, inbred lines with novel tocopherol and fatty acid profiles will be developed for nutritional and chemical research.

Progress 09/15/03 to 09/14/06

Outputs
Principal Investigator has moved to the University of Georgia - Athens. This grant was set up as a project under that station's authority in July, 2004.

Impacts
The nutritional characteristics of sunflower oil can be enhanced by reducing saturated fatty acids, increasing unsaturated fatty acids, and modifying tocopherol (vitamin E) composition. The development of inbred lines and hybrids with superior nutritional characteristics can be acclerated by using molecular breeding tools developed through this research.

Publications

  • No publications reported this period


Progress 01/01/03 to 12/31/03

Outputs
Gamma-tocopherol methyl transferase, tocopherol cyclase, and MPBQ-methyl transferase genes were cloned and genetically mapped in populations segregating for mutations affecting tocopherol composition (TPH1, 2, and 3). TPH1, 2, and 3 segregated independently and mapped to linkage group 4, 8, and 12. Gamma-TMT cosegregated with a high gamma-tocopherol mutation (TPH2) and MPBQ-MT cosegregated with a reduced alpha-tocopherol mutation (TPH1). High alpha- (wildtype), beta-, gamma-, and delta-tocopherol lines were developed by isolating single, double, and triple homozygotes for TPH1, 2, and 3. Nine fatty acid biosynthetic genes were found to affect fatty acid composition in a cross between low- and high-oleic lines. Several of the genes had pleiotropic effects and epistatically interacted. Candidate genes for low palmitic, low stearic, and high linoleic acid mutants (e.g., LS-1, LP-1, and RS-1) were identified by screening mRNAs isolated from developing seeds of mutant and wild lines on cDNA microarrays. Real-time PCR analyses confirmed the effects of several genes. DNA markers were developed for 30 fatty acid biosynthetic genes. Candidate gene mapping is underway in several segregating populations.

Impacts
The nutritional characteristics of sunflower oil can be enhanced by reducing saturated fatty acids, increasing unsaturated fatty acids, and modifying tocopherol (vitamin E) composition. The development of inbred lines and hybrids with superior nutritional characteristics can be acclerated by using molecular breeding tools developed through this research.

Publications

  • No publications reported this period