Progress 01/01/03 to 12/31/03
Over the past year, the laboratory has continued to develop its research, including collaborations with various universities (national and international) and government agencies (national and international). A number of proposals were submitted, with several being supported. Moreover, our program now includes a significant component of research on West Coast groundfish. Our aquarium facility was completed, allowing us to initiate a number of experimental studies. There has been considerable activity in the research group. Six students have ongoing projects: (1) Jacki Richards is writing up her research on the life history and demography of dogfish sharks; (2) Marion Mann is examining videos from ROV surveys to quantify juvenile rockfish habitat associations and has begun laboratory experiments; (3) Lisa Krentz (co-supervision, USGS) just completed a second successful research season studying the estuarine life history patterns of cutthroat trout; (4) Lance Campbell
(co-supervision, NOAA Fisheries) is working on changes in the life history patterns of chinook salmon in the Columbia River estuary using historic and current day scale samples; (5) Dave Hering (co-supervision, NOAA Fisheries) is researching the behavioral patterns of coastal estuarine exploitation by chinook salmon; and (6) Julie Henning (co-supervision, USGS) is researching the role of seasonal floodplain wetlands as rearing habit for fishes. Dr. Yusuke Koseki from Hokkaido University just completed a year of postdoctoral studies in the laboratory where he examined patterns of jacking in Oregon coho from an evolutionary perspective, using both hatchery and wild return data. Two students joined the laboratory this past fall (2003): (1) Jena Lemke (co-supervision, NOAA Fisheries) will be studying low relief structure and habitat associations in North Pacific flatfishes; and (2) Megan Petrie (co-supervision, NOAA Fisheries) will be researching the shifting niche of young-of-the-year
lingcod. We published seven peer-reviewed articles from the latter half of 2002 until now (November 2003); and have three others accepted for publication. Our research was also presented at a variety of scientific and public forums. In addition, Ian Fleming anonymously co-authored a book published by the National Academy of Sciences, co-edited a journal volume, and published a non-refereed proceedings paper and one technical report. In terms of other activity, Dr. Fleming served on the National Academy of Sciences review panel for the Status of Atlantic Salmon in Maine and as the Independent Science Community Member on the Northwest Planning Council, Artificial Production Advisory Committee. He co-organized two symposia and sat on the scientific committee for the Fifth Conference on Fish Telemetry held in Europe (2003), and the European Union funded Quantitative Genetics Working Group. Dr. Fleming served as external examiner for three Ph.D. theses in Denmark and Sweden, and was an
invited expert to workshops on Environmental Risk Assessment Modelling and How do Aquaculture and Capture Fisheries Interact? The Ecological, Economic and Policy Implications of Aquaculture Escapes.
The broad aim of the work is to understand the substantial variation in behavior, life history, and dynamics observed in diadromous and marine fishes, particularly salmon and Pacific groundfish. While the program was initiated this past year, some of the work is impacting our dealings with the potential impacts of cultured (hatchery and farm) salmon on wild populations (e.g., through publications, presentations and involvement on a variety of panels). The work on cultured-wild fish interactions has regional through global consequences. The issue of hatchery-wild salmon interactions is a topic of high regional importance, as well as global importance wherever cultured fish are purposely released for supplementation and augmentation. The work on farm-wild salmon interactions has had less of a regional consequence, than a national (Washington State and Maine) and global (European and Canadian) consequence. Our work on Pacific groundfish is just beginning, but is likely
to have significant impact given that like many fisheries throughout the world, the groundfish of the Pacific Northwest have incurred widespread and dramatic collapses in recent years. Our work on understanding habitat needs and dispersal patterns of Pacific coast rockfish and flatfish will be important in considerations of stock/population rebuilding, conservation (e.g. Marine Protected Reserves), and other management decisions. The information gained may also prove useful in identifying alternative survey designs for assessing groundfish populations.
- Finstad, B., McKinley, R.S., Fleming, I.A., Bjornsson, B.Th., Augustsson, T. and Johnsson, J.I. 2002. Comparisons of wild and cultured Atlantic salmon: a case study from Norway. In McKinley, R.S., Driedzic, W.R. and MacKinlay, D. (eds.) Behavioral and Physiological Comparisons of Cultured and Wild Fish. Proceedings of the International Congress on the Biology of Fish, University of British Columbia, Canada, July 21-26, 2002. American Fisheries Society.
- Jarvi, T. (Co-ordinator), Johnsson, J., Fleming, I.A., Armstrong, J., Metcalfe, N.B., Nicieza, A.G., McKinley, R.S. and Ryman, N. (Partners) 2002. Performance and ecological impacts of introduced and escaped fish: physiological and behavioural Mechanisms. Final Report to the European Commission. Institute of Freshwater Research, Drottningholm, Sweden. 250 p.
- Fleming, I.A., Einum, S., Jonsson, B. and Jonsson, N. 2003. Comment on Rapid Evolution of Egg Size in Captive Salmon. Science 302: 59b.
- Einum, S., Fleming, I.A., Cote, I.M. and Reynolds, J.R. 2003. Population stability in salmon species: effects of population size and female reproductive allocation. Journal of Animal Ecology 72: 811-821.
- Garant, D.*, Fleming, I.A.*, Einum, S.* and Bernatchez, L. 2003. Alternative male life-history tactics as potential vehicles for speeding introgression of farm salmon traits into wild populations. Ecology Letters 6: 541-549. (* contributed equally to the work)
- Forseth, T., Ugedal, O., Jonsson, B. and Fleming, I.A. 2003. Ecological character displacement in Arctic charr caused by competition from brown trout. Oikos 101: 467-478.
- Einum, S. and Fleming, I.A. 2002. Does within-population variation in fish egg size reflect maternal influences on optimal values? American Naturalist 160: 756-765.
- National Research Council (co-author). 2002. Genetic Status of Atlantic Salmon in Maine. Interim Report from the Committee on Atlantic Salmon in Maine. National Academy Press, Washington, DC. 62 pp. (ISBN 0-309-08311-7)
- Lembo, G., Spedicato, M.T., Okland, F., Carbonara, P., Fleming, I.A., McKinley, R.S., Thorstad, E.B., Sisak, M. and Ragonese, S. 2002. A wireless communication system for determining site fidelity of juvenile dusky groupers, Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe, 1834), using coded acoustic transmitters. Hydrobiologia 483: 249-257.
- Einum, S., Hendry, A.P. and Fleming, I.A. 2002. Egg size evolution in aquatic environments: does oxygen availability constrain size? Proceeding of the Royal Society, London B 269: 2325-2330.