Non Technical Summary
Acrylimide is a carcinogen, which is formed during food frying. The project examines the formation of acrylamide in fried foods including french fries and fried poultry products. Frying process variables such as oil temperature and frying durations are being evaluated for their effects on acrylamide formation.
Animal Health Component
Research Effort Categories
Goals / Objectives
1. Assess various frying technologies and their effects on fried products quality 2. Determine the acrylamide content and mode of formation in conventional fried foods 2. Optimize the frying conditions to minimize the fried chicken breading and French fries acrylamide content and other quality attributes 3. Conduct a preliminary toxicology evaluation of acrylamide in fried chicken breading
Food frying is a common process in the food industry used to enhance the overall quality, texture, and flavor of snack foods, doughnuts, French fries, and poultry products. It is a unit operation utilized extensively in food products to create a crispy exterior while maintaining a moist interior. Typically, the frying process involves the immersion of a food product in hot oil (>175C) until the desired product attributes are obtained, from creating the proper appearance to fully-cooking the product. During the process, moisture in the outer surface of the food migrates into the oil in the form of steam, and oil is absorbed by the food product. The type of oil, temperature of the oil, duration of cooking, and food product surface (coating) greatly affect the food's final texture, flavor, and quality attributes.Recent European studies have noted Acrylamide as an emerging factor that has been associated with considerable cancer risk and neurotoxic effects (Tornqvist et
al. 1998; Tareke et al. 2000). Although it has long been known as a cigarette smoke carcinogen (Schumacher 1977), acrylamide was later demonstrated to be produced during cooking (Tareke et al. 2000). Swedish researchers recently showed that fried foods are a significant source of dietary acrylamide (Tareke et al. 2002). Although the details of acrylamide synthesis is not fully understood, it is thought to form during high temperature food processing conditions by the incomplete food combustion, as is found during frying. This may occur by high temperature protein/carbohydrate reactions. Recently, Mottram et al. (2002) showed that acrylamide in food is formed from Maillard reaction products. The authors reported that under specific conditions, the Maillard-driven generation of flavor and color in thermally processed food can be linked to the formation of acrylamide. In this project, additional model system studies using 20 different amino acids. Samples will be deposited on filter
paper in equimolar proportion with glucose and fried at various temperatures from 160-200F for durations varying between 15-30 min. In addition, various carbohydrate sources, including D-fructoese, D-galactose, and lactose will be investigated. These experiment will allow to shade more light on the mechanism of formation of acrylamides and will allow to gain valuable insight on processing conditions minimize acrylamide formation in food products. Frying experiments will be conducted on various foods including fries and poultry products using various frying technologies including deep fat and spray frying. These foods were selected because they represent a large portion of the fried foods consumed in the United States.In addition to acrylamide formation, the following quality parameters are likely to be evaluated: Yield, moisture and fat contents, oil pickup, color and sensory quality. The results of this study should allow to better understand the mechanism of acrylamide formation and
what process to minimize their formation.