Source: UNIVERSITY OF ARKANSAS submitted to
EFFECT OF FRYING CONDITIONS ON FRIED FOOD QUALITY AND SAFETY
Sponsoring Institution
National Institute of Food and Agriculture
Project Status
TERMINATED
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
0195092
Grant No.
(N/A)
Project No.
ARK01978
Proposal No.
(N/A)
Multistate No.
(N/A)
Program Code
(N/A)
Project Start Date
Oct 1, 2002
Project End Date
Sep 30, 2007
Grant Year
(N/A)
Project Director
Meullenet, J. F.
Recipient Organization
UNIVERSITY OF ARKANSAS
(N/A)
FAYETTEVILLE,AR 72703
Performing Department
FOOD SCIENCE
Non Technical Summary
Acrylimide is a carcinogen, which is formed during food frying. The project examines the formation of acrylamide in fried foods including french fries and fried poultry products. Frying process variables such as oil temperature and frying durations are being evaluated for their effects on acrylamide formation.
Animal Health Component
75%
Research Effort Categories
Basic
25%
Applied
75%
Developmental
(N/A)
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
5011310202025%
5013260202025%
5021310100025%
5023260100025%
Goals / Objectives
1. Assess various frying technologies and their effects on fried products quality 2. Determine the acrylamide content and mode of formation in conventional fried foods 2. Optimize the frying conditions to minimize the fried chicken breading and French fries acrylamide content and other quality attributes 3. Conduct a preliminary toxicology evaluation of acrylamide in fried chicken breading
Project Methods
Food frying is a common process in the food industry used to enhance the overall quality, texture, and flavor of snack foods, doughnuts, French fries, and poultry products. It is a unit operation utilized extensively in food products to create a crispy exterior while maintaining a moist interior. Typically, the frying process involves the immersion of a food product in hot oil (>175C) until the desired product attributes are obtained, from creating the proper appearance to fully-cooking the product. During the process, moisture in the outer surface of the food migrates into the oil in the form of steam, and oil is absorbed by the food product. The type of oil, temperature of the oil, duration of cooking, and food product surface (coating) greatly affect the food's final texture, flavor, and quality attributes.Recent European studies have noted Acrylamide as an emerging factor that has been associated with considerable cancer risk and neurotoxic effects (Tornqvist et al. 1998; Tareke et al. 2000). Although it has long been known as a cigarette smoke carcinogen (Schumacher 1977), acrylamide was later demonstrated to be produced during cooking (Tareke et al. 2000). Swedish researchers recently showed that fried foods are a significant source of dietary acrylamide (Tareke et al. 2002). Although the details of acrylamide synthesis is not fully understood, it is thought to form during high temperature food processing conditions by the incomplete food combustion, as is found during frying. This may occur by high temperature protein/carbohydrate reactions. Recently, Mottram et al. (2002) showed that acrylamide in food is formed from Maillard reaction products. The authors reported that under specific conditions, the Maillard-driven generation of flavor and color in thermally processed food can be linked to the formation of acrylamide. In this project, additional model system studies using 20 different amino acids. Samples will be deposited on filter paper in equimolar proportion with glucose and fried at various temperatures from 160-200F for durations varying between 15-30 min. In addition, various carbohydrate sources, including D-fructoese, D-galactose, and lactose will be investigated. These experiment will allow to shade more light on the mechanism of formation of acrylamides and will allow to gain valuable insight on processing conditions minimize acrylamide formation in food products. Frying experiments will be conducted on various foods including fries and poultry products using various frying technologies including deep fat and spray frying. These foods were selected because they represent a large portion of the fried foods consumed in the United States.In addition to acrylamide formation, the following quality parameters are likely to be evaluated: Yield, moisture and fat contents, oil pickup, color and sensory quality. The results of this study should allow to better understand the mechanism of acrylamide formation and what process to minimize their formation.

Progress 10/01/02 to 09/30/07

Outputs
The project objectives are to determine the acrylamide content and mode of formation in conventional fried foods, to optimize the frying conditions to minimize the fried chicken breading and French fries acrylamide content, and to conduct a preliminary toxicology evaluation of acrylamide in fried chicken breading. The research was discontinued due to funding cuts.

Impacts
The findings of a Swedish study has gained the attention of the FAO/WHO who announced in 2002 that the new findings bring to attention a major health problem and strongly recommend further research on acrylamide levels in foods and gauge its effect on human health.

Publications

  • No publications reported this period


Progress 01/01/05 to 12/31/05

Outputs
The project objectives are to determine the acrylamide content and mode of formation in conventional fried foods, to optimize the frying conditions to minimize the fried chicken breading and French fries acrylamide content, and to conduct a preliminary toxicology evaluation of acrylamide in fried chicken breading. The research was discontinued due to funding cuts.

Impacts
The findings of a Swedish study has gained the attention of the FAO/WHO who announced in 2002 that the new findings bring to attention a major health problem and strongly recommend further research on acrylamide levels in foods and gauge its effect on human health.

Publications

  • No publications reported this period


Progress 01/01/04 to 12/30/04

Outputs
The project objectives are to determine the acrylamide content and mode of formation in conventional fried foods, to optimize the frying conditions to minimize the fried chicken breading and French fries acrylamide content, and to conduct a preliminary toxicology evaluation of acrylamide in fried chicken breading. The first 2 years of the project were spent to adapt the FDA published methods of acrylamide quantification to LCMS equipment available at the University of Arkansas and on perfecting the methods of acrylamide extraction in food products. The HPLC method was developed for a Brooker Quadrupole Ion Trap Electrospray LC-MS. The mobile phase consisted of 0.1 percent acetic acid and 0.5 degree methanol with a flow rate of 200 uL/min. The column was an Aqua C18 HPLC column (2x250 mm), packed with 3micron particles with a column temperature of 26 degree C. The Acylamide elution time was 7.2 minutes. Results show that the acrylamide response can be readily detected at concentrations of 300 ppb. Two of the three ions given off by acrylamide (m/z=72 and 55) can clearly be identified. However, the 3rd ion of m/z=28 cannot be monitored with the equipment used in these experiments. Based on these methods, Fast Food chains French fries are being monitored for acrylamide content. Significant variability has been observed. Addition experiments on frying oil quality are underway to determine if acrylamide formation is a function of frying oil quality.

Impacts
The findings of a Swedish study has gained the attention of the FAO/WHO who announced in 2002 that the new findings bring to attention a major health problem and strongly recommend further research on acrylamide levels in foods and gauge its effect on human health. This project will make a contribution to the existing literature.

Publications

  • No publications reported this period


Progress 01/01/03 to 12/31/03

Outputs
The project objectives are to determine the acrylamide content and mode of formation in conventional fried foods, to optimize the frying conditions to minimize the fried chicken breading and French fries acrylamide content, and to conduct a preliminary toxicology evaluation of acrylamide in fried chicken breading. The first year of the project was spent to adapt the FDA published methods of acrylamide quantification to LCMS equipment available at the University of Arkansas and on perfecting the methods of acrylamide extraction in food products. The Acrylamide extraction method adopted was as follows: 1. A one gram portion of a crushed sample is placed in a 50mL conical tube with a cap. 2. Ten mL of water is added, along with an internal standard. The sample is shaken by hand for 10 minutes. 3. The sample is spun in a centrifuge at 9000 rpm for 30 minutes. The aqueous layer is removed and spun in a centrifuge filtration device for 4 minutes at 9000 rpm. 4. An OASIS SPE cartridge is prepared with 5mL methanol and followed by 5mL water. A Varian SPE cartridge is prepared with 3mL methanol and 3mL of water. 5. 2mL of the filtered sample is passed through the OASIS cartridge. This is followed by 2mL of water, which is collected and passed through the Varian cartridge. The collected volume is measured and submitted for evaluation. The HPLC method was developed for a Brooker Quadrupole Ion Trap Electrospray LC-MS. The mobile phase consisted of 0.1% acetic acid and 0.5 % methanol with a flow rate of 200 uL/min. The column was an Aqua C18 HPLC column (2x250 mm), packed with 3micron particles with a column temperature of 26 degrees C. The Acylamide elution time was 7.2 minutes. Results show that the acrylamide response can be readily detected at concentrations of 500 ppb. Two of the three ions given off by acrylamide (m/z=72 and 55) can clearly be identified. However, the 3rd ion of m/z=28 cannot be monitored with the equipment used in these experiments. In fried potato sticks, spiked with 1ppm of acrylamide, a clear peak with a retention time of 7.0-7.2min can be found. However, the mass spectrum shows a m/z of 70.9 which is not acrylamide. This shows that another compound elutes at the same time as acrylamide and interferes with the spectrum. Consideration will be given to optimizing HPLC conditions to better separate acrylamide from the interfering compound. Further method development will be necessary to improve the sensitivity of the method so that low levels of acrylamide can be detected. Research objectives for this next year include finalizing the LC-MS method and the optimization of frying processes to minimize Acrylamide formation in foods.

Impacts
The findings of a Swedish study has gained the attention of the FAO/WHO who announced in 2002 that the new findings bring to attention a major health problem and strongly recommend further research on acrylamide levels in foods and gauge its effect on human health. This project will make a contribution to the existing literature.

Publications

  • No publications reported this period