Source: UNIV OF WISCONSIN submitted to
POTATO AND VEGETABLE RESEARCH
Sponsoring Institution
State Agricultural Experiment Station
Project Status
TERMINATED
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
0194754
Grant No.
(N/A)
Project No.
WIS04701
Proposal No.
(N/A)
Multistate No.
(N/A)
Program Code
(N/A)
Project Start Date
Apr 1, 2002
Project End Date
Sep 30, 2010
Grant Year
(N/A)
Project Director
Bussan, A. J.
Recipient Organization
UNIV OF WISCONSIN
(N/A)
MADISON,WI 53706
Performing Department
HORTICULTURE
Non Technical Summary
Vegetable production is threatened by decreasing profit margins. Vegetable production systems also tend to cause adverse impacts on the environment such as soil erosion and nutrient or pesticide contamination of ground or surface water. This research will develop practices that optimize yield of high quality crops on a consistent basis. These production practices will minimize cost of production and the environmental impact of production systems.
Animal Health Component
100%
Research Effort Categories
Basic
(N/A)
Applied
100%
Developmental
(N/A)
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
20413101060100%
Goals / Objectives
1) Develop production practices to improve the quality of WI grown potatoes. Potato quality characteristics include size, sugar or sugar ends, specific gravity, storability, internal defects, and shape. Potato quality standards vary depending on end use, so recommended practices will be targeted depending on market type. 2) Evaluate and improve irrigation management by potato and vegetable growers 3) Develop management practices to alleviate physiological and biological stresses on potato. Heat, drought, moisture, frost, and pests are limitations to Wisconsin potato production. Irrigation has a large impact on crop tolerance to stress. Fundamental changes in production systems are necessary for improved soil quality and agroecosystms that tolerate stress conditions and perturbations to the system. 4) Improve the storabilty of potato under WI climatic conditions. Storage losses are attributed to a) changes in production practices that have increased yield and quality, but delayed maturation of potato b) increased incidence of tuber diseases such as pink eye, pink rot, soft rot, others, c) climatic conditions during the harvest that resulted in poor storage conditions. The process of tuber maturation and how it is influenced by crop management will be a focus of study. 5) Develop potato production systems that increase nutrient use efficiencies and balance nutrient cycling. The development of Healthy Grown Potatoes is a key step in this direction and a number of WI potato growers are adapting the production standards of the eco label program. Key issues targeted by the Healthy Grown Potato program include reduction of fumigation use by 50% within 5 years and improved water and soil quality. 6) Develop best management practices for aphid transmitted virus in snapbean. 7) Develop production practices that will extend the growing season for production of fresh market vegetables in WI. Technologies available to extend the growing season include zip houses, hoop houses, greenhouses, plastic mulches, frost tolerant crops, frost tolerant varieties, early ripening varieties, and other practices. 8) Identify new crops, varieties, or marketing opportunities for fresh market vegetable production. 9) Develop precision management techniques for commercial potato growers. Sub field variability in potato crop quality has not been studied. Goal is to understand variability in crop response and incorporate in decision making processes.
Project Methods
To accomplish the objectives of this research field and greenhouse research will be utilized. Greenhouse research will likely include trials that investigate the growth and development of different potato varieties or vegetable crops. As a part of growth and development research, studies on crop resource utilization patterns and corresponding response will be studied. Some greenhouse research may be focused on development of management strategies for greenhouse grown fresh market vegetables. Field research will include both small plot and field scale research. Research will also likely be short and long-term in nature. Short term research will likely be focused on key issues facing the potato or vegetable industry. Short term research will likely be limited to small scale experiments that investigate the influence of varying management practices on the growth and development of potato and vegetable crops, response to different stress conditions, crop yield, and crop quality characteristics. Quality characteristics of concern will vary depending on whether the crop is processed or fresh market. Long-term research will be targeted at evaluating the influence of cropping systems on stability of production systems. Stability being defined as consistency of crop yield and quality, ability of the crop to maintain productivity in face of pest outbreaks or climatic perturbations (stress). Long-term research will likely focus on nutrient, water, and/or carbon cycles depending on objectives and goals of given experiment. Field scale research will be targeted at taking advantage of current technologies available to potato and vegetable growers. Experimental treatments will be established with field scale equipment by grower cooperators. Likewise, yield monitors and remote sensing technologies will be used to collect appropriate data that will be followed up by appropriate ground truthing. A secondary goal of this research is to enable the grower to become a component of the research team.

Progress 04/01/02 to 09/30/10

Outputs
OUTPUTS: OUTPUTS: Field and storage research continues in all areas of emphasis within the project. Several objectives have been reached, but new areas of focus have emerged. Potato cropping systems research continued in several areas including the evaluation of production practices of new or soon to be released varieties, field management effects on crop maturity, quality, and storability, storability of potato, field and storage management effects on stem end defect, ventilation management strategies and impact on shrink, developing strategies to prevent pressure bruise, and management of seed. Premier Russet, Umatilla Russet, Classic Russet, W2717, W5013, NY139, CO95051, and W2133 have commercial potential in WI. We have completed research identifying vine kill and nitrogen fertilizer effects on stem end defect in russet and chip potato and evaluating the influence of heat stress on stem end defect in chipping potato as it relates to acid invertase activity. I completed research on drip irrigation in potato. Manuscript in print on success of Healthy Grown potato and manuscripts are nearing submission on perennial cover cropping, potato bulking, and early dying management. PARTICIPANTS: Amanda Raster, Mike Copas, Jolyn Rasmussen, Mike Drilias, Bill Schmitt, Nick Goeser, Yi Wang. TARGET AUDIENCES: Wisconsin Potato and Vegetable Growers, Wisconsin Muck Growers, Wisconsin Mint Board, Wisconsin Fresh Market Vegetable Growers, Midwest Food Processors Association, United States Potato Board, National Potato Council PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.

Impacts
We are heavily involved in evaluating influence of irrigation on processing and chip quality of potato. Processing vegetable crop research focused on management of cover crops in snap bean and sweet corn and development of systems with reduced reliance on off farm N inputs and decreased loss of nitrates to the groundwater. Trials were conducted evaluating the influence of annual cover crops on root rot in snap bean as well as yield and quality response. We also evaluated new perennial cover cropping systems for annual vegetable crops. Establishment of perennial legumes in the snap bean understory was investigated. Perennial cover cropping systems have successfully been developed with minimal to no impact on processing crop yield or quality, yet reduce fertilizer N requirements by up to 100 kg/ha. Research has been completed evaluating the organic fertility management in sweet corn. Comprehensive research has been initiated to address N cycling and crop productivity and stability across multiple organic fertility management strategies. Long-term trials have been wrapped up evaluating the survivability of Scotch spearmint. One line has been identified with superior oil yield, but no differences were observed in persistence. Research was completed on optimizing machine harvest in cucumber. Research continues on storability of potato and carrot with focus on cut and peel carrot. Research has been initiated on spinach production to create regional production system. Research on new sprout inhibitors initiated. Commercial scale chip storage trials have been completed looking at long-term storage. We can store W2310 until mid-May. We hope to store W2133 until June. Kettle Foods expanded chip processing plant in Beloit, WI. Assisting growers in assessment of production impacts on evapotranspiration.

Publications

  • Goeser, N., A.J. Bussan, M.J. Drilias, and W.G. Schmitt. 2010. Evaluation of organic fertility management systems for a sustainable organic processing vegetable rotation. Am J. Potato Res. 87:
  • Goeser, N., A.J. Bussan, P. Esker, and P.D. Mitchell. 2010. Russet Burbank growth and development patterns in Wisconsin. Am. J. Potato Res. 87:
  • Goeser, N., A.J. Bussan, and M.D. Ruark. 2010. Quantifying Nitrogen Mineralization and Plant Available Nitrogen Concentrations in the Soil following Crop, Cover Crop Residue and Manure Incorporation across an Organic Vegetable Rotation. Agron. Soc. Am. Abs.
  • Rasmussen, J.R., M. Drilias, W.G. Schmitt, and A.J. Bussan. 2010. Pressure Flattening & Pressure Bruise in Potato (Solanum tuberosum). Am. J. Potato Res. 87:


Progress 01/01/09 to 12/31/09

Outputs
OUTPUTS: Field and storage research continues in all areas of emphasis within the project. Several objectives have been reached, but new areas of focus have emerged. Potato cropping systems research continued in several areas including the evaluation of production practices of new or soon to be released varieties, field management effects on crop maturity, quality, and storability, storability of potato, field and storage management effects on stem end defect, ventilation management strategies and impact on shrink, developing strategies to prevent pressure bruise, and management of seed. Bannock Russet, MegaChip, W2310, W2133, and Umatilla have commercial potential in WI. We have completed research identifying moisture and temperature stress effects on the development of sugar end defect in russet potato. This publication documented physiological changes in tubers in response to moisture stress above the critical period. PARTICIPANTS: Rob Sabba, Mike Copas, Joynn Rasmussen, Mike Drilias, Bill Schmitt, Nick Goeser TARGET AUDIENCES: Wisconsin Potato and Vegetable Growers, Wisconsin Muck Growers, Wisconsin Mint Board, Wisconsin Fresh Market Vegetable Growers, Midwest Food Processors Association, United States Potato Board, National Potato Council PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.

Impacts
We are heavily involved in evaluating influence of irrigation on processing quality of potato. Processing vegetable crop research focused on management of cover crops in snap bean and sweet corn and development of systems with reduced reliance on off farm N inputs and decreased loss of nitrates to the groundwater. Trials were conducted evaluating the influence of annual cover crops on root rot in snap bean as well as yield and quality response. We also evaluated new perennial cover cropping systems for annual vegetable crops. Establishment of perennial legumes in the snap bean understory was investigated. Perennial cover cropping systems have successfully been developed with minimal to no impact on processing crop yield or quality, yet reduce fertilizer N requirements by up to 100 kg/ha. Research has been completed evaluating the organic fertility management in sweet corn. Comprehensive research has been initiated to address N cycling and crop productivity and stability across multiple organic fertility management strategies. Long-term trials have been wrapped up evaluating the survivability of Scotch spearmint. One line has been identified with superior oil yield, but no differences were observed in persistence. Research was completed on optimizing machine harvest in cucumber. Research continues on storability of potato and carrot with focus on cut and peel carrot. Research has been initiated on spinach production to create regional production system.

Publications

  • Sabba, R.P., P.Holman, A.J. Bussan, M.J. Drilias. 2009. Influence of maleic hydrazide on yield and sugars in potato. Amer. J. Potato Res. 86:272-277.
  • Groza, H.I., B.D. Bowen, A.J. Bussan, F.M. Navarro, W.R. Stevenson, J.P. Palta, and J.J. Jiang. 2009. Freedom Russet A dual purpose russet potato variety with resistance to common scab, tolerance to verticillium wilt, and good fry quality. Am. J. Potato Res. 86:406-414.
  • Bethke, P.C., R.P. Sabba, and A.J. Bussan. 2009. Tuber water and pressure potentials decrease and sucrose contents increase in response to moderate drought and heat stress. Am. J. Potato Res. 86:519-532.
  • Bussan, A.J., R.P. Sabba, and M.R. Drilias. 2009. Tuber maturation and potato storability: optimizing skin set, sugars, and solids. UW Extension Bulletin #A3884. Pp. 12.


Progress 01/01/08 to 12/31/08

Outputs
OUTPUTS: Field and storage research continues in all areas of emphasis within the project. Several objectives have been reached, but new areas of focus have emerged. Potato cropping systems research continued in several areas including the evaluation of production practices of new or soon to be released varieties, field management effects on crop maturity, quality, and storability, storability of potato, field and storage management effects on stem end defect, ventilation management strategies and impact on shrink, developing strategies to prevent pressure bruise, and management of seed. Bannock Russet, Freedom russet, White Pearl, MegaChip, Villetta Rose, W2310, W2133 all have commercial potential in WI. We have completed research identifying cellular changes in the periderm in pink eye affected tissues and also showed that deep tillage can reduce the incidence of pink eye. This is one of few publications showing the influence of management on pink eye further supporting the need of deep tillage in compacted soils. We have published on managing tubers per acre and influence on yield and size and also effects of vine kill and planting dates on processing quality. We completed rather large research programs investigating methods for reducing fungicide and fumigation applications through proper potato variety selection and N fertility. We are heavily involved in evaluating influence of irrigation on processing quality of potato. Processing vegetable crop research focused on management of cover crops in snap bean and sweet corn and development of systems with reduced reliance on off farm N inputs and decreased loss of nitrates to the groundwater. Trials were conducted evaluating the influence of annual cover crops on root rot in snap bean as well as yield and quality response. We also evaluated new perennial cover cropping systems for annual vegetable crops. Establishment of perennial legumes in the snap bean understory was investigated. Perennial cover cropping systems have successfully been developed with minimal to no impact on processing crop yield or quality, yet reduce fertilizer N requirements by up to 100 kg/ha. Research has been completed evaluating the organic fertility management in sweet corn. Comprehensive research has been initiated to address N cycling and crop productivity and stability across multiple organic fertility management strategies. Multiple trials were conducted in collaboration with WI onion growers to determine the feasibility of onion production for processing. Several million cwt of onion are processed for rings each month in WI. However, no onions are purchased in the state and most shipped across the continent. Onion production for processing appears feasible, but requires transplanting or sets which may be cost prohibitive. Long-term trials have been wrapped up evaluating the survivability of Scotch spearmint. One line has been identified with superior oil yield, but no differences were observed in persistence. Research was completed on optimizing machine harvest in cucumber. PARTICIPANTS: Graduate research assistants: Michael E. Copas, Nick Goeser, and Jolyn Rasmussen; Research Associate Robert P. Sabba; Researchers Michael J. Drilias, William G. Schmidt, and Richard Rittmeyer. Grower associations included Wisconsin Potato and Vegetable Growers Association, Midwest Food Processors Association, Wisconsin Muck Growers Association, Wisconsin Mint Board, Mint Industry Research Council, Wisconsin Fresh Market Vegetable Growers Association Industrial partners include McCain Foods USA, Del Monte, Seneca Foods, BioFerm, Basic American Foods, R.D. Offutt Company, Lakeside Foods, Frito Lay, and others Training provided through Ag and Natural Resources extension in University of Wisconsin- Cooperative extension, USDA SARE, NRCS, and others. TARGET AUDIENCES: Collaborating organizations above as well as vegetable growers, processors, packers, homeowners, land managers, and others. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Not relevant to this project.

Impacts
-Nearly all Wisconsin process growers deep till potato and about 50% of other market classes of potatoes are deep tilled. -Growers manipulate seed age to meet market needs. Chip, red, and seed potatoes are typically physiologically older when planted, whereas fresh market russet and processing russet potatoes are typically physiologically younger when planted. -Maleic hydrazide is used to delay sprouting of new chip cultivars with short dormancy including MegaChip and White Pearl. -Bannock Russet is grown without fumigation of few acres to verify tolerance to early dying -Bannock Russet is fertilized with 30 to 50 lb less nitrogen/acre due to lower demand or need. -Nearly 80% of cucumber are machine harvested in Wisconsin -Onion growers plant transplants to market jumbo onions on the fresh market.

Publications

  • Bussan, A.J., R.P. Sabba, M.E. Copas, and M.J. Drilias. 2008. Optimizing quality of stored potatoes from seed to table. Proc. of Wisconsin Ann. Potato Meet. 21:87-95.
  • Bussan, A.J., M.E. Copas, and M.J. Drilias. 2008. Managing stem and tuber number and other cultural management factors. Proc. of Wisconsin Ann. Potato Meet. 21:163-164.
  • Copas, M.E. and A.J. Bussan. 2008. Perennial cover crop strategies for annual vegetable rotation. ASA Abstracts.
  • Bussan, A.J. and M. Drilias. 2008. Pressure bruise evaluation in long-term potato storage. Amer. J. Potato Res. 85:5.
  • Copas, M., A.J. Bussan, M.J. Drilias. 2008. Russet Burbank and Bannock Russet tuber bulking rates and sugar profiles. Amer. J. Potato Res. 85:6-7.
  • Sabba, R.P., E.C. Lulai, and A.J. Bussan. 2008. Cytological examination of pink eye afflicted tubers. Amer. J. Potato Res. 85:29.
  • Copas, M.E., A.J. Bussan, R.P. Wolkowski, and M.J. Drilias. 2009. Potato yield and quality response to subsoil tillage and compaction. Agron. J. 101:82-90.
  • Sabba, R.P. A.J. Bussan, and E.C. Lulai. 2008. Correlation between pink eye symptoms and cell damage in the tuber periderm and cortex. Amer. J. Potato Res. 85:466-476. (cover photo).
  • Copas, M.E., A.J. Bussan*, A. Charkowski, and M.J. Drilias. 2008 Response of pink eye in potato (Solanum tuberosum) to subsoil tillage and compaction. Am. J. Potato Res. 85:342-352.
  • Bussan, A.J. 2007. Brown centre and hollow heart. Potato Res. 50:395-398.
  • Bussan, A.J., W.R. Stevenson, M.J. Drilias, and R. Rand. 2008. Factors affecting mint persistance. Proc. Midwest Mint Growers Meeting. 9 pp.
  • Bussan, A.J. and M.J. Drilias. 2008. Carrot and beet storage. Wisconsin Muck Crops Res. Proc. pp 4.
  • Bussan, A.J., M.E. Copas, and M.J. Drilias. 2008 Production profiles of new red-skinned potato varieties. Wisconsin Muck Crops Res. Proc. Pp. 4.
  • Groves, R.L., A. Charkowski, and A.J. Bussan. 2008. Impact of potato virus Y on long-term storage of potato. Proc. of Wisconsin Ann. Potato Meet. 21:21-27.
  • Bussan, A.J., M.E. Copas, and M.J. Drilias. 2008. Cover crop management in processing snap bean. Proc. Wisconsin Fertilizer AgLime Pest Conf. 47:154-160.
  • Copas, M., A.J. Busssan, and M. Drilias. 2008. Developing alternative cover cropping strategies for a vegetable rotation. Proc. of Wisconsin Ann. Potato Meet. 21:39-44.
  • Sabba, R.P. and A.J. Bussan. 2008. Pink eye and cell death in potato tuber. Proc. of Wisconsin Ann. Potato Meet. 21:65-66.


Progress 01/01/07 to 12/31/07

Outputs
OUTPUTS: Research results were disseminated in a variety of venues during 2007. Annual conferences coordinated included the Wisconsin Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Conference in collaboration with the Wisconsin Fresh Market Vegetable Growers Association, Wisconsin Annual Potato Grower Education Conference in collaboration with the Wisconsin Potato and Vegetable Growers Association, Annual Wisconsin Muck Growers Meeting in collaboration with the Wisconsin Muck Growers Association, Midwest Mint Meeting in collaboration with the Wisconsin Mint Board, and the Processing Crops Conference in collaboration with the Midwest Food Processors Association. Total attendance by vegetable growers at these conferences exceeded 400 that manage more than 80% of the planted vegetable acres of Wisconsin. More than 25 presentations and education programs were presented at these annual conferences as well as at McCain's annual agronomy meeting, US Potato Board Chip Committee meeting in Branson, MO, and the Midwest Pickle Association Annual Meeting. In addition to conferences and proceedings 3 extension bulletins were submitted for review and near publication. The first bulletin incorporated data generated through research on effects of planting and vine-kill date on maturation of potatoes to describe process of potato tuber maturation and key management steps necessary to optimize maturation for long term storability. Additional bulletins used research results describing new potato varieties MegaChip and White Pearl to provide crop and storage management recommendations to Wisconsin Farmers. On farm research was completed in collaboration with farmers quantifying climatic effects on stem end darkening in chip potatoes, determining optimal storage management of MegaChip, Bannock Russet, and Freedom Russet, and demonstrating alternative cover cropping strategies for use in annual vegetable rotations of Wisconsin. Finally, newsletters were provided weekly for 12 wk of the summer to the entire Wisconsin vegetable industry in collaboration with grower associations, and articles were published in trade journals such as the Badger Common Tater. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals working on the project: Alvin J. Bussan, P.I., Department of Horticulture, UW-Madison; Mike Drilias, Researcher, Department of Horticulture, UW-Madison; Individuals working on the project and professional development: Robert Sabba, Post-doc, Department of Horticulture, UW-Madison; Mike Copas, Grad research assistant, Department of Horticulture, UW-Madison; Katrina Pfaff, Grad research assistant, Department of Horticulture, UW-Madison; Mary LeMere, Grad research assistant, Department of Plant Pathology, UW-Madison; Heidi Kraiss, Grad research assistant, Department of Horticulture, UW-Madison; Partner organizations: University of Wisconsin Cooperative Extension Service; Wisconsin Potato and Vegetable Growers Association; Midwest Food Processors Association; Wisconsin Fresh Market Vegetable Growers Association; Wisconsin Mint Board; Wisconsin Muck Growers Association; Midwest Pickle Association; Pickle Packers International; US Potato Board Chip Committee; Mint Industry Research Council; Harris Moran Seed Company; Seminis; Crites-Moscow Growers, Inc.; Crookham; Brotherton; Bay Valley Foods; McCain Foods USA; Del Monte; Seneca; Birds Eye; Paul Miller Farms; Coloma Farms; Heartland Farms; Dean Kincaid Incorporated; Paragon Farms; Trzebitowski Farms; Crompton; Collaborators and contacts: Jed Colquhoun, Department of Horticulture, UW-Madison; Paul Mitchell, Department of Ag and Applied Economics, UW-Madison; Paul Bethke, USDA Department of Horticulture, UW-Madison; Russ Groves, Department of Entomology, UW-Madison; Walt Stevenson, Department of Plant Pathology, UW-Madison; Carrie Laboski, Department of Soil Science, UW-Madison; Amy Charkowski, Department of Plant Pathology, UW-Madison; Jiwan Palta, Department of Horticulture, UW-Madison; Jolyn Rasmussen, Hancock Ag Research Station, UW-Madison; Chuck Kostichka, Hancock Ag Research Station, UW-Madison; Ed Lulai, USDA, North Dakota State University; TARGET AUDIENCES: All individuals involved in the production, processing, marketing, service, or other aspect of the potato and vegetable industries of Wisconsin, US, and world. Efforts to provide information are primarily through extension activities described in output. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: no major changes were made

Impacts
Multiple outcomes or impacts occurred during 2007 as a result of this research. New potato varieties continue to be adopted by Wisconsin and other growers in the country. Bannock Russet was planted on over 700 acres under contract for processing for the first time during 2007. Freedom Russet was planted on over 200 acres in part under contract for processing and also for fresh market. Over 1,000 acres of MegaChip were planted in the U.S. for use as chipping potatoes. Finally, 200 acres of Villetta Rose were planted in the U.S. for fresh market. Deep tillage continues to be implemented by nearly all process potato growers and approximately half of the fresh market potato growers as a means of alleviating compaction and preventing pink eye. Little to no pink eye was evident in Wisconsin during 2007 in large part due to dry climate conditions until late in the growing season. Wisconsin processed potato crop has best fry color since 2003. Irrigation management, especially early in the growing season during tuber initiation and early bulking has been modified by growers to minimize the development of sugar end in processing russets. Surveys of the Wisconsin crop following harvest suggest sugars are at the lowest levels measured during the term of this project. Onions for processing are only being produced in limited supply as labor efficient methods for establishing crops that will meet minimum size requirements are still being sought out. Vegetable processors packaged several thousand acres of canned and frozen organic sweet corn, snap beans, peas, carrots and other crops. This was a substantial increase in processing of organic acres relative to previous years.

Publications

  • Bussan, A.J., P.D. Mitchell, M.E. Copas, and M.J. Drilias. 2007. Evaluation of the Effect of Density on Potato Yield and Tuber Size Distribution. Crop Sci. 2007 47:2462-2472.
  • Sabba, R.P., A.J. Bussan, B.A. Michaelis, R. Hughes, M.J. Drilias, and M.T. Glynn. 2007. Effect of planting and vine-kill timing on sugars, specific gravity and skin set in processing potato cultivars. Amer. J. Potato Res. 84:205-215.
  • Groza,H.I., B.D. Bowen, A.J. Bussan, W.R. Stevenson, F. Navarro, D. Kichefski, S.J. Peloquin, J. Palta, J. Jiang. 2007. MegaChip -- A new potato variety for chipping. Amer. J. Potato Res. 84:343-350.
  • Spooner,D.M., S. Jansky, A.J. Bussan. 2007. Experiences of a Local Arrangements Committee for a Large Scientific Conference. Acta-Horticulturae. 745:513-532.
  • Copas, M.E., A.J. Bussan, R.P. Wolkowski, and M.J. Drilias. 2008. Potato yield and quality response to subsoil tillage and compaction. Agron. J. (reviewed and under revision)
  • Copas, M.E., A.J. Bussan*, A. Charkowski, and M.J. Drilias. 2008 Response of pink eye in potato (Solanum tuberosum) to subsoil tillage and compaction. Am. J. Potato Res. (submitted 4/07).
  • Pfaff, K.A. and A.J. Bussan. 2007. Nutrient trap intercrops for potato production systems. Weed Sci. Soc. Am. Abstr.
  • Bussan, A.J. 2007. Predicting potato size distribution. Am. J. Potato Res. 84:79.
  • Copas, M.E., A.J. Bussan, and B. Lowery. 2007. Influence of compaction and subsoil tillage on soil water movement and potato rooting patterns. Am. J. Potato Res. 84:84-85.
  • LeMere, M.T., A.J. Bussan, and W.R. Stevenson. 2007. The effects of fumigation, nitrogen fertility, and varietal resistance to early dying (Verticillium dahliae) and early blight (Alternaria solani) on crop health and productivity. Am. J. Potato Res. 84:99-100.
  • Pfaff, K.A., and A.J. Bussan. 2007. Nutrient trap intercrops for potato production systems. Am. J. Potato Res. 84:110.
  • Sabba, R.P., M.J. Drilias, and A.J. Bussan. 2007. Influence of the sprout inhibitor maleic hydrazide on sugars and yield in potato. Am. J. Potato Res. 84:114.
  • Sabba, R.P., P.Holman, A.J. Bussan, M.J. Drilias. 2008. Influence of maleic hydrazide on yield and sugars in potato. Amer. J. Potato Res. (submitted 1/08).
  • Sabba, R.P. A.J. Bussan, and E.C. Lulai. 2008. Correlation between pink eye symptoms and cell damage in the tuber periderm and cortex. Amer. J. Potato Res. (submitted 1/08)
  • Bussan, A.J., M.E. Copas, and M.J. Drilias. 2007. Onion variety performance from seed and transplant. Wisconsin Muck Crops Res. Proc. pp 31-49.
  • Bussan, A.J. and M.J. Drilias. 2007. Optimizing production of new potato cultivars on muck. Wisconsin Muck Crops Res. Proc. pp 15-18.
  • Stevenson, W.R. and A.J. Bussan. 2007. Onion production in the Treasure Valley. Wisconsin Muck Crops Res. Proc. pp 7-8.
  • Bussan, A.J. and M.J. Drilias. 2007. Carrot and onion storage. Wisconsin Muck Crops Res. Proc. pp 5-6.
  • Bussan, A.J. and W.R. Stevenson. 2007. Improving the persistence of Scotch Spearmint in the Wisconsin. Proc. Midwest Mint Growers Meet. pp 6.
  • Bussan, A.J., K. Pfaff, M.E. Copas, and M.J. Drilias. 2007. Alternative management systems for potato. Proc. of Wisconsin Ann. Potato Meet. 20:213-216.
  • Bussan, A.J., M.E. Copas, and M.J. Drilias. 2007. Optimizing management of new potential varieties. Proc. of Wisconsin Ann. Potato Meet. 20:103-118.
  • Sabba, R.P. and A.J. Bussan. 2007. Skin-set and sugar profiles for new potato lines and varieties. Proc. of Wisconsin Ann. Potato Meet. 20:83-90
  • Sabba, R.P., A.J. Bussan, and E.C. Lulai. 2007. Pink eye: What is going on under the skin. Proc. of Wisconsin Ann. Potato Meet. 20:33-34
  • LeMere, M.T., A.J. Bussan, and W.R. Stevenson. 2007. Effects of fumigation, nitrogen application, and varietal resistance on early dying and yield in four russet varieties. Proc. of Wisconsin Ann. Potato Meet. 20:53-56.
  • Bussan, A.J. 2007. Alternative systems for processing vegetables. Proc. Wisconsin Fertilizer AgLime Pest Conf. 46:226-227


Progress 01/01/06 to 12/31/06

Outputs
Field research continued in all areas of emphasis within the project. Several objectives have been reached, but new areas of focus have emerged. Potato cropping systems research continued in several areas including the evaluation of production practices of new or soon to be released varieties, timing of N and Ca fertilizer application effects on crop maturity, influence of deep tillage on potato growth, yield, quality, and storability, storability of potato, and management of seed. Bannock Russet, Freedom Russet, White Pearl, MegaChip, and Villetta Rose all have commercial potential in WI. We have completed research on deep tillage effects on potato and have submitted manuscripts for publication. Deep tillage had subtle impacts on yield, but improved potato size distribution and processing quality. Deep tillage also reduced incidence of storage rot by 60 to 75%. We currently recommend growers utilize deep tillage to manage compaction. However, we feel other practices may be more beneficial then deep tillage in the long run and we are investigating alternative systems. We have submitted papers on managing tubers per acre and influence on yield and size and had a manuscript accepted quantifying effects of vine kill and planting dates on processing quality. We initiated rather large research programs investigating methods for reducing fungicide and fumigation applications through proper potato variety selection and N fertility. No results are available yet. We completed first years research on determining the influence of irrigation on processing quality of potato. We have also initiated research on determining physiological processes contributing to sugar end in potato and its relation to soil moisture and temperature. We published a manuscript in collaboration with Ed Lulai from NDSU on microscopic evaluation of changes in the tuber periderm in pink eye affected potato. We are completing a second manuscript in collaboration with Lulai on physiological changes in the periderm in pink eye affected tissue and submitted a manuscript documenting the influence of crop management on pink eye development. Processing vegetable crop research focused on management of cover crops in snap bean and sweet corn. Trials were conducted evaluating the influence of annual cover crops on root rot in snap bean as well as yield and quality response. We also evaluated new perennial cover cropping systems for annual vegetable crops. Establishment of perennial legumes in the snap bean understory was investigated. Corn yields were within 10 to 20 percent of commercially managed sweet corn when planted into perennial legume cover crop. We also initiated research on the organic management of sweet corn fertility. Multiple trials were conducted in collaboration with WI onion growers to determine the feasibility of onion production for processing. Onion production for processing appears feasible if grown from transplants under modified irrigation systems. Finally, long-term trials were established to evaluate the survivability of Scotch spearmint. No results are currently available. Future work will also focus on optimizing machine harvest in cucumber.

Impacts
Over 90% of processed potato acreage is subsoil tilled in response to tillage research conducted from 2003 to 2005. We now understand changes in tuber periderm in pink eye affected tissue and a new model is available to understand how pink eye influences tuber infections by different bacteria. We also identified deep tillage and compaction alleviation as effective practices to reduce pink eye. Several truckloads of WI onions were processed into rings as a result of management practices developed through collaborative research with growers. We showed organic processing vegetable production is feasible, but efforts are needed to optimize costs.

Publications

  • Lulai, E.C., J.J. Weiland, J.C. Suttle, R.P. Sabba, and A.J Bussan. 2006. Pink Eye is an unusual periderm disorder characterized by aberrant suberization: A cytological analysis. Am. J. Potato Res. 83:409-421.
  • Holman, J.D., A.J. Bussan, B.D. Maxwell. P.R. Miller, and J.A. Mickelson. 2006. Effects of spring wheat, canola, and Persian darnel density on Persian darnel fecundity. Weed Technol. 20:430-437.
  • Groza, H.I., B.D. Bowen, W.R. Stevenson, J.R. Sowokinos, M.T. Glynn, A.J. Bussan, and J. Jiang. 2006. White Pearl - A chipping potato variety with high resistance to cold sweetening. Am. J. Potato Res. 83:259-267.
  • Bussan, A.J. 2006. Russet Burbank tuber bulking rates in Wisconsin. Amer. J. Potato Res. 83:99.
  • Sabba, R.P., M.E. Copas, and A.J. Bussan. 2006. Influence of deep tillage on pink eye and the progression of symptoms in the field. Amer. J. Potato Res. 83:131.


Progress 01/01/05 to 12/31/05

Outputs
Field research continues in all areas of emphasis within the project. Several objectives have been reached, but new areas of focus have emerged. Potato cropping systems research continued in several areas including the evaluation of production practices of new or soon to be released varieties, timing of N and Ca fertilizer application effects on crop maturity, influence of deep tillage on potato growth, yield, quality, and storability, storability of potato, and management of seed. Bannock Russet, Freedom russet, White Pearl, MegaChip, and Villetta Rose all have commercial potential in WI. We have completed research on deep tillage effects on potato and are currently preparing manuscripts for publication. Deep tillage had subtle impacts on yield, but improved potato size distribution and processing quality. Deep tillage also reduced incidence of storage rot by 60 to 75%. We currently recommend growers utilize deep tillage to manage compaction. However, we feel other practices may be more beneficial then deep tillage in the long run and we are investigating alternative systems. We have submitted papers on managing tubers per acre and influence on yield and size and also effects of vine kill and planting dates on processing quality. We initiated rather large research programs investigating methods for reducing fungicide and fumigation applications through proper potato variety selection and N fertility. No results are available yet. Finally, we also have just begun to investigate the influence of irrigation on processing quality of potato. This past year we focused on field evaluations of skipped irrigation impacts on potato processing quality. No results are available yet. Processing vegetable crop research focused on management of cover crops in snap bean and sweet corn. Trials were conducted evaluating the influence of annual cover crops on root rot in snap bean as well as yield and quality response. We also evaluated new perennial cover cropping systems for annual vegetable crops. Establishment of perennial legumes in the snap bean understory was investigated. No results are available yet. Multiple trials were conducted in collaboration with WI onion growers to determine the feasibility of onion production for processing. Several million cwt of onion are processed for rings each month in WI. However, no onions are purchased in the state and most shipped across the continent. Onion production for processing appears feasible based on this years results, but more research is necessary to refine the management systems. Finally, long-term trials were established to evaluate the survivability of Scotch spearmint. No results are currently available. Future work will also focus on optimizing machine harvest in cucumber. Fresh market vegetable research focused on season extension in tomato and concluded during 2005. High tunnels provided earlier tomato fruit ripening and extended ripening in the fall. The greatest benefits of high tunnels occurred in years with cool summers and early fall frosts. However, protection from intense summer heat by high tunnels had positive effects on yield and production consistency.

Impacts
Fresh market and processing quality of potatoes will be improved through development of field and storage management methods focused on improving the end use value of potato products. In addition, vegetable production systems will be developed that have less negative effects on the environment. In addition, research will focus on vegetable production sytems that allow for new market opportunities and improved efficiencies.

Publications

  • Groza, H.I., B.D. Bowen, D. Kichefski, S.J. Peloquin, W.R. Stevenson, A.J. Bussan, and J. Jiang. 2005. Millennium Russet: A Dual Purpose Russet Potato Variety. Am J. Potato Res. 82:211-219.


Progress 01/01/04 to 12/31/04

Outputs
Research projects conducted during 2004 focused on improving yield and quality of vegetables through manipulation of management systems. Potato was the focus of much research. Key potato quality factors that were studied included size distribution of potato tubers, sugar concentrations of potato at harvest and during storage, specific gravity, and storability. The influence of tuber density on potato size distribution was one focal point of the research. Small plot and field scale trials were conducted. Field scale research was completed for a second year and will be summarized in a publication during 2005. As in other crops, sub-field variability in yield, specific gravity, and size distribution was common over 2 yr. Future research will study factors that govern sub-field heterogeneity in yield and quality factors, and methods for assessing quality differences. In addition, field scale and small plot research was conducted to determine the influence of deep tillage on tuber diseases especially pink eye. Pink eye appeared to decrease with deep tillage in 2004 and spoilage increased in storage when the field was not deep ripped. Other vegetables studied during 2003 include tomato, pepper, cantaloupe and others. Snap bean research has been completed that focused on developing integrated management factors for soybean aphid transmitted viruses. Planting date was the only sure method for managing virus in snap bean at present. Virus resistant lines with suitable canning characteristics are desperately needed. Season extension practices for tomato and other vegetables were also investigated. Planting date has a tremendous effect on yield of fresh market tomato. Earlier planting of tomato was improved by plastic mulch, but low tunnel plasticulture techniques had little positive effect. Research was initiated to develop suitable cover or inter-crop strategies in vegetables with the goal of improving nutrient use efficiency and improving soil quality.

Impacts
Fresh market and processing quality of potatoes will be improved through development of field and storage management methods focused on improving the end use value of potato products. In addition, vegetable production systems will be developed that have less negative effects on the environment.

Publications

  • Sabba, R. and A.J. Bussan. 2004. Effect of planting and vine kill timing on skin-set and sugars in potato. Potato Assoc. Amer. Abstr. 75.
  • Bussan, A.J., M. Copas, and M. Drilias. 2004. Field scale evaluation of in-row spacing on potato yield and quality. Potato Assoc. Amer. Abstr. 27.
  • Copas, M. and A.J. Bussan. 2004. Influence of compaction and deep tillage on yield and quality of potato. Potato Assoc. Amer. Abstr. 28.


Progress 01/01/03 to 12/31/03

Outputs
Research projects conducted during 2003 focused on improving yield and quality of vegetables through manipulation of management systems. Potato was the focus of much research. Key potato quality factors that were studied included size distribution of potato tubers, sugar concentrations of potato at harvest and during storage, specific gravity, and storability. The influence of tuber density on potato size distribution was once focal point of the research. Small plot and field scale trials were conducted. Field scale research was completed for a second year and will be summarize in a publication during 2004. As in other crops, sub-field variability in yield, specific gravity, and size distribution was common over 2 yr. Future research will study factors that govern sub-field heterogeneity in yield and quality factors, and methods for assessing quality differences. In addition, field scale and small plot research was conducted to determine the influence of deep tillage on tuber diseases especially pink eye. First year results were inconclusive, but wide-scale adoption of deep tillage by producers suggests further work is necessary to determine the potential benefit. Other vegetables studied during 2003 include snap bean, tomato, pepper, and others. Snap bean research was focused on developing integrated management factors for soybean aphid transmitted viruses. Planting date is the only sure method for managing virus in snap bean at present. Virus resistant lines with suitable canning characteristics are desperately needed. Season extension practices for tomato and other vegetables were also investigated. Planting date has a tremendous effect on yield of fresh market tomato. Earlier planting of tomato may be feasible with plastic row covers or low tunnel production systems. Research is being initiated in the coming year to develop suitable cover or inter-crop strategies in vegetables with the goal of improving nutrient use efficiency and improving soil quality.

Impacts
Fresh market and processing quality of potatoes will be improved through development of field and storage management methods focused on improving the end use value of potato products. In addition, vegetable production systems will be developed that have less negative effects on the environment.

Publications

  • Bussan, A.J. and M. Drilias. 2003. Influence of in-row spacing on yield and quality of potato genotypes. Potato Assoc. Amer. Abstr. P. 62.