Source: OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY submitted to
ANIMAL MANURE AND WASTE UTILIZATION, TREATMENT AND NUISANCE AVOIDANCE FOR A SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE
Sponsoring Institution
National Institute of Food and Agriculture
Project Status
TERMINATED
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
0194640
Grant No.
(N/A)
Project No.
OHO01026-MRF
Proposal No.
(N/A)
Multistate No.
S-1000
Program Code
(N/A)
Project Start Date
Oct 1, 2001
Project End Date
Sep 30, 2007
Grant Year
(N/A)
Project Director
Keener, H. M.
Recipient Organization
OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY
1680 MADISON AVENUE
WOOSTER,OH 44691
Performing Department
FOOD, AGRIC & BIOLOGICAL ENG
Non Technical Summary
A. Livestock manures applied as liquids sometimes move offsite through the soils macropores to tile lines causing surface water pollution. B. Nutrients in manures incur high transportation cost and often generate odors when applied in liquid form. A This project examines ways to minimize offsite movement of applied liquid manures. B This project is to develop cost effective systems for converting liquid manures to solid manures by changing manure handling practices with the focus on composting.
Animal Health Component
40%
Research Effort Categories
Basic
45%
Applied
40%
Developmental
15%
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
1330199202017%
1330499202017%
4033299202016%
4033499202016%
4033599202017%
4035330202017%
Goals / Objectives
Development management tools, strategies and systems for land application of animal manures and effluents that optimize efficient, environmentally friendly utilization of nutrients and are compatible with sustained land and water quality. 2. Develop, evaluate, and refine physical, chemical and biological treatment processes in engineered and natural systems for management of manures and other wastes. 3. Develop methodology, technology, and management practices to reduce odors, gases, airborne microflora, particulate matter, and other airborne emissions from animal production systems. 4. Develop and evaluate feeding systems for their potential to alter the excretion of environmentally-sensitive nutrients by livestock.
Project Methods
1. Investigate rheology of liquid waste as a function of water content. Evaluate flow through various pore sizes in soil using laboratory and field test plots. 2. Determine kinetic parameters and odor levels during composting of animal manure/amendment mixes using various aeration patterns in pilot scale vessels. Determine the rates of decomposition and moistures loss under full scale windrow composting. Develop simulation models of compost process and use to optimize design and management of compost systems. 3. Evaluate new housing concepts for poultry and swine, evaluating the characteristics of manure generated products along with doing material balances for N,P,K, and water. Focus of research are belt battery systems for poultry and high rise hog facilities.

Progress 01/01/07 to 12/31/07

Outputs
OUTPUTS: Impact of mixing gypsum with dairy manure or biosolids on N release during composting investigated. Experiment 1 results showed loss of ammonia-N was essentially complete after seven days and ranged from 6.4% for the zero rate control to 2.6-2.8% for the gypsum treatments of 0, 6%, 13% and 23% (dry weight, w/w). Further studies conducted in 210-liter stainless steel vessels over a 28-day period using dairy manure and biosolids treated with or without 17% gypsum (dry weight, w/w) revealed the amount of N lost, as a percentage of that originally present in the compost mix, was 7.27% and 15.6% without gypsum for dairy manure and biosolids, respectively, and 3.62% and 13.6% with gypsum. The difference between the dairy manure and biosolids results is attributed primarily to a lower C:N ratio of the biosolids compared to the dairy manure. Results on use of compost filter berms (SS) and siltfence (SF) for sediment control structures published (Keener et al). Results showed SS half the heights of SF were less likely to overtop than SF when sediment-laden runoff-water flow rates are less than 1.03 L-1 s-1 m-1 (5 gpm/ft). Studies on water usage at an Ohio dairy farm published (Brugger). Water usage was less than previously published literature and averaged 4.5 gallons water per gallon of milk. Study has been expanded to three Ohio dairy farms. Relative merits of various setback models used in farm planning for odor control compared (Chaoui and Brugger). A sensitivity analysis showed that a given variable had different effects in different models. Paper on generalized equations for predicting ammonia emissions from all classes of livestock operations using mass balance method published (Keener and Zhao, 2008). Research studies on emissions from dairy and poultry operations to evaluate method started. Manuzon et al. published paper on effectiveness of acid spray wet scrubber for absorbing ammonia emissions from animal buildings, looking at single, two stage and three stage nozzle arrangements. Zhao et al published results on temporal variations in H2S, NH3 , and odor emissions from an Ohio dairy farm with a 675-cow free-stall barn and one outside earthen manure storage pond. Monthly measurements from the dairy manure storage pond were conducted using a convective flux chamber and gas analyzers. Daily mean NH3 , H2 S, and odor emission rates ranged from 5.7 to 174.8+-g s -1 m - 2 , 0.1 to 4.6+-g s -1 m - 2 , and 0 to 10.34 OU s -1 m -2 , respectively. The daily H 2 S emission was not a concern relative to the EPCRA and CERCLA's 100 lb d -1 reporting requirement for NH 3 and H 2 S. However, NH 3 emission from dairy operation exceeded 100 lb d -1 in warmer months. Fact sheet published (Zhao et al) on what is odor, how it is emitted from manures and effective land application methods for odor control. Grewal et al. (see Costantini et al. and Chen et al.) published results comparing the persistence of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella typhimuriutn during the treatment of swine manure by commonly used manure management methods: liquid storage, aerated liquid storage, thermophilic composting (55C) and manure packing (low temperature composting). PARTICIPANTS: H.M. Keener, M. Brugger, F.C. Michel Jr., L. Zhao, J. Rausch. Department of Food, Agricultural, Biological Engineering [keener.3@osu.edu, brugger.1@osu.edu, michel.36@osu.edu, zhao.119@osu.edu, rausch.7@osu.edu], W. Dick, School of Natural Resources [dick.5@osu.edu] TARGET AUDIENCES: Farmers, State & Federal Agencies Personnel, Consultants, Public Officials, University Students & Professors

Impacts
1. Reduced risk of nitrogen loss during composting of animal manures or biosolids by showing that addition of gypsum could be effective as an ammonia control agent. 2. Reduced cost to design and implement runoff control structures by developing design tool for sizing biofilter structures for treating runoff from storage areas (compost, manure) or construction sites. 3. Reduced water usuage on Ohio's dairy farms by identifying ways to conserve water. 4. Reduce monitoring cost and accuracy of assessing ammonia emissions from livestock facilities by developing modified mass balance approach for evaluating NH3 emissions from livestock facilities as a substitute method for current methods of assessing NH3 emissions based on concentrations and gas flow rates. 5. Enabled capturing NH3 emissions from livestock facilities by developing equations and supporting research data for optimizing the design of wet scrubbing systems. 6. Reduced nuisance suits against livestock producers by providing them a fact sheet on odor mitigation during land application of manures. 7. Enabled farmers to protect environment against pathogens in livestock manures by documenting reductions achieved with different manure handling/treatment systems.

Publications

  • Brugger, M. 2007. Water use on Ohio dairy farms. OSUE Fact Sheet 9/07-3621. The Ohio State University. Available: http://ohioline.osu.edu/aex-fact/Dairy_Water_Use.pdf
  • Chaoui, H., M. Brugger. 2007. Comparison and Sensitivity Analysis of Setback Distance Models . CD-Rom of the International Symposium on Air Quality and Waste Management for Agriculture Conference Proceedings, 16-19 September 2007, (Broomfield, Colorado, USA) Editor, L. Moody, St. Joseph Michigan: ASABE. ,16, September 2007 . ASAE Pub #701P0907cd
  • Chen, J., Y. Zhongtang, F.C. Michel Jr., T. Wittum and M. Morrison. 2007. Development and application of real-time PCR assays for quantification of erm genes conferring resistance to macrolides-Lincosamides-Streptogramin B in livestock manure and manurement systems. Applied & Environmental Microbiology. 73(14):4407-4416
  • Costantini, V.P., A.C., Azevedo, L. Xin, M.C. Williams, F.C. Michel Jr.,L.J. Saif. 2007. Effects of different animal waste treatment technologies on detection and viability of porcine enteric viruses. Applied & Environmental Microbiology. 73(16):5284-5291
  • Grewal, S., S. Sreevatsan and F.C. Michel Jr. 2007. Persistence of Listeria and Salmonella during swine manure treatment. Compost Science & Utilization. 15(1): p53-62
  • Keener, H.M., P. Kaur and R. Kamenik. 2007. Measurement and material volumes at Ohio Compost Class IV Compost Facilities. Final Report. December 31. Ohio Compost Association. Medina, Ohio.
  • Keener, H.M., B. Faucette, and M.H. Klingman. 2007. Flow-Through Rates and Evaluation of Solids Separation of Compost Filter Media vs. Silt Fence in Sediment Control Applications. J. Environ. Qual. 36:742-752
  • Keener, H.M. and L.Y. Zhao. 2008. A modified mass balance for predicting ammonia emissions from manure nitrogen for livestock and storage facilities. Biosystems Engineering. 99(1):81-87.
  • Manuzon, R.B., L.Y. Zhao, H.M. Keener and M. Darr. 2007. A prototype acid spray scrubber for absorbing ammonia emissions from exhaust fans of animal buildings. Transactions of the ASAE. 50(4):1395-1407.
  • Zhao, L.Y., M. Darr, X. Wang, R. Manuzon, M. Brugger1, E. Imerman, G. Arnold, H. Keener, and A. J. Heber. 2007. Temporal Variations in Gas and Odor Emissions from a Dairy Manure Storage Pond. Electronic -only Sixth International Dairy Housing Conference Proceedings of the 16-18 June 2007, (Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA), eds J. Zulovich, B. Holmes, J. Harner. St. Joseph Michigan: ASABE. ,16-18 June 2007 . ASAE Pub #701P0507e
  • Zhao, L., J.N. Rausch and T.L. Combs. Odor control for land application of manure. OSUE fact Sheet October 2007-3642. The Ohio State University. Available: http://ohioline.osu.edu/aex-fact/pdf/odor_control.pdf


Progress 10/01/01 to 09/30/07

Outputs
OUTPUTS: Impact of mixing gypsum with dairy manure or biosolids on N release during composting investigated. Experiment 1 results showed loss of ammonia-N was essentially complete after seven days and ranged from 6.4% for the zero rate control to 2.6-2.8% for the gypsum treatments of 0, 6%, 13% and 23% (dry weight, w/w). Further studies conducted in 210-liter stainless steel vessels over a 28-day period using dairy manure and biosolids treated with or without 17% gypsum (dry weight, w/w) revealed the amount of N lost, as a percentage of that originally present in the compost mix, was 7.27% and 15.6% without gypsum for dairy manure and biosolids, respectively, and 3.62% and 13.6% with gypsum. The difference between the dairy manure and biosolids results is attributed primarily to a lower C:N ratio of the biosolids compared to the dairy manure. Results on use of compost filter berms (SS) and siltfence (SF) for sediment control structures published (Keener et al). Results showed SS half the heights of SF were less likely to overtop than SF when sediment-laden runoff-water flow rates are less than 1.03 L-1 s-1 m-1 (5 gpm/ft). Studies on water usage at an Ohio dairy farm published (Brugger). Water usage was less than previously published literature and averaged 4.5 gallons water per gallon of milk. Study has been expanded to three Ohio dairy farms. Relative merits of various setback models used in farm planning for odor control compared (Chaoui and Brugger). A sensitivity analysis showed that a given variable had different effects in different models. Paper on generalized equations for predicting ammonia emissions from all classes of livestock operations using mass balance method published (Keener and Zhao, 2008). Research studies on emissions from dairy and poultry operations to evaluate method started. Manuzon et al. published paper on effectiveness of acid spray wet scrubber for absorbing ammonia emissions from animal buildings, looking at single, two stage and three stage nozzle arrangements. Zhao et al published results on temporal variations in H2S, NH3 , and odor emissions from an Ohio dairy farm with a 675-cow free-stall barn and one outside earthen manure storage pond. Monthly measurements from the dairy manure storage pond were conducted using a convective flux chamber and gas analyzers. Daily mean NH3 , H2 S, and odor emission rates ranged from 5.7 to 174.8+-g s -1 m - 2 , 0.1 to 4.6+-g s -1 m - 2 , and 0 to 10.34 OU s -1 m -2 , respectively. The daily H 2 S emission was not a concern relative to the EPCRA and CERCLA's 100 lb d -1 reporting requirement for NH 3 and H 2 S. However, NH 3 emission from dairy operation exceeded 100 lb d -1 in warmer months. Fact sheet published (Zhao et al) on what is odor, how it is emitted from manures and effective land application methods for odor control. Grewal et al. (see Costantini et al. and Chen et al.) published results comparing the persistence of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella typhimuriutn during the treatment of swine manure by commonly used manure management methods: liquid storage, aerated liquid storage, thermophilic composting (55C) and manure packing (low temperature composting). PARTICIPANTS: H.M. Keener, M. Brugger, F.C. Michel Jr., L. Zhao, J. Rausch. Department of Food, Agricultural, Biological Engineering (keener.3@osu.edu, brugger.1@osu.edu, michel.36@osu.edu, zhao.119@osu.edu, rausch.7@osu.edu), W. Dick, School of Natural Resources (dick.5@osu.edu) TARGET AUDIENCES: Farmers, State & Federal Agencies Personnel, Consultants, Public Officials, University Students & Professors PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.

Impacts
1. Reduced risk of preferential flow during land application of manure by showing that lowering manure moisture , i.e. increasing solids, would be effective in preventing preferential flow at time of application. 2. Reduced cost to design and implement runoff control structures by developing design tool for sizing biofilter structures for treating runoff from storage areas (compost, manure) or construction sites. 3. Reduced cost of composting animal manures by showing low airflow, regardless of composting system configuration, is main factor to minimize energy usage, yet achieve a specific rate of decomposition. Developed Excel computer simulation models of composting process for optimizing design of facilities, i.e. minimize cost of treatment. 4. Reduce monitoring cost and accuracy of assessing ammonia emissions from livestock facilities by developing modified mass balance approach for evaluating NH3 emissions from livestock facilities as a substitute method for current methods of assessing NH3 emissions based on concentrations and gas flow rates. 5. Enabled livestock produces to better manage manure storage and prevent overflow/ spillage from storage structures due to weather related events by developing equations and supporting historical data for managing manure storage systems to avoid overflow.

Publications

  • No publications reported this period


Progress 01/01/06 to 12/31/06

Outputs
Ekinci et al. reported results of a dynamic computer simulation of composting process for feedstocks - broiler liter + paper mill sludge and biosolids + woochips. Incorporated in the model was oxygen and temperature control. Interdependence of feedstock, airflow rate and recirculation on energy efficiency presented. As recirculation ratio increased the energy requirements increased for both compost mixtures, but not at the same rate. Keener and Michel reported on spreadsheet computer model for design and management of compost systems. Model consisted of four sections: (1) formulation of compost mix to meet C/N and moisture requirements; (2)design of pad showing areas for composting and curing including pile sizes and numbers; (3) evaluation of process for dry matter and moisture losses, airflow and fan size requirements; and (4) summary sections giving input and output masses and volumes, fan energy cost. Previous studies on use of compost filter berms (SS) and siltfence (SF) for sediment control structures reported by Keener, Faucette and Hoorman. Data showed SS 1/2 the height of SF is less likely to overflow than SF when sediment-laden runoff flow is less than 5 gpm/lineal ft., but predicting the capacity of SF and SS to handle runoff without the filter being topped requires consideration of both runoff rate and length of runoff time. Results were used to create an MS ExcelTM based interactive design tool to assist engineers in designing sediment control structures. Keener and Zhao presented generalized equations for predicting ammonia emissions from all classes of livestock operations. The analysis used a control volume approach and N/ash ratios. Method is lower cost than continuous air sampling and can be highly accurate for time averaged NH3 emissions. Paper written and presented at manure science review on calculating allowable storage time for manure holding structure. Allowable storage time is a function of daily manure production, rainfall, waste water generated and daily haul. Operational method outlined for determining change in storage volume (depth) due to rainfall. Five year averages of bi-weekly rainfall amounts for 3 locations in Ohio determined with ranges of 0.8 to 3.5 inches during year for use in model of allowable storage time. Results reported for rheology and flowability properties of liquid dairy and swine waste by Keener, Hoorman and Klingman. Manuzon et al. reported on effectiveness of acid spray wet scrubber for absorbing ammonia emissions from animal buildings. Michel etal. reported on studies on sand separation from dairy manure. Studies at a 3200 cow dairy showed after the sand recycling system was installed, the quantity of sand purchased on the farm decreased more than 10 fold from approximately 2100 T/month down to 150 T/month. On a per cow per day basis, new sand usage dropped from 44 lbs/cow-day to approximately 3 lbs/cow-day. In the winter months, approximately 30% of the washed sand was too wet to be recycled as bedding and had to be stored on the pad throughout the winter to be used later as bedding sand. To minimize fresh water use, water from the storage lagoon was used to wash the sand.

Impacts
1. Reduced risk of preferential flow during land application of manure by showing that lowering manure moisture , i.e. increasing solids, would be effective in preventing preferential flow at time of application. 2. Reduced cost to design and implement runoff control structures by developing design tool for sizing biofilter structures for treating runoff from storage areas (compost, manure) or construction sites. 3. Reduced cost of composting animal manures by showing low airflow, regardless of composting system configuration, is main factor to minimize energy usage, yet achieve a specific rate of decomposition. Developed Excel computer simulation models of composting process for optimizing design of facilities, i.e. minimize cost of treatment. 4. Reduce monitoring cost and accuracy of assessing ammonia emissions from livestock facilities by developing modified mass balance approach for evaluating NH3 emissions from livestock facilities as a substitute method for current methods of assessing NH3 emissions based on concentrations and gas flow rates. 5. Enabled livestock produces to better manage manure storage and prevent overflow/ spillage from storage structures due to weather related events by developing equations and supporting historical data for managing manure storage systems to avoid overflow.

Publications

  • Ekinci, K., H.M.Keener, D. Akbolat. 2006. Effects of feedstock, airflow rate, and recirculation ratio on the performance of composting systems with air recirculation. Bioresource Technology 97(2006 ) 922-932
  • Keener, H.M. and K. Ekinci. 2006. (abstract) Composting process management to minimize cost and odor. Pp37. Conference Program. US Composting Council 14th Annual Conference and Tradeshow, 1/22-25. Albuquerque, NM.
  • Keener, H.M. and L. Zhao. 2006. Predicting NH3 emissions from manure N for livestock facilities and storages. A modified mass balance approach. Pp1287-1293. Proceedings Workshop on air quality: State of the science. 6/5-8. Bolger Conference Center, Potomac, Maryland. (search at ncsu.edu/airworkshop/Posters-Z.pdf)
  • Keener, H.M., B. Faucette and M.H. Klingman. 2006. Flow-through rates and evaluation of solids separation of compost filter media vs. silt fence in sediment control applications. ASAE Paper Number: 06206. Presented at 2006 ASABE Annual International Meeting. 7/9-12. Portland Convention Center, Portland, Oregon. Published on CD (search at asae.frymulti.com)
  • Keener, H. M., J.J. Hoorman and M.H. Klingman. 2006. Rheology and flowability properties of liquid dairy and swine waste. ASAE Paper No. 064072. Presented at 2006 ASABE Annual International Meeting. 7/9-12. Portland Convention Center, Portland, Oregon. (search at asae.frymulti.com)
  • Michel Jr., F.C., Harold M. Keener, Jeff LeJeune, Srinand Sreevatsan, H.A.J. Hoitink. 2006. Testing and Demonstration of Full Scale Composting Systems for Sand Bedded Dairy Manure. Final Report. March 31. Ohio Water Development Authority, Columbus, OH.
  • Keener, H.M. and F.C. Michel Jr. 2006. Using a spreadsheet computer model for design and management of compost systems. pp 191-202. Proceedings Orbit 2006 International Conference. 9/13-15. Weimar, Germany.
  • Keener, H.M. 2006. Chapter 1. Manure characteristics. In: The Ohio Livestock Manure Management Guide, Bullentin 604. The Ohio State University Extension. Columbus, OH.


Progress 01/01/05 to 12/31/05

Outputs
Results reported for: plant growth studies in soilless mixes made with cardboard bedding/horse manure compost (Wilkinson et al.); dry matter and NH3 loss when composting dairy manure amended with straw, sawdust and sand bedding (Michel et al.); concentrations of malodorous volatile chemicals emitted during composting dairy manure (Willett et al.); spatial and temporal distributions of air quality on large dairy farms and swine facilities in Ohio (Zhao et al.); leaching of suspended solids, total dissolved solids, ammonia nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium from dairy cow manure/sawdust composting in windrows (Keener et al.). Willet noted during windrow composting, addition of small quantities of air (1.6 g/kg/hr) was sufficient to maintain aerobic conditions. Zhao noted for dairy, inside average dust mass concentrations range from 0.9 to 1.5 mg/m3 and ammonia concentrations range from 1.4 to 3 ppm in different seasons. Keener reported loss factors for %NH3-N, P and K from composts for 3 ages of compost, 0, 16.5 and 30 days and noted results can be applied to the design of control structures for treating runoff from compost pads. Manuzon reported on the design and efficiency of an NH3 spray scrubber from emissions from caged layer operations. Noted improved efficiency if used acid in water. Michel and Grewal and Michel et al.) reported on persistence of dairy and swine manure pathogens - Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (M. paratuberculosis) during composting (55 degrees C), manure pack (25 degrees C) and liquid storage. M. paratuberculosis was most persistent of organisms studied. Evaluation of all results indicate thermophilic composting should be recommended for manures destined for pathogen sensitive environments such as vegetable production. Keener and Michel presented generalized equations for predicting ammonia emissions from all classes of livestock operations. The analysis uses a control volume approach and N/ash ratios. It does not require measuring total masses of materials into and from the system, can be highly accurate for time averaged emissions, and significantly lower in cost than monitoring ammonia concentrations and airflow to evaluate NH3 emissions. Darr et al. developed and evaluated a controller area network's ability to transmit sensor data over the long transmission distances common to livestock facilities. Effective transmission distance was directly correlated to the data bus rate. A bus rates of 50 kbits/sec or less can accurately deliver CAN messages up to 600 meters on a continuous basis. Keener conducted laboratory studies on liquid dairy and swine manure to determine viscosity and flow rates of manures through macropores of 7.24 mm (0.285 inches). Dairy manure had a higher viscosity than the hog manure at comparable moisture level. Results of 7.24 mm sieve test showed swine manure with solids 13.2% and dairy manure with 5.8% had flow-abilities 1/10 that of water. Results indicated fresh dairy manure (12% solids) posses little risk of flow, while swine manure (11% solids) poses a potential risk.

Impacts
Reduce monitoring cost and accuracy of assessing ammonia emissions. Modified mass balance approach for evaluating NH3 emissions is lower cost than current methods of assessing NH3 emissions based on concentrations and gas flow rates. f.Lowering manure moisture significantly reduces potential for preferential flow. Results of studies on manure viscosity and flow-ability (relative to water) shows that lowering manure moisture, i.e. increasing solids, would be effective in preventing preferential flow at time of application.

Publications

  • Zhao, L. Y., R. Manuzon, M. Brugger, G. Arnold, R. Bender. 2005b. Air Quality of Swine Wean-finish Facilities with Deep-pit and Pull-plug-lagoon Manure Storage Systems. Pp. 207-215 in Seventh International Livestock Environment Symposium (18-20 May 2005, Beijing, China), ed. Tami Brown-Brandl and Ronaldo Maghirang. Copyright 2005 American Society of Agricultural Engineers, St. Joseph, Michigan.
  • Darr,M.J., Zhao,L., Ehsani,M.R., Ward,J.K. and Stombaugh,T.S. 2005. Evaluation of Controller Area Network Data Collection System in Confined Animal Feeding Operations. Pp. 179-187 in Seventh International Livestock Environment Symposium (18-20 May 2005, Beijing, China), ed. Tami Brown-Brandl and Ronaldo Maghirang. American Society of Agricultural Engineers, St. Joseph, Michigan.
  • Keener, H.M. 2005. Evaluation of Manure Flow-ability. Final Report. 9/2. GLRWCP. OSUE. 7p.
  • Keener, H.M. and F.C. Michel Jr. 2005. Predicting NH3 emissions from manure N for caged layer facilities. A modified mass balance approach. Symposium on the State of Science of Animal Manure and Waste Management. 1/5-7. Marriott River Center, San Antonio, TX. Search at www.cals.ncsu.edu/waste_mgt/natlcenter/sanantonio/proceedings.htm
  • Keener, H.M., T.F. Wilkinson, F.C. Michel Jr. and L.C. Brown. 2005. Evaluation of leaching from composting windrows using a rainfall simulator. 2005 Animal Waste Management Symposium. 10/5-7. Sheraton Imperial Hotel and Conference Center, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina.
  • Michel, Jr., F. C., S. Grewal. 2005. Persistence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and other Pathogens during Composting, Manure Pack and Liquid Storage of Dairy Manure. 1/5-7. Marriott River Center, San Antonio, TX. Search at www.cals.ncsu.edu/waste_mgt
  • Michel Jr., F.C., H.M. Keener, J.Rigot, T. Wilkinson and J. Pecchia. 2005a Effects of Straw, Sawdust and Sand Bedding on Dairy Manure Composting. Symposium on the State of Science of Animal Manure and Waste Management. 1/5-7. Marriott River Center, San Antonio, TX. Search at www.cals.ncsu.edu/waste_mgt
  • Michel Jr., F C., S.K. Grewal, S. Rajeev, and S. Sreevatsan. 2005b. Persistence of Microbial Pathogens during Composting, Liquid-Storage and Pack Storage of Dairy and Swine Manures. 2005 Animal Waste Management Symposium. 10/5-7. Sheraton Imperial Hotel and Conference Center, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. Search at www.cals.ncsu.edu/waste_mgt
  • Manuzon, R.B. (L.Y. Zhao, advisor). 2005. Development of a prototype spray scrubber for reducing ammonia emissions from poultry facilities exhaust fans. MS Thesis. The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.
  • Wilkinson, T.F., H.A.J. Hoitink and H.M. Keener. 2004. Evaluation of approaches for composting cardboard bedding/horse manure - Phase II: Plant growth in compost mixes. NABEC Paper 05-003. Presented at 2005 NABEC Conference, 8/7-10. Lewes, Delaware.
  • Willet, L.B., D.L. Elwell, H.M. Keener, D.C. Borger. 2005. Volatile emissions from composting dairy manures as indicators of bioprocesses and objectionable odors. Final Report. May 15. APWMC. NCSU.
  • Zhao, L. Y., M. Brugger, R. Manuzon, G. Arnold, E. Imerman. 2005a. Study of Air Quality Spatial and Temporal Distributions on Large Dairy Farms in Ohio. Pp. 188-197 in Seventh International Livestock Environment Symposium (18-20 May 2005, Beijing, China), ed. Tami Brown-Brandl and Ronaldo Maghirang. American Society of Agricultural Engineers, St. Joseph, Michigan.


Progress 01/01/04 to 12/31/04

Outputs
Studies on composting horse manure and a commercial cardboard bedding (hm/cb), based on full scale, pilot, and simulation experiments completed. Initial compost moisture content was 56% and C/N ratio 33. On day 90, moisture content was 48% and C/N ratio 17.3. Odor was not apparent during composting (Keener et al., 2004). Two growth trials were done with composted hm/cb. Results determined seventy days of composting in windrows, and a hm/cb compost amendment rate of 20 percent (a potting mix containing 50 % peat and 30 % Perlite,v/v) was most suitable for production of cucumber plants if a fertilization rate of 200 ppm N was utilized. Straw, sawdust and sand bedded dairy manures amended with either sawdust or straw was composted on multiple occasions (n=4). Starting windrow volumes for straw amended composts were 2.1 to 2.6 times greater than for sawdust windrows. Sand bedding resulted in greater 50% more final compost on a per cow basis. All sawdust-amended composts self-heated to >55 degrees C within 10 days and met pathogen reduction guidelines. None of the straw-amended or sand bedded sawdust amended composts met the guidelines. All of the composts were stable after 100 days. Initial compost C:N ratios ranged from 25:1 to 50:1 and the manure nitrogen lost during composting ranged from 2% to 38% (Michel et al., 2004,a,b). Previous studies on odor control when composting dairy manures were analyzed using a mixed model ANOVA. Anaerobic aging greatly enhanced the concentration of volatile organic compounds (VOC)s in manures. Composts that were maintained aerobically had rapid declines in concentrations of VOCs with 98 to 100% eliminated within a week. Generally emissions of VOCs from closed composting vessels represented less than 0.25% of the VOC odorants in the initial compost mixes (Elwell et al., 2004). Runoff studies (n=3) from dairy manure/sawdust composting windrows with ages of 0,15 and 30 days were conducted using a Norton Ladder rain simulator. Storm event used was 2 in/hr for 1.5 hrs. Results showed 1)water runoff from composting dairy manure/sawdust mix increases with compost age and 2)concentration of most nutrients decreases in runoff with age, but no definite trend occured. A comprehensive air quality survey was conducted on six Ohio animal farms [swine finishing with deep pit, swine farrowing with manure lagoon, swine finishing with manure lagoon, two free stall dairies and one poultry layer farm. Air quality spatial distribution inside and outdoors were studied over cold, warm, and hot seasons. Swine buildings had the highest level of odor compared with manure storage lagoon, poultry and dairy. Management of ammonia and particulate emissions were major challenges for the poultry industry. Manure holding ponds of large dairies present major air emission source. A wet scrubber, based on results of modeling, is being developed to control dust and ammonia emissions from poultry laying facilities. Early results of a particulate impaction curtain for reduction of dust emission from poultry layer houses (5 months) gave dust removal efficiency of 33% to 49%.

Impacts
a. Reduced cost of manure management, transporting nutrients offsite. Studies on dry matter and water loss during composting allow economic analysis to be made on process cost and cost of transporting nutrients offsite. b. Reduced odor generation during composting of animal manure. Odor studies have documented odor changes in manure between day 1 and day 10. Result suggests collecting and composting fresh manure has potential to reduce odor at composting site. Aeration during composting resulted in destruction of odorous compounds (95-100 percent) by day eight. Biofilters are only needed for short period of times. Composting dairy manure/amendment mix with C/N above 40 reduces N losses significantly. c. Added value to manure compost. Identified and showed through plant growth studies potential markets and value of composted manure and improve opportunities for coordinated growth of Ohio's dairy, swine, nursery and other green industries. d. Generated baseline information on air quality at Ohio animal facilities. Results will help resolve the rising air quality issue based on scientific finding. The data will also help regulatory agency develop proper regulation on air quality and air emission from animal feeding operations.

Publications

  • Keener, H.M., D.L. Elwell, K. Winbush, R. James. 2004. Evaluation of approaches for composting horse manure and commercial cardboard bedding. ASAE Paper 044068. Presented at 2004 ASAE/CSAE Annual International Meeting. 8/1-4. Fairmont Chateau Laurier, The Westin, Government Centre, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Published on CD (search at asae.frymulti.com)
  • Manuzon D., L.Y. Zhao, and Y. Zhang. 2004. Wet scrubbing technologies for air emissions from animal feeding operations: a review. ASAE paper No. xxxxxx. St. Joseph, Mich.: ASAE.
  • Michel Jr., F.C., J.A. Pecchia, J. Rigot, H.M. Keener. 2004. Mass and nutrient losses during the composting of dairy manure amended with sawdust or straw. Compost Science and Utilization. 12(4):323-334.
  • Michel, Jr., F.C., H. M. Keener, J. Rigot, T. Wilkinson, J. Pecchia. 2004. Effects of straw, sawdust and sand bedding on dairy manure composting. ASAE Paper 044030. Presented at 2004 ASAE/CSAE Annual International Meeting. 8/1-4. Fairmont Chateau Laurier, The Westin, Government Centre, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Published on CD (search at asae.frymulti.com)
  • Elwell, D.L., D.C. Borger, D.V. Blaho, J.V. Fahrni, H.M. Keener and L.B. Willett. 2004. Changes in concentrations of malodorous compounds during controlled aeration composting. Compost Science and Utilization. 12(2):102-107
  • Keener, H.M. 2004. Biofilters for Odor Control for Livestock Buildings. Ohio Country Journal. 12(14): 33.


Progress 01/01/03 to 12/31/03

Outputs
Investigated methods to reduce nutrient movement from land application sites into surface and groundwater. Showed farmer can mitigate potential for leaching of pathogenic bacteria associated with manure by timing manure applications to occur at least 48 hours before rainfall (Dick and Pang, 2003, unpublished). Prepared paper on manure spill emergency management (Smith, 2003). Investigated innovative applications of engineered biological treatment processes to stabilize waste, reduce odor, and manage nutrients. Confirmed through field studies caged layer belt/composting system produces a high nitrogen(>5%) dry product (<15% moisture) which can be transported economically up to fifty miles (Keener et al., 2002). Evaluated effect of windrow composting poultry manure in deep pit houses on fly control and ammonia levels and documented how it can be used as part of a total fly/manure management program (Keener and D.L. Elwell, 2003). Analyzed and compared, with emphasis on manure handling and odor reduction technologies, conventional deep-pit confinement houses, HIGH-RISE(TM) hog building (HRHB), and hoop house. Hoop system had the highest return to management. Results showed that as swine operations increased in size, solid manure handling systems were favored due to manure transportation cost (Rausch and Keener, 2003). Documented nutrient losses from HRHB/composting system using field studies (Sun et al., 2003). Conducted pilot scale studies on dairy manure and amendments horse manure bedding or sand and sawdust. Studies documented effects of controllable factors, mixing ratios, temperature and moisture on kinetics of process. Showed through full scale windrow composting farmers can reduce the volume and weights of material to be hauled by 50 to 80 % and showed composting dairy manure/amendment mix with C/N above 40 reduces N losses significantly (Michel et al., 2003). Developed Excel computer simulation model of composting process that allows optimizing design of facilities to minimize cost of treatment (Keener et al., 2003a,b). Investigated composting of animal manures for conversion into value-added products. Identified and showed through plant growth studies potential markets and value of composted manure and improve opportunities for coordinated growth of Ohio's dairy, swine, nursery and other green industries (Al-Dahmani, 2003, Changa et al., 2003, Hoitink, 2003). Investigated methodology, technology, and management practices to reduce odors, gases, airborne microflora, particulate matter, and other airborne emissions from animal production systems. Documented reduced NH3 emissions (50% reduction)of caged layer belt/composting system over conventional deep pit system (Keener et al., 2002). Showed processing fresh dairy manure will require less odor management than aged manure and showed aeration during composting results in destruction of odorous compounds (95-100%) by day eight . Implication is biofilters are only needed for short period of times in properly managed compost facilities. Showed NH3 loss during composting of dairy and hog manure/sawdust was highly correlated with total airflow (Elwell et al., 2003a,b).

Impacts
c. Studies have documented effects of controllable factors on kinetics of process, enabling engineers to reduce facility and operating cost of compost systems. Showed low airflow, regardless of composting system configuration, was main factor to minimize energy usage, yet achieve a specific rate of decomposition. Developed Excel computer simulation models of composting process enable farmers to optimize design and management of facilities, to minimize cost of treatment and enable better management of composting process. d. Studies on dry matter and water loss during composting allow economic analysis to be made on process cost and cost of transporting nutrients offsite. e. Odor studies have documented odor changes in manure between day 1 and day 10. Result suggests collecting and composting fresh manure has potential to reduce odor at composting site. Aeration during composting resulted in destruction of odorous compounds (95-100%) by day eight. Biofilters are only needed for short period of times. Composting dairy manure/amendment mix with C/N above 40 reduces N losses significantly. f. Identified and showed through plant growth studies potential markets and value of composted manure and improve opportunities for coordinated growth of Ohio's dairy, swine, nursery and other green industries. g. Showed farmer can mitigate potential for leaching of pathogenic bacteria associated with manure by timing manure applications to occur at least 48 hours before rainfall

Publications

  • Al-Dahmani, J.M., P. A. Abbasi, S.A. Miller and H.A.J. Hoitink. 2003. Suppression of bacterial spot of tomato with foliar sprays of compost extracts under greenhouse and field conditions. Plant Dis. 87:913-919. Changa, C.M., P.Wang, M.E.Watson, H.A.J. Hoitink, F.C. Michel Jr. 2003. Assessment of a commercial maturity test kit for composted manures. 2003. Compost Sci. Util. 11:127-145.
  • Elwell, D.L., D.C. Borger, H.M. Keener and L.B. Willet. 2003a. Reduction of volatile odorous chemicals in composting of dairy manure. ASAE Paper 034049. Presented at 2003 ASAE Annual International Meeting. 7/27-30. Riveria Hotel and Convention Centr, Las Vegas, NV. Published on CD (search at asae.frymulti.com)
  • Elwell, D.L., D.C. Borger, D.V. Blaho, J.V. Fahrni, H.M. Keener and L.B. Willett. 2003b. Changes in concentrations of malodorous compounds from fresh and aged manure during controlled aeration composting. Compost Science and Utilization. (Approved for Publication)
  • Hoitink, H.A.J. 2003. Suppression of Botrytis blight and powdery mildew of Begonia with composted manure. Proceedings of the 2003 annual meeting of the American Phytopathological Society. August 9-13, 2003, Charlotte, NC.
  • Keener, H.M., D.L. Elwell, and D. Grande. 2002. NH3 emissions and N-balances for 1.6 million caged layer facility: manure belt/composting system vs deep pit operation. Transactions of ASAE. 45(6):1977-1984 Keener, H.M., and D.L. Elwell. 2003. Caged layer manure management on flies, water and nitrogen levels - case studies of current technologies. ASAE Paper 034128. Presented at 2003 ASAE Annual International Meeting. 7/27-30. Riveria Hotel and Convention Centr, Las Vegas, NV. Published on CD (search at asae.frymulti.com)
  • Keener, H.M., F.C. Michel, Jr., D.L. Elwell. 2003a. Spreadsheet computer models for design and management of compost systems. Proceedings of the 2003 Annual International Meeting of the Institute of Biological Engineering. 1/17-19. Athens, GA. Published on CD.
  • Keener, H.M. J.A. Pecchia, G.L. Reid, F.C. Michel Jr, D.L. Elwell. 2003b. Optimizing design and operation of dairy manure composting systems - using pilot and full scale kinetic studies. pp. 310-324. In: Animal Agricultural and Food Processing Waste IX: Proceedings The Ninth International Symposium on Animal, Agricultural and Food Processing Wastes. 10/12-15. Research Triangle Park, NC. American Society of Agricultural Engineers, St. Joseph, MI.
  • Keener, H.M., R. Maghirang and B. Auvermann (eds). 2003c. Air Pollution from Agricultural Operations-III: Proceedings Third International Conference on Air Pollution from Agricultural Operations. 10/12-15. Research Triangle Park, NC. 353 p. American Society of Agricultural Engineers, St. Joseph, MI.
  • Michel Jr., F.C., J.A. Pecchia, J. Rigot, H.M. Keener. 2003. Mass and nutrient losses during composting of dairy manure with sawdust versus straw amendment. Compost Science and Utilization. (Approved for Publication)
  • Rausch, J.N. and H.M. Keener. 2003. More than pig performance: The case of three feeder pig systems. pp. 83-93. In: Swine Housing II: Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference. 10/12-15. Research Triangle Park, NC. American Society of Agricultural Engineers, St. Joseph, MI.
  • Smith, J.M., 2003. Manure spill emergency management. Pp. 339-344. In: Fifth International Dairy Housing Proceedings of 29-31 January 2003 Conference. Fort Worth, Texas USA. (search at asae.frymulti.com)
  • Sun, H., R.R. Stowell, H. M. Keener, and F.C. Michel Jr. 2002. Two-dimensional computational fluid dynamic (CFD) model of air velocity and ammonia distribution in a High-RiseTM Hog Building. Transactions of ASAE. 45(6):1559-1568
  • Sun, H., H.M. Keener, T.A. Menke and F.C. Michel, Jr. 2003 Nutrient balance study of the High-RiseTM hog system and associated windrow-composting process. ASAE Paper 032254. Presented at 2003 ASAE Annual International Meeting. 7/27-30. Riveria Hotel and Convention Centr, Las Vegas, NV. Published on CD (search at asae.frymulti.com)