Source: UNIVERSITY OF ARKANSAS submitted to
ECONOMIC AND POLICY ASPECTS OF FOREST RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
Sponsoring Institution
National Institute of Food and Agriculture
Project Status
TERMINATED
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
0194501
Grant No.
(N/A)
Project No.
ARK01974
Proposal No.
(N/A)
Multistate No.
(N/A)
Program Code
(N/A)
Project Start Date
Feb 1, 2003
Project End Date
Sep 30, 2008
Grant Year
(N/A)
Project Director
Mehmood, S.
Recipient Organization
UNIVERSITY OF ARKANSAS
(N/A)
FAYETTEVILLE,AR 72703
Performing Department
DEPT OF FOREST PRODUCTS
Non Technical Summary
The role of economics in the management of our forest resources is crucial. Each of these elements has important roles within the sector and can have crucial impacts on forest management. It is therefore necessary to understand the behavior, and importance of these elements. The studies in this proposal are aimed at analyzing the management of forest resources from an economic perspective.
Animal Health Component
90%
Research Effort Categories
Basic
10%
Applied
90%
Developmental
(N/A)
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
1230613310020%
1230621301010%
6036110301020%
6036199301020%
6056199301010%
6100613310020%
Goals / Objectives
To analyze recent local, regional, and national forest policy issues using economic principles, and estimate their impacts on forest management in Arkansas. To study the impacts of insecurity in land tenure on forest management. To analyze the U.S. forest products market characteristics and to provice useful, and current information about the forest products sector. To investigate the level of efficiency in Arkansas forest resource management and suggest improvements through research findings. To investigate and analyze the factors affecting the enactment and subsequent reviews of major environmental regulations that impact forest resource management.
Project Methods
The projects enumerated in this proposal will employ a variety of different approaches in order to conduct the research, ranging from econometric modeling of secondary data, survey techniques, statistical analysis of field data, and historical and institutional approach to policy analysis. The non-industrial private forest (NIPF) landowner studies will primarily employ survey techniques and subsequent econometric analysis of the survey data. Forest industry studies, on the other hand, will involve the collection of secondary data and estimation of econometric models. The oak regeneration study will involve the collection of field data, statistical analysis of collected data, and building regional economic impact models based on the results. The southern forest policy study will employ somewhat of a different approach in that it will involve a combination of historical and institutional analysis of the development of state and local forest policies in the southern United States. The timber bid prices study will involve collection of data on timber sales around the state, develop a model on the determinants of bid prices based on economic theory and existing literature, and finally estimating the model using the data collected from Arkansas. The study on costs and welfare impacts of Best Management Practices (BMP) implementation will entail collection of field data on BMP implementation in logging operations around the state, analyses of the costs of BMP compliance based on the data, and a subsequent welfare analysis aimed at identifying the share of costs borne by the different parties involved, such as, loggers, landowners, and forest industries.

Progress 02/01/03 to 09/30/08

Outputs
OUTPUTS: The first objective focused on estimating the impacts of oak mortality caused by the red oak borer in the Ozark and Ouachita regions of the state of Arkansas. Regardless of the actual extent of the damage caused by the red oak borer, the very presence of the insect and the initial damage reports were bound to create a perception of uncertainty among the landowners. The objective of this study was to estimate the impacts of such change in management behavior and to explore the effects of uncertainty on forest management behavior in general. A mail survey was designed following the Tailored Design Method was conducted between November 2006 and January 2007. Fifteen hundred landowners were randomly selected for the final survey. Because severe oak decline was observed since 1999, landowners were asked if they had conducted any harvest activity within last seven years. The questionnaire included questions on characteristics of the forestland, past harvesting activity, risk perception of forestland being infested by red oak borer and basic demographics. Logistic regression procedures were used to estimate the model. Additionally, a second study aimed at investigating the information seeking behavior of NIPF landowners was also conducted. For this study, a k-means cluster analysis using Euclidian distancing was used to segment landowners based on ownership objectives and whether a landowner was a rural or urban resident. The second objective focused on exploring the factors influencing bid prices of timber. Timber sale notices, contracts, and bid abstracts were collected from two National Forests (Ozark-St. Francis, and Ouachita National Forests), The Arkansas Forestry Commission, and several private forestry consultants from spring 2002 until fall 2003. Data from a total of 625 sales in 38 counties in Arkansas were collected. An ordinary least square regression was used to develop a bid price model in this study. The third objective focused on analyzing natural resource and environmental policies and investigating the factors that influence the enactment of these policies. Part of this objective, the effects of PAC spending on environmental legislation was abandoned for the following reasons. First, a number of other researchers had published articles on similar studies. Second, efforts to find extramural funds needed to cover the costs of the study were not successful. And last but not least, due to other emerging issues such as ecosystem services, and use of wood for bioenergy, I had to re-adjust my research focus. This provides a link to my next CRIS proposal that is scheduled to take effect October 1, 2008. However, some work was done to partially fulfill this objective. A pilot survey was conducted in collaboration with Dr. Matthew Pelkki as the lead investigator in order to have some insight on Arkansas loggers perceptions on costs of implementing BMP/SFI requirements. Findings from these studies have been disseminated through articles, presentations and posters. PARTICIPANTS: Sayeed R. Mehmood, Ph.D., Principal Investigator. Matthew Pelkki, Ph.D., Collaborator. Robert Ficklin, Ph.D., Collaborator. Paul Doruska, Ph.D., Collaborator. Prabudhda Dahal, Graduate Student. Surendra G.C., Graduate Student. TARGET AUDIENCES: Researchers, Policy makers, Forest landowners, Forest industries. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Part of objective three was abandoned due to several similar studies, lack of extramural funding, and a shift in research focus due to emerging issues.

Impacts
A model exploring the factors influencing landowner decision to harvest was estimated. The model found risk from the red oak borer to be significant which implied that after allowing for other factors of harvesting, the higher the landowner perception of risk, the more likely it was that he/she will harvest timber. A 1% increase in risk was found to cause a 2.12% increase in the likelihood of harvesting. Other variables that were found to be significant in landowner decision to harvest were rural residence, extent of timber management activities, financial income from forests, and ownership objectives. Another model exploring the determinants of landowner risk perception was also estimated. The variables that were found to be significant were the health of the forest, extent of timber management practiced, and proximity of residence to their land. The segmentation study classified landowners into four relevant groups to explore their information seeking behavior about the red oak borer. Cluster Analysis technique was used to classify landowners into four groups. These were amenity focused rural, amenity focused urban, passive rural and passive urban landowners; based on ownership objectives and rural and urban residence of the landowner. A relatively higher proportion(58%) of Amenity focused rural landowners were familiar with red oak borer problems while the level of familiarity was more or less similar among Passive rural (35%), Amenity focused urban (36%) and Passive urban (33%) landowners. Urban residents primarily received information about the red oak borer through mass media while rural residents relied on personal communication. Those that had taken some steps to reduce red oak borer impacts ranged from 14% to 19% among Amenity focused Urban, Passive rural and Amenity focused rural landowners while none of Passive Urban landowners had taken any actions. The results from our study also suggest that targeting landowners based on their ownership objectives may be useful to stimulate forest management. If suitably targeted to amenity focused landowners, personal communication, though expensive and time consuming, can be fruitful and a better way to optimize resources. The bid price of timber model consisted of fifteen variables that were significant at a 95% level of significance. Three dummy variables representing winter, spring, and summer seasons in which timber sale was offered, were significant in the model. Three dummy variables representing institutional, NIPF and public timber land ownership types were negative and significant. The variable representing number of bids received for a sale was significant and positive. The dummy variable representing at least one of the selection cut techniques (shelterwood, seed tree, or thinning), was significant and negative. This meant that compared to clearcuts, selection harvests decreased per acre bid price. Other variables found to be significant included whether or not wet weather logging was allowed, pine sawtimber prices, and amount of pine sawtimber stumpage available for sale.

Publications

  • G.C., Surendra and S.R. Mehmood. 2007. Segmenting Landowners Based on Their Information Seeking Behavior: a Look at Landowner Education on the Red Oak Borer. Journal of Forestry. In press.
  • Ficklin, R., S.R. Mehmood, and P. Doruska. 2006. Integrating Science into Public Policy: Challenges and Opportunities for Improved Forest Carbon Accounting. Journal of Agricultural, Food, and Environmental Sciences. Available at http://www.scientificjournals.org/articles/1026.htm (verified 2 Oct. 2006).
  • Mehmood, S.R. and M. Pelkki. 2006. Economic Impacts of Future Biorefineries in the State of Arkansas: an Input-output Analysis. Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science. In press.
  • Alavalapati, J.R.R., W. Smith, G. Amacher, and S. Mehmood. 2006. A framework to determine optimum mix of policies to promote bioenergy and sustainability of forests. Poster presented at the NCSE 6th National Conference on Science, Policy and the Environment: Energy for a Sustainable and Secure Future. January 26-27, 2006, Washington, DC.
  • Alavalapati, J., G. Amacher, S.R. Mehmood, and W. Smith. 2006. Bioenergy, Institutions and Sustainability of Private Forests in the U.S. Proceedings of the 3rd International conference on Biofuels. January 18-19, 2006, New Delhi, India. In press.
  • Mehmood, S.R. and P. Dahal. 2005. Identifying the Factors Distinguishing Timber Sales on Industrial and Non-industrial Private Forest Lands in Arkansas. Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science. 59: 132-136.
  • Mehmood, S.R., and D. Zhang. 2005. Determinants of Forest Landowner Participation in the Endangered Species Act Safe Harbor Program. Human Dimensions of Wildlife. 10(4): 249-257.
  • Dahal, P, and S.R. Mehmood. 2005. Determinants of Timber Bid Prices in Arkansas. Forest Products Journal. 55(12): 89-94.
  • Mehmood, S.R. and M. Pelkki. 2004. The Arkansas Forest Products Industry, 1985-2001. Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station, University of Arkansas Division of Agriculture, Research Bulletin. In press.
  • Montgomery, R., M. Pelkki, and S.R. Mehmood. 2004. Use and cost of Best Management Practices and Sustainable Forestry Initiative guidelines to Arkansas timber producers. Forest Products Journal. In press.
  • Dahal, P, and S.R. Mehmood. 2004. A GIS Approach to Determining Efficient Timber Transportation Routes. Proceedings of the 2004 annual meeting of Southern Forest Economics Workers (SOFEW), March 15-16, 2004, St. Augustine, FL. In press.
  • Mehmood, S.R., D. Zhang, and J. Armstrong. 2003. Factors Associated with Declining Hunting License Sales in Alabama. Human Dimensions of Wildlife. 8:243-262.
  • Mehmood, S.R., M. Pelkki, and R. Montgomery. 2003. Costs of BMP/SFI Compliance: Arkansas Loggers Perspectives. Proceedings of the 2003 Southern Forest Economics Workers Meeting. New Orleans, LA.
  • Mehmood, S.R. and D. Zhang. 2003. Determinants of Landowner Participation in the Red-Cockaded Woodpecker Safe Harbor Program. Proceedings of the 2003 Southern Forest Economics Workers Meeting. New Orleans, LA.


Progress 01/01/07 to 12/31/07

Outputs
OUTPUTS: The study of red oak borer impacts on non-industrial private forest (NIPF) landowner behavior has been completed in 2007. This study contributed to the achievement of "Objective 1" of the project. The study involved analysis of data collected through a landowner survey. These analyses were part of a M.S. thesis. A variety of techniques were used to analyze the data. First, the study used a segmentation technique to classify landowners into four relevant groups to explore their information seeking behavior about the red oak borer. Cluster Analysis technique was used to classify landowners into four groups based on ownership objectives and rural and urban residence of the landowner. Second, a modified Faustmann model was developed to explore the effects of uncertainty from the red oak borer on the landowner's decision to harvest timber from forestland. The effect of risk on harvesting behavior was then empirically investigated using data from a landowner mail survey. The factors determining risk perception of individual landowners were also investigated. The results of this study were presented at two scholarly research conferences. The first of these presentations was made in March at the 2007 annual meeting of Southern Forest Economics Workers (SOFEW) in San Antonio, TX. This involved analysis of NIPF landowner timber harvest behavior while facing uncertainty from the red oak borer. The second presentation was made in April at the Emerging Issues along Urban/Rural Interfaces Conference in Atlanta, GA. This presentation involved analysis of NIPF landowner forest management by urban and rural residence of the landowner. Impact of the red oak borer was the final study in this CRIS project. Additionally, preliminary work on two studies that are to be part of the next CRIS project was initiated. This new project proposal will be submitted later this year. PARTICIPANTS: Dr. Sayeed R. Mehmood; Associate Professor, Arkansas Forest Resource Center, principal Investigator; Dr. John Schelhas, Research Forester, USDA Forest Service, Collaborator; Mr. Surendra G.C., Graduate Student. TARGET AUDIENCES: Academics, researchers, extension and outreach professionals, non-industrial private forest landowners.

Impacts
The red oak borer study produced significant changes in knowledge base. These changes were primarily in two categories. First, landowner segmentation revealed the differences in the level of familiarity about the insect pest among landowners. These differences were found to have a strong relationship to ownership objectives. The study also revealed how landowners found information on the red oak borer. These sources of information varied based on the landowners' urban or rural residence. Urban residents primarily received information about the red oak borer through mass media while rural residents relied on personal communication. These results have important implications about the methods of outreach to use for different types of landowners. The results also suggested that targeting landowners based on their ownership objectives may be useful to stimulate forest management. During the past few years, oak forests in the Ozark and Ouachita regions of Arkansas have been attacked by an insect pest commonly referred to as the red oak borer. Although nonindustrial private forest (NIPF) landowners own the largest segment of forest land in the state, impact of this risk posed by the red oak borer on their harvesting behavior is currently unknown. Second, the results from empirical models found a positive and significant relationship between timber harvesting and increased risk to forestland from the red oak borer. The results also indicated that both stand characteristics and ownership characteristics contributed in shaping the risk perception of forest landowners. Two articles prepared based on these analyses are currently in the peer review process.

Publications

  • No publications reported this period


Progress 01/01/06 to 12/31/06

Outputs
The study of the impacts on non-industrial private forest landowner management behavior due to a perceived threat from red oak borer infestation in the Arkansas Ozarks is currently ongoing. This will be the final study for this CRIS project. External funding in the amount of $15,270 has been secured from the U.S. Forest Service. A graduate student has been recruited to help implement this study. This student is expected to graduate by August 2007. Data collection for this study is near completion, and data analysis phase is being initiated. The study on optimum incentives and sustainability of non-industrial private forests in the U.S. South through the production of biomass for bioenergy is also ongoing. This study will continue into the next CRIS project and work as a bridge between the current and the next 5-year periods. External funds have been generated for this collaborative study. The goal of this study is to determine the optimum mix of policy instruments that can serve as bridge between sustainable forest management of non-industrial private forests and wood energy in the U.S. South. This study involves an important and emerging issue in forest resource management. Due to economic, political and social reasons, the nation's dependence on foreign sources of fuel has been the topic of much debate recently. High fuel prices along with environmental and security concerns have generated considerable interest in green, renewable, domestic sources of fuel. This study, therefore, is timely and also important at several levels.

Impacts
The red oak borer study is expected to provide information on private landowners' forest management behavior by analyzing how landowners alter their behavior to cope with perceived risks. Such changes in landowner behavior are likely to have far-reaching economic, environmental, and policy implications for timber-dependent communities in northern Arkansas. Currently, there are plans for two presentations in professional meetings based on this study. The study is also expected to produce at least two journal publications, in addition to a Master's thesis. The bioenergy project is expected to produce numerous benefits. The benefit-cost analysis of proposed policy incentives will guide policy makers in formulating strategies to overcome barriers to woody biomass use and induce greater commercialization. Results of this research help promote sustainability of non-industrial private forests, improve rural economic development, and promote bioenergy. The data and methodologies developed during this study would be a valuable source for scientific community to advance research on biomass and bioenergy production.

Publications

  • Ficklin, R., S.R. Mehmood, and P. Doruska. 2006. Integrating Science into Public Policy: Challenges and Opportunities for Improved Forest Carbon Accounting. Journal of Agricultural, Food, and Environmental Sciences. Available at http://www.scientificjournals.org/articles/1026.htm (verified 2 Oct. 2006).
  • Mehmood, S.R. and M. Pelkki. 2006. Economic Impacts of Future Biorefineries in the State of Arkansas: an Input-output Analysis. Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science. In press.
  • Alavalapati, J., G. Amacher, S.R. Mehmood, and W. Smith. 2006. Bioenergy, Institutions and Sustainability of Private Forests in the U.S. Proceedings of the 3rd International conference on Biofuels. January 18-19, 2006, New Delhi, India.
  • Alavalapati, J.R.R., W. Smith, G. Amacher, and S. Mehmood. 2006. A framework to determine optimum mix of policies to promote bioenergy and sustainability of forests. Poster presented at the NCSE 6th National Conference on Science, Policy and the Environment: Energy for a Sustainable and Secure Future. January 26-27, 2006, Washington, DC.


Progress 01/01/05 to 12/31/05

Outputs
The study of timber bid prices has been completed. To date, this study has produced one M.S. thesis, two peer-reviewed publications, one non peer-reviewed publication, two research presentations and one poster. This study identified the significant determining factors for timber bid prices in Arkansas. Based on the results of bid price models, private and public landowners and forest managers would be able to gain knowledge on factors that are likely to generate higher profit and refine forest management and timber sale strategies accordingly. The study also provided new information on important aspects of the timber market in Arkansas. Such information will be useful to non-industrial forest landowners, forest industries, timber producers, researchers, educators, and policy makers. A study of the impacts on non-industrial private forest landowner management behavior due to a perceived threat from red oak borer infestation in the Arkansas Ozarks has been initiated. A graduate student has been recruited to help implement this study. In addition, a study on optimum incentives and sustainability of non-industrial private forests in the U.S. South through the production of biomass for bioenergy has also been initiated. External funds have been generated for this collaborative study. The goal of this study is to determine the optimum mix of policy instruments that can serve as bridge between sustainable forest management of non-industrial private forests and wood energy in the U.S. South. This study, although not proposed in the original CRIS proposal, involves an important and emerging issue in forest resource management. Due to economic, political and social reasons, U.S. dependence on foreign sources of fuel has been the topic of much debate recently. High fuel prices along with environmental and security concerns have generated considerable interest in green, renewable, domestic sources of fuel. This study, therefore, is timely and also important at several levels.

Impacts
The red oak borer study is expected to provide information on private landowners' forest management behavior by analyzing how landowners alter their behavior to cope with perceived threats. Such changes in landowner behavior are likely to have far-reaching economic, environmental, and policy implications for timber-dependent communities in northern Arkansas. The bioenergy project is expected to produce numerous benefits. The benefit-cost analysis of proposed policy incentives will guide policy makers in formulating strategies to overcome barriers to woody biomass use and induce greater commercialization. Results of this research help promote sustainability of non-industrial private forests, improve rural economic development, and promote bioenergy. The data and methodologies developed during this study would be a valuable source for scientific community to advance research on biomass and bioenergy production.

Publications

  • Mehmood, S.R. and P. Dahal. 2005. Identifying the Factors Distinguishing Timber Sales on Industrial and Non-industrial Private Forest Lands in Arkansas. Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science. In press.
  • Mehmood, S.R., and D. Zhang. 2005. Determinants of Forest Landowner Participation in the Endangered Species Act Safe Harbor Program. Human Dimensions of Wildlife. 10(4): 249-257.
  • Dahal, P, and S.R. Mehmood. 2005. Determinants of Timber Bid Prices in Arkansas. Forest Products Journal. 55(12): 89-94.


Progress 01/01/04 to 12/30/04

Outputs
The study of timber bid prices is near completion. Data analyses for this study have been completed. A graduate student has received his M.S. degree based on this project. The results from the study are now being disseminated through a variety of means. This study identified the significant determining factors for timber bid prices in Arkansas. Regression models estimated in this study identified volume of sawtimber as one of the most significant determinant of timber bid price. A higher number of bids were found to increase price. Seasonal differences were important as well. Spring, summer, and winter seasons were found to reduced bid prices compared to fall. Probably due to terrain conditions and longer hauling distances, timber sales in the Ozark region were found to reduce bid prices. Contractual stipulations such as selection harvests, and restriction on wet weather logging reduced bid prices. Based on the results of bid price models, private and public landowners and forest managers would be able to gain knowledge on factors that are likely to generate higher profit and refine forest management and timber sale strategies accordingly. The study also provided new information on important aspects of the timber market in Arkansas. Such information will be useful to non-industrial forest landowners, forest industries, timber producers, researchers, educators, and policy makers. A cost survey of Best Management Practices has also been completed. This study was conducted in collaboration with two other colleagues. The results from this study have also been published. Additionally, a study of Arkansas forest products industries has also been completed. Results from this study are now being published in a research bulletin of Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station. Currently, preparations are being made to initiate a study of the impacts on non-industrial private forest landowner behavior due to the red oak borer infestation in the Arkansas Ozarks. In addition, studies on timber taxation in the southern states and cost trends in U.S. forest products industries are currently ongoing.

Impacts
The red oak borer study will increase our understanding of private landowners' forest management behavior by providing information on how landowners alter their behavior to cope with such threats. Such changes in landowner behavior will have far reaching economic and policy implications for timber-dependent communities in northern Arkansas. The timber bid price study will identify important factors that determine bid prices of timber in Arkansas. Both of these studies will provide useful information for policy makers and researchers. Additionally forest landowners and professional foresters will also find this information useful. The study of Arkansas forest products industries will identify historical trends in the industry's impacts on the state's economy. Such information will be useful to researchers, industry personnel, and policy makers.

Publications

  • Mehmood, S.R. and M. Pelkki. 2004. The Arkansas Forest Products Industry, 1985-2001. Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station, University of Arkansas Division of Agriculture, Research Bulletin. In press.
  • Montgomery, R., M. Pelkki, and S.R. Mehmood. 2004. Use and cost of Best Management Practices and Sustainable Forestry Initiative guidelines to Arkansas timber producers. Forest Products Journal. In press.
  • Dahal, P, and S.R. Mehmood. 2004. A GIS Approach to Determining Efficient Timber Transportation Routes. Proceedings of the 2004 annual meeting of Southern Forest Economics Workers (SOFEW), March 15-16, 2004, St. Augustine, FL. In press.


Progress 01/01/03 to 12/31/03

Outputs
Significant progress has been made toward achieving the first and second objectives of this CRIS project proposal. The first objective was to analyze oak regeneration in red oak borer infested forests and the economic impacts of oak mortality in Arkansas. As an initial step toward achieving this objective, field-level mortality and regeneration data were collected on the red oak borer with USDA Forest Service as the lead agency. From these data, severely infested areas in the Arkansas Ozarks can now be identified. Based on this information, a project will be initiated later this year aimed at analyzing economic impacts of the red oak borer. This project will analyze changes in landowner forest management behavior due to the threat of red oak borer infestation. Funding for this project is now being sought. The second objective was to analyze bid prices for timber in Arkansas and the cost trends in the U.S. forest products sector. The timber bid price study is progressing on schedule. This is also the thesis topic for a graduate student who is scheduled to receive his degree later this year. Data collection for this project has been completed. The data are now being analyzed and statistical models aimed at identifying determinants of timber bid prices are being developed. In order to fulfill the second part of this objective, data on input costs for U.S. lumber, paper, and furniture industries are now being collected. These data span from 1960 to 2001. Collection and compilation of these data will continue through early 2004. There has also been some progress in achieving the third objective of this CRIS proposal. This objective was to investigate and analyze the factors affecting the enactment and subsequent reviews of the Clean Water Act and state forest practice regulations. A pilot survey was conducted with Dr. Matthew Pelkki as the lead investigator. This survey was aimed at gaining some insight on Arkansas loggers' perceptions on costs of implementing BMP/SFI requirements. Further research on state and federal environmental policies will be initiated later during the project period.

Impacts
The red oak borer study will increase our understanding of private landowners' forest management behavior by providing information on how landowners alter their behavior to cope with such threats. Such changes in landowner behavior will have far reaching economic and policy implications for timber-dependent communities in northern Arkansas. The timber bid price study will identify important factors that determine bid prices of timber in Arkansas. Both of these studies will provide useful information for policy makers and researchers. Additionally forest landowners and professional foresters will also find this information useful.

Publications

  • Mehmood, S.R., D. Zhang, and J. Armstrong. 2003. Factors Associated with Declining Hunting License Sales in Alabama. Human Dimensions of Wildlife. 8:243-262.
  • Mehmood, S.R., M. Pelkki, and R. Montgomery. 2003. Costs of BMP/SFI Compliance: Arkansas Loggers Perspectives. Proceedings of the 2003 Southern Forest Economics Workers Meeting. New Orleans, LA.
  • Mehmood, S.R. and D. Zhang. 2003. Determinants of Landowner Participation in the Red-Cockaded Woodpecker Safe Harbor Program. Proceedings of the 2003 Southern Forest Economics Workers Meeting. New Orleans, LA.