Source: OREGON STATE UNIVERSITY submitted to
FISHES OF OREGON: DISTRIBUTION, DEVELOPMENT AND EVOLUTION
Sponsoring Institution
National Institute of Food and Agriculture
Project Status
TERMINATED
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
0192475
Grant No.
(N/A)
Project No.
ORE00928A
Proposal No.
(N/A)
Multistate No.
(N/A)
Program Code
(N/A)
Project Start Date
Oct 1, 2002
Project End Date
Sep 30, 2007
Grant Year
(N/A)
Project Director
Markle, D. F.
Recipient Organization
OREGON STATE UNIVERSITY
(N/A)
CORVALLIS,OR 97331
Performing Department
FISHERIES AND WILDLIFE
Non Technical Summary
Many of the uncertainties surrounding conservation of Oregon fishes are associated with a simple inability to define, describe, or otherwise delineate the organisms. This project seeks to strengthen the infrastructure and to provide the primary research needed to better describe Oregon fishes, including its un-recognized fish fauna. The long term goal of the project is a description of the fish fauna of Oregon.
Animal Health Component
50%
Research Effort Categories
Basic
50%
Applied
50%
Developmental
(N/A)
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
1350810106020%
1350810107020%
1350810108010%
1350860106020%
1350860107020%
1350860108010%
Goals / Objectives
The project seeks a better understanding of Oregon fishes through support of the infrastructure of systematics, through modern systematics research and through ecological studies, as follows: (1) Infrastructure: Work with other natural science collections on campus to increase support for collections-based research (Lattin et al., 1995). Shift museum databases to NSF-supported. Specify and make selected information web-accessible. (2) Systematics: Apply molecular and morphological approaches to understanding fish diversity in Oregon. Take regional approach to understanding particular faunas, such as the coastal fishes between the Columbia and Klamath. Take phylogenetic approach to understanding particular groups, such as redside shiners, or particular events, such as the Pleistocene Missoula Floods Ecology: Monitor long-term patterns in larval and juvenile production of suckers in Upper Klamath Lake. Conduct process-oriented studies of larval and juvenile suckers, such as habitat relationships. With collaborators, develop models of interactions of environmental variables and sucker population demographics.
Project Methods
Support for museum infrastructure has been difficult to obtain. Organizations such as NSF would require recurring funds committed to a Collections Manager. There is some institutional interest in a Natural History Museum, and some funds have been obtained from service functions and database-related activities. These will be pursued. Identification and description of adults, as well as early life stages, is necessary to delimit their distribution and provide for basic natural history and habitat use studies. Identification and description of adults of new forms or redescriptions of named forms should be based on comparisons with sister taxa and on as complete a biological database as is available. When feasible, this project will employ molecular, morphological and ecological data, especially as it relates to problems with hybridization. The methodological approach of phylogenetic reconstruction is cladistic (Hennig 1966, Wiley 1981). Genealogical relationships are in based on characters that are 1) homologous and 2) derived relative to a presumed ancestral state. Problems occur when an analysis does not use homologous characters. When species are listed, it is important to understand how their life cycle conflicts with human use of water and habitats. Our most important work on recruitment and habitat use is in Upper Klamath Lake and concerns endangered Lost River and shortnose suckers. The approach is based on identifying life stages that can be effectively sampled, identifying habitat preferences of those life stages, and estimating annual and interannual patterns in use and abundance. We work with Extension to help the public better understand the issues involved in the 2001 water allocation decision.

Progress 10/01/02 to 09/30/07

Outputs
OUTPUTS: Research on native fishes was presented at 29 conferences by myself, students, and collaborators. Annual training workshops for Klamath suckers and annual presentations on Klamath research were also done. Major surveys were conducted of fish deformities in the Willamette River, year class monitoring of Upper Klamath Lake suckers, distribution of Umpqua chub and lamprey monitoring in the Coquille River. Two groups of undergraduate students (12 total) were mentored in multi-term fish research projects. Taxonomic evaluation of coastal suckers and Oregon tui chubs were initiated with graduate students and 5 graduate students finsihed. In addition to peer reviewed publications, important public presentations were made on endangered suckers (Medford, 2002) and on water quality and fish deformities (Wilsonville, 2004). PARTICIPANTS: Undergraduate research training and published research (data collection, analysis, writing, publication): R. French, S. Naman, J. Demarest, M. Hatfield, S. Remple, K. Clauson. Undergraduate research training (data collection, analysis, writing): L. Carlson, K. Heesacker, A. Smith, J. Godfrey, J. Gelardi, D. Strubb, T. Reece, B. Alfonse, A. Norris, M. Jansen, M. Maiers, E. Snyder, K. Stertz, T. Litwin, J. Baldwin, D. Jacobs, M. Hamilton, C. Madden, T. Reid, A. Stutte. Graduate research training (data collection, analysis, writing, publication): A. Brumo, M. Cooperman, J. Kettretad, S. Reithel, S. Remple, D. Wagman Faculty research associates (data collection, analysis, writing, publication): D. Simon, M. Terwilliger, M. E. Cunningham. Collaborators(data collection, analysis, writing, publication): Klamath Tribe (L. Dunsmoor), Ecological consultant (J. Kann), other OSU faculty and students (D. L. Villeneuve, L. R. Curtis, J. J. Jenkins, K. E. Warner, F. A. Tilton, M. L. Kent, V. G. Watral, D. Sethajintanin, O. Krissanakriangkrai, E. R. Johnson, R. Grove, K. A. Anderson). TARGET AUDIENCES: Resource managers through reports and presentations at public and professional meetings and workshops. Professional research community through primary publications. Undergraduate and graduate students through classroom presentations.

Impacts
Results of Klamath sucker research are routinely used to inform decision making by US Fish & Wildlife Service and US Bureau of Reclamation. Results of the fish deformity work showed that skeletal deformities were caused by parasites, not water quality, and reduced some concerns about human consumption of Willamette River water. Results of Umpqua chub research show basin-wide decline and have raised concern about their conservation. Results of taxonomic work on suckers and tui chubs has helped better categorize the biodiversity of these fishes.

Publications

  • Cunningham, M. E., D. F. Markle, V. G. Watral, M. L. Kent, and L. R. Curtis. 2005. Patterns of fish deformities and their association with trematode cysts in the Willamette River, Oregon. Environmental Biology of Fishes, 73:9-19.
  • Villeneuve, D. L., L. R. Curtis, J. J. Jenkins, K. E. Warner, F. A. Tilton, M. L. Kent, V. G. Watral, M. E. Cunningham, D. F. Markle, D. Sethajintanin, O. Krissanakriangkrai, E. R. Johnson, R. Grove and K. A. Anderson. 2005. Environmental stresses and skeletal deformities in fish from the Willamette River, Oregon, USA. Environmental Science & Technology, 39:3495-3506.
  • Markle, D. F., M. R. Cavalluzzi and D. C. Simon. 2005. Morphology and taxonomy of Klamath Basin suckers (Catostomidae). Western North American Naturalist, 65(4):473-489.
  • Remple, S. and D. F. Markle. 2005. Description and identification of larval cyprinids (fathead minnow, tui chub and blue chub) from Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon. California Fish and Game, 91(2):83-99.
  • Markle, D. F. and Dunsmoor, L. K. 2007. Effects of habitat volume and fathead minnow introduction on larval survival of two endangered sucker species in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc., 136:567-579.
  • Cooke, S.J., C. M. Bunt, S. J. Hamilton, C. A. Jennings, M. P. Pearson, M. S. Cooperman and D. F. Markle. 2004. Threats, conservation strategies and prognosis for suckers (Catostomidae) in North America: insights from regional case studies of a diverse family of non-game fishes. Biological Conservation, 121:317-331.
  • Markle, D. F., R. French, S. Naman, J. Demarest and M. Hatfield, 2002. Historical patterns of skeletal deformities in fishes from the Willamette River, Oregon. Northwestern Naturalist, 83:7-14.
  • Markle, D. F., 2002. Understanding science. pp. 91-92 In. W.S. Braunworth, Jr., T. Welch, and R. Hathaway (eds.). Water Allocation in the Klamath Reclamation Project, 2001: An Assessment of Natural Resource, Economic, Social, and Institutional Issues in the Upper Klamath Basin. Corvallis: Oregon State University Extension Service, 401 p. (http://extension.oregonstate.edu/catalog/html/sr/sr1037/)
  • Markle, D. F. and M. Cooperman, 2002. Relationships between Lost River and shortnose sucker biology and management of Upper Klamath Lake. Pp. 93-117. In. W.S. Braunworth, Jr., T. Welch, and R. Hathaway (eds.). Water Allocation in the Klamath Reclamation Project, 2001: An Assessment of Natural Resource, Economic, Social, and Institutional Issues in the Upper Klamath Basin. Corvallis: Oregon State University Extension Service, 401 p. (http://extension.oregonstate.edu/catalog/html/sr/sr1037/)
  • Cooperman M. S. and D. F. Markle. 2003. The Endangered Species Act and the National Research Council's interim judgment in Klamath Basin. Fisheries, 28 (3):10-19.
  • Markle, D. F. 2003. Book review of The Rockfishes of the Northeast Pacific. Copeia, No. 2:421-422.
  • Terwilliger, M., D. F. Markle and J. Kann. 2003. Associations between water quality and daily growth of juvenile shortnose and Lost River suckers in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 132:691-708.
  • Petry, P., P. B. Bayley, and D. F. Markle. 2003. Relationships between fish assemblages, macrophytes and environmental gradients in the Amazon River floodplain. Journal of Fish Biology, 63:547-579.
  • Cooperman, M.S. and D.F. Markle. 2003. Rapid outmigration of Lost River and shortnose sucker larvae from in-river spawning beds to in-lake rearing grounds. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 132:1138-1153.
  • Cooperman, M.S. and D.F. Markle. 2004. Abundance, size, and feeding success of larval shortnose suckers and Lost River suckers from different habitats of the littoral zone of Upper Klamath Lake. Environmental Biol. Fishes 71:365-377.
  • Kent, M.L., V. Watral, C. Whipps, M.E. Cunningham, C. D. Criscione, J.R. Heidel, L. R. Curtis, J. Spitsbergen and D. F. Markle, 2004. A digenean metacercariae (Apophallus sp.) and a myxozoan (Myxobolus sp.) associated with vertebral deformities in cyprinid fishes from the Willamette River, Oregon. J. Aquatic Animal Health 16:116-129.
  • Markle, D. F. 2004. Review of Inland Fishes of Washington. Fisheries, 29:42-43.


Progress 01/01/06 to 12/31/06

Outputs
The Willamette fish deformity work has been completed and published. The Klamath fish larvae and juvenile work continues and publications have described important aspects of recruitment biology. Parts of the Klamath sucker taxonomy and genetics studies have been published and the final part in revision. A PhD and MS student are currently working on coastal and southeastern Oregon fish taxonomy.

Impacts
The Willamette fish deformities were generating great public concern over an 'unknown' pollutant and whether a multimillion dollar water treatment plant should be opened. The demonstration that a parasite was the cause and that the areas with deformed fish had no higher levels of measurable pollutants than areas without deformed fish, allowed the public to better evaluate risks associated with the water treatment plant. The long-term analyses of Klamath fish larvae and juveniles is showing that year class failure, and success, can turn on different events in different years. Many of the events are uncontrollable, like weather and exotic species, and so we are working with a colleague to model the key life cycles so that the effects, if any, of normal water allocation decisions can be understood.

Publications

  • Markle, D. F. and K. Clauson. 2006. Ontogenetic and spatial changes in diet of late larval and juvenile suckers (Catostomidae) in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon. Western North American Naturalist, 66:492-501.
  • Markle, D. F. and L. Dunsmoor. 2007 In press. Effects of habitat and introduced fathead minnows on survival of endangered sucker larvae in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, USA. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc.


Progress 01/01/05 to 12/31/05

Outputs
Most of the work in the past year was to finish the work on Willamette fish deformities and develop better means to identify Klamath Basin fish larvae. We have also worked to apply new analytical techniques to understand the effects of non-native fathead minnow in the Klamath basin, the food habits of young Klamath suckers, and the envirornmental factors associated with early mortality.

Impacts
The Willamette fish deformities were generating great public concern over an 'unknown' pollutant and whether a multimillion dollar water treatment plant should be opened. The demonstration that a parasite was the cause and that the areas with deformed fish had no higher levels of measurable pollutants than areas without deformed fish, allowed the public to better evaluate risks associated with the water treatment plant. The long-term analyses of Klamath fish larvae and juveniles is showing that year class failure, and success, can turn on different events in different years. Many of the events are uncontrollable, like weather and exotic species, and so we are working with a colleague to model the key life cycles so that the effects, if any, of normal water allocation decisions can be understood.

Publications

  • Kent, M.L., V. Watral, C. Whipps, M.E. Cunningham, C. D. Criscione, J.R. Heidel, L. R. Curtis, J. Spitsbergen and D. F. Markle, 2004. A digenean metacercariae (Apophallus sp.) and a myxozoan (Myxobolus sp.) associated with vertebral deformities in cyprinid fishes from the Willamette River, Oregon. J. Aquatic Animal Health 16:116-129.
  • Villeneuve, D. L., L. R. Curtis, J. J. Jenkins, K. E. Warner, F. A. Tilton, M. L. Kent, V. G. Watral, M. E. Cunningham, D. F. Markle, D. Sethajintanin, O. Krissanakriangkrai, E. R. Johnson, R. Grove and K. A. Anderson. 2005. Environmental stresses and skeletal deformities in fish from the Willamette River, Oregon, USA. Environmental Science & Technology, 39:3495-3506.
  • Remple, S. and D. F. Markle. 2005. Description and identification of larval cyprinids (fathead minnow, tui chub and blue chub) from Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon. California Fish and Game.


Progress 01/01/04 to 12/30/04

Outputs
Much of the effort in the past year was associated with studies of fish deformities in the Willamette River and with problems of recruitment in endangered suckers in Upper Klamath Lake. The fish deformity work ended and the multidisciplinary team was able to demonstrate that most, and perhaps all, of the skeletal backbone deformities seen in Willamette fishes are due to parasites. The Klamath work is ongoing and we have been able to demonstrate realtionships between water quality and early growth, transit time of larvae from river to lake and differential use of some habitats within the lake.

Impacts
The presence of fish deformities in the Willamette had raised many concerns about water quality. Our demonstration that deformities are caused by parasites shows that fish deformities have complex origins and may not be a simple indicator of human impacts on a river. The Klamath sucker work is showing the importance of being able to identify all life stages of fishes. We are showing that survival of each life stage is important to the population's overall health and that each stage has different habitat requirements. A better understanding of the relative contribution of each of these requirements allows more informed decisions about allocation of scarce water resources.

Publications

  • Cooperman, M.S. and D.F. Markle. 2003. Rapid outmigration of Lost River and shortnose sucker larvae from in-river spawning beds to in-lake rearing grounds. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 132:1138-1153.
  • Cooperman, M.S. and D.F. Markle. 2004. Abundance, size, and feeding success of larval shortnose suckers and Lost River suckers from different habitats of the littoral zone of Upper Klamath Lake. Environmental Biol. Fishes.
  • Kent, M.L., V. Watral, C. Whipps, M.E. Cunningham, C. D. Criscione, J.R. Heidel, L. R. Curtis, J. Spitsbergen,and D. F. Markle, 2004. Digenean metacercariae and a myxozoan resembling Myxobolus cyprini associated with skeletal lesions in cyprinid fishes from Willamette River, Oregon. J. Aquatic Animal Health.
  • Markle, D. F. 2004. Review of Inland Fishes of Washington. Fisheries, 29:42-43.
  • Cooke, S.J., C. M. Bunt, S. J. Hamilton, C. A. Jennings, M. P. Pearson, M. S. Cooperman and D. F. Markle. 2004. Threats, conservation strategies and prognosis for suckers (Catostomidae) in North America: insights from regional case studies of a diverse family of non-game fishes. Conservation Biology, 121:317-331.
  • Cunningham, M. E., D. F. Markle, V. G. Watral, M. L. Kent, and L. R. Curtis. 2004. Patterns of fish deformities and their association with trematode cysts in the Willamette River, Oregon. Environmental Biology of Fishes.


Progress 01/01/03 to 12/31/03

Outputs
Most work on fishes outside Klamath Basin has been preliminary, but is proceeding, especially with lamprey, tui chubs, and trout in coastal and eastern Oregon. The work on development and distribution of Klamath Basin suckers has led to some controversy regarding application of the ESA. Our work shows the habitat requirements of early life stages is related to management of Upper Klamath Lake. We also are showing that relationships between the early larval stage and recruitment to the adult population are not strong. Thus, the work is showing that juvenile stages are more critical to understanding population variation.

Impacts
The Klamath sucker work is showing the importance of being able to identify all life stages of fishes. The disconnect between survival of one life stage and relative abundance of a later stage has implications for ESA jeopardy decisions.

Publications

  • Markle, D. F., and M. S. Cooperman. 2002. Relationships between Lost River and shortnose sucker biology and management of Upper Klamath Lake, pp. 93-117, IN Braunworth, W. S., Jr., T. Welch and R. Hathaway (eds.) Water allocation in the Klamath Reclamation Project, 2001: an assessment of natural resource, economic, social, and institutional issues with a focus on the Upper Klamath Basin. Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, Extension Service Spec. Rep. 1037, 401 p.
  • Cooperman M. S. and D. F. Markle. 2003. The Endangered Species Act and the National Research Council's interim judgment in Klamath Basin. Fisheries, 28 (3):10-19.
  • Markle, D. F. 2003. Book review of The Rockfishes of the Northeast Pacific. Copeia, No. 2:421-422.
  • Terwilliger, M., D. F. Markle and J. Kann. 2003. Associations between water quality and daily growth of juvenile shortnose and Lost River suckers in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 132:691-708.
  • Petry, P., P. B. Bayley, and D. F. Markle. 2003. Relationships between fish assemblages, macrophytes and environmental gradients in the Amazon River floodplain. Journal of Fish Biology, 63:547-579.


Progress 01/01/02 to 12/31/02

Outputs
This project seeks to strengthen the infrastructure for studies of fish biodiversity in Oregon, to better understand that diversity and the threats to it. Ongoing fish biodiversity studies include a large multi-investigator analysis of taxonomy and genetics of Klamath suckers, an examination of interior redband trout, a study of Oregon coastal endemic species, and an analysis of the distribution and evolution of redside shiners and their relationship to events during the Pleistocene Missoula Floods. Studies on threats to Oregon fishes include a multi-investigator study of skeletal deformities in Willamette River fishes, and ecological studies of Klamath suckers. Most effort this year was devoted to Upper Klamath Lake suckers. The Klamath sucker work seeks to better understand juvenile production and recruitment through long-term monitoring. A significant effort has been directed towards helping managers improve decision-making.

Impacts
Our work in the Klamath Basin has helped inform decision makers for operation of the Klamath Project. We have tried to be constructive critics during the recent allocation conflict. Work on Willamette River fish deformities may help understand the causes of skeletal deformities.

Publications

  • Markle, D. F., R. French, S. Naman, J. Demarest and M. Hatfield, 2002. Historical patterns of skeletal deformities in fishes from the Willamette River, Oregon. Northwestern Naturalist, 83:7-14.
  • Markle, D. F. and M. Cooperman, 2002. Relationships between Lost River and shortnose sucker biology and management of Upper Klamath Lake. Braunworth, W.S., Jr., Welch, T., and Hathaway, R. eds. Water Allocation in the Klamath Reclamation Project, 2001: An Assessment of Natural Resource, Economic, Social, and Institutional Issues in the Upper Klamath Basin. Corvallis: Oregon State University Extension Service