Source: OREGON STATE UNIVERSITY submitted to
GROWTH REGULATION OF HORTICULTURAL CROPS
Sponsoring Institution
National Institute of Food and Agriculture
Project Status
TERMINATED
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
0192448
Grant No.
(N/A)
Project No.
ORE00117A
Proposal No.
(N/A)
Multistate No.
(N/A)
Program Code
(N/A)
Project Start Date
Oct 1, 2002
Project End Date
Sep 30, 2007
Grant Year
(N/A)
Project Director
Proebsting, W. M.
Recipient Organization
OREGON STATE UNIVERSITY
(N/A)
CORVALLIS,OR 97331
Performing Department
HORTICULTURE
Non Technical Summary
Difficult to propagate clones of pear, cherry, and hazelnut will be propagated by a new method of tissue culture using solid and liquid media together. A new group of chemicals made by insects causes cell division in certain types of pea. The insect chemicals have been identified and progress is being made to identify the plant chemicals. The pea gene controlling this response will be mapped and cloned.
Animal Health Component
50%
Research Effort Categories
Basic
50%
Applied
50%
Developmental
(N/A)
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
2061112102014%
2061112104020%
2061115102013%
2061115104020%
2061210102013%
2061210104020%
Goals / Objectives
Micropropagation: Propagation of superior genotypes of woody plants requires asexual, rather than sexual, techniques. Asexual propagation of some species remains difficult, inefficient, or uneconomic. Micropropagation of difficult to propagate pear, cherry, and hazelnut clones will be the focus of this project for the next five years. Plant growth factors: Characterization of bruchins, newly identified compounds from insects that stimulate cell division in plants. In plants, cell division ordinarily occurs in shoot, root, or wound meristems. Compounds that stimulate ectopic cell division are of great interest in studying the control of cell division and have potential practical interest. Our goal is to improve our understanding of bruchins and clone the major gene in pea which conditions bruchin sensitivity.
Project Methods
We will dissect the components of the double-phase system of tissue culture to determine what is important to its success. We will use hazelnut, pear, and cherry clones in these studies. We will continue attempts to identify bruchins present in plant extracts. These extracts are being purified with the same methods used to isolate bruchins from insects. We have begun a map-based approach to bracket Np with closely-linked markers and then search for homology in the Medicago truncatula genome.

Progress 10/01/02 to 09/30/07

Outputs
OUTPUTS: Micropropagation is a very useful tool for rapid propagation of woody plants. We developed micro propagation methods for hazelnut varieties and clonal rootstocks of cherry and pear. These methods result in efficient propagation of all but the oldest, most mature clones of these species. PARTICIPANTS: Luigi Meneghelli, Senior Faculty Research Assistant Shawn Mehlenbacher, Collaborator, Oregon State University Oregon Hazelnut Commission, funding Washington Tree Fruit Research Commission, funding TARGET AUDIENCES: nurseries and orchardists in the Pacific Northwest

Impacts
New hazelnut varieties that are resistant to Eastern Filbert Blight are being rushed into large-scale testing on strongly blighted sites. The cutting and micropropagation methods that we have developed for pear and previously with cherry rootstocks have facilitated development of clonal rootstocks in these species. Approximately a quarter to a third of a million cherry rootstocks are produced annually based on this work. These are used to produce grafted trees worth millions of dollars. Commercial development of pear rootstocks and hazelnut varieties is less advanced, but our methods have greatly facilitated field testing and commercial testing of these new materials.

Publications

  • No publications reported this period


Progress 01/01/06 to 12/31/06

Outputs
Clonal rootstocks of pear are needed to improve production efficiency. We are screening about 450 seedlings of pear called the Horner series. Two initial selections have been established in tissue culture and 2500 liners produced of each plus Old Home x Farmingdale 87 for field trials. In 2006, we also tested a form of mound layering we call auxin-treated tie-off layering (ATTOL) as a low tech method anyone can use to propagate rootstocks that are difficult to obtain commercially. ATTOL indeed proved simple and efficacious. We established 15 new EFB-resistant hazelnut clones in tissue culture, in addition to the 17 already in culture. Cultures are being distributed to commercial micropropagation labs, as needed, for production of orchard trees. We completed a study of a genetic mutant of arabidopsis that overexpresses 13-lipoxygenase, the initial enzyme of the jasmonate pathway. This resulted in increased jasmonate content and increased resistant to Botrytis cinerea, an important fungal pathogen.

Impacts
Rootstocks that produce dwarf, precocious scions are avidly sought by the pear industry in the Pacific Northwest as part of their drive to produce competitive orchard systems. Rootstocks are the foundation of intensive tree management. Further testing of the Horner series will produce rootstocks for planting of grafted trees worth millions of dollars. Eastern Filbert Blight is causing significant damage to the Oregon hazelnut industry. EFB-resistant varieties are being developed and our program of tissue culture rapidly increases their numbers for more rapid planting and production by growers. In addition, the industry is poised for rapid growth based on the superior culinary quality of these varieties. Ultimately, this will be worth millions. Our studies of plant resistance to disease will have a long term impact on disease management.

Publications

  • Bonaventure, G., Gfeller, A., Proebsting, W.M. Hortensteiner, S., Chetelat, A., Martinoia, E., Farmer, E.E. 2007. A gain-of-function allele of TPC1 activates oxylipin biogenesis after leaf wounding in Arabidopsis. Plant Journal 49: 889-898


Progress 01/01/05 to 12/31/05

Outputs
Many woody plants are difficult to propagate by asexual methods. Tissue culture is a powerful technique that is the method of last resort. We develop new media and combined use of solid and liquid media for simple, effective propagation of woody plants. Somatic genetic variation is often a consequence of tissue culture. We are using tomato to compare genetic variation in axillary and adventitious shoots, as well as in seedlings. Our hypothesis is that tissue-specific regulation of DNA mismatch repair systems accounts for this variation.

Impacts
By anticipating release of Eastern Filbert Blight-resistant hazelnut cultivars, we are able to distribute established tissue cultures to commercial nurseries when release actually occurs. This greatly shortens the time from introduction of the variety to planting in orchards. Development and use of methods for propagating clonal rootstocks of cherry have resulted in annual production of about a third of a million rootstocks to produce grafted trees worth millions of dollars. Development of clonal rootstocks of pear is in progress. Identification and propagation of an improved clonal rootstock of pear would have a major impact on pear production in Oregon. Our role is to speed introduction and testing of prospective rootstocks. Understanding genetic and molecular mechanisms of somatic variation in plants is a prelude to using this variation to advance techniques of plant breeding.

Publications

  • No publications reported this period


Progress 01/01/03 to 12/31/03

Outputs
The dominant NP allele of pea conditions a mitotic response to two distinct environmental stimuli--weevil oviposition on the pod and reduced UV light. Oviposition by the weevil results in a localized, neoplastic growth under the egg. Weevils produce a novel set of compounds, called bruchins, that generate the same localized cellular response as oviposition (Doss et al., 2000. PNAS 97:6218). In contrast, low UV light results in growth of spontaneous callus (SC) over the entire surface of the pod. Although these phenotypes are controlled by Np, it is not clear that they have a common cellular basis. Careful observation found that that both responses originate with programmed cell death in stomata, followed by mitosis. Furthermore, calcium and reactive oxygen signaling appear to play a role in neoplasm development. We are studying propagation of hazelnut and clonal rootstocks of pear and cherry, both by cutting and micropropagation. We have developed a tissue culture system for efficient propagation of all but the oldest, most mature clones of these species. In coming years we will be helping the introduction and testing of new clones into the nursery and orchard industries. We are also developing a transformation system for cherry in order to study virus resistance.

Impacts
Our identification of bruchins is an important contribution to the field of plant defense. Peas use bruchins as a signal for the presence of weevil eggs laid on pods. Bruchins are present in very small amounts, but the pea is extraordinarily sensitive to their presence. Bruchin identity gives us another tool to study plant defense, not only to weevils, but how various defense systems interact. Bruchins also stimulate mitosis of mature cells. This is a topic of great importance in biology as it is ultimately related to tumor formation. The cutting and micropropagation methods that we have developed for pear and cherry rootstocks have facilitated development of clonal rootstocks in these species. Approximately a quarter to a third of a million cherry rootstocks are produced annually based on this work. These are used to produce grafted trees worth millions of dollars. Commercial development of pear rootstocks and hazelnut varieties is less advanced, but our methods have greatly facilitated field testing and commercial testing of these new materials. New hazelnut varieties that are resistant to Eastern Filbert Blight are being rushed into large-scale testing on strongly blighted sites.

Publications

  • No publications reported this period


Progress 01/01/02 to 12/31/02

Outputs
1) The dominant NP allele of pea conditions a mitotic response to two distinct environmental stimuli - weevil oviposition on the pod and reduced UV light. Oviposition by the weevil results in a localized, neoplastic growth under the egg. Weevils produce a novel set of compounds, called bruchins, that generate the same localized cellular response as oviposition (Doss et al., 2000. PNAS 97:6218). In contrast, low UV light results in growth of spontaneous callus (SC) over the entire surface of the pod. We studied cellular events occurring on the pod, attempting to link the bruchin and SC responses. Our data indicate that both begin with programmed cell death (PCD), followed by mitosis. Both responses are associated with a number of cellular changes that have been linked to PCD. Further, both responses initiate at the stomata and are associated with production of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS). Thus, development of the bruchin and SC responses, both conditioned by the NP gene, share common events even though they eventually have distinguishing phenotypes. 2) We are studying propagation of hazelnut and clonal rootstocks of pear and cherry, both by cutting and micropropagation. In coming years we will be helping the introduction and testing of new clones into the nursery and orchard industries. We are also developing a transformation system for cherry in order to study virus resistance.

Impacts
1) Our identification of bruchins is an important contribution to the important field of plant defense. Peas use bruchins as a signal for the presence of weevil eggs laid on pods. Bruchins are present in very small amounts, but the pea is extraordinarily sensitive to their presence. Bruchin identity gives us another tool to study plant defense, not only to weevils, but how various defense systems interact. Bruchins also stimulate mitosis of mature cells. This is a topic of great importance in biology as it is ultimately related to tumor formation. 2) The cutting and micropropagation methods that we have developed for pear and cherry rootstocks have facilitated development of clonal rootstocks in these species. Approximately a quarter to a third of a million cherry rootstocks are produced annually based on this work. These are used to produce grafted trees worth millions of dollars. Commercial development of pear rootstocks and hazelnut varieties is less advanced, but our methods have greatly facilitated field testing and commercial testing of these new materials.

Publications

  • No publications reported this period