Source: FLORIDA A&M UNIVERSITY submitted to
THE IMPACT OF TRELLIS SYSTEM AND CANOPY MANAGEMENT ON PRODUCTION EFFICIENCY AND FRUIT QUALITY OF FLORIDA GRAPES
Sponsoring Institution
National Institute of Food and Agriculture
Project Status
TERMINATED
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
0192134
Grant No.
(N/A)
Project No.
FLAX02-01
Proposal No.
(N/A)
Multistate No.
(N/A)
Program Code
(N/A)
Project Start Date
Jul 1, 2002
Project End Date
Sep 30, 2006
Grant Year
(N/A)
Project Director
Leong, S.
Recipient Organization
FLORIDA A&M UNIVERSITY
(N/A)
TALLAHASSEE,FL 32307
Performing Department
AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH
Non Technical Summary
The proposed research is to evaluate several training/trellis systems and management practices that will optimize yield and enhance fruit quality of Florida grapes.
Animal Health Component
75%
Research Effort Categories
Basic
25%
Applied
75%
Developmental
(N/A)
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
2051130106025%
2051131106025%
2051139106050%
Goals / Objectives
1. Evaluate and compare the productive capacity of various training/trellis systems for selected Florida grapes. 2. Evaluate the spacing requirements for optimum crop size and fruit quality for selected Florida grapes. 3. Evaluate the canopy management needs of various training/trellis systems and their impact on crop size and fruit quality for selected Florida grapes.
Project Methods
A five acre vineyard will be established. Four vines per cultivar will be used as sampling usings. Five training/trellis systems will be evaluated. Six cultivars - three muscadines and three bunch grapes will be evaluated. Three spacing densities and three pruning intensities will be used to manage the canopy. There will be two replications for each factor.

Progress 07/01/02 to 09/30/06

Outputs
As a major accomplishment of this study a 4.2-acre experimental vineyard was established to evaluate several training/trellis system and vineyard management practices for selected Florida grape varieties. The research was based on a complete randomized block design. Four vines per variety were planted as sampling units. Each set of experiments had two replications and the following factors: ►Grape varieties: 6 ►Training/ trellis system: 6 ►Spacing: 3 sets of planting density (determined specifically for muscadine and Florida hybrids) During the 1st, 2nd and 3rd growing cycle large amount of biometrical data were collected and following dependent variables were measured: "the total dormant growth per vine"; "the number of new shoots"; "the number of fruiting shoots" and "index of fruitfulness" was calculated as the ratio of "total number of fruiting shoots" and "total number of shoots" per vine with maximum value of 1. An intensive green pruning technique was adapted and applied after the new-planted vine reached 1 meter (m) in height and twice a month thereafter until late September to ensure maximum length of healthy growth of each vine prior entering dormancy and advance formation of the permanent fruiting arms. As a result, majority of the muscadine vines had well-developed fruiting cordons at the end of the first year, established canopies and intensive fruit set during the second growing season. The first yield measurements, growth rate and dormant pruning weight to determine vine vigor and productivity were conducted. Initial biometrical data for fruit and wine quality were also carried to identify the impact of the different training/trellis systems and canopy management practices. Viticultural and phonological database was established for 6 commercial Florida grape varieties. Technology for growing high quality bunch wine grapes has been developed. Introduction trial for growing Cynthiana/Norton as a color stable red wine variety for Florida was initiated. Our results are solid indication of the importance of carefully designed and selected training /trellis system for maintaining the best physiological equilibrium of the particular grape variety and its optimal performing under specific environmental conditions.

Impacts
Viticulture is an underdeveloped agricultural enterprise in Florida. The region presents unique challenges to the development and propagation of disease-resistant cultivars suited to its climatic and environmental conditions. At the same time, great potential exists for the development of a viable and sustainable viticulture industry in Florida. The proposed research generate important information that have a significant impact in enhancing the productive efficiency and competitiveness of grape growing in Florida and the southeastern states as fallow: - better suited to the local varieties and the extremes of the environmental conditions training/ trellis systems that could be used to increase yield and fruit quality for fresh fruit and wine grape . - canopy management and vine balance techniques that will enhance the fruit quality for fresh fruit and wine. - optimum vine spacing combined with specific training/trellis system for the local grape varieties - optimized floor and canopy management practices for the local varieties that could be used to enhance overall productive efficiency of the vineyard.

Publications

  • V. Colova and S. Leong, 2005: Comparative Study of two Training/ Trellis Systems and Canopy Management Practices for Carlos and Noble Muscadine Grapes in Florida, Proceeding of 118th Annual Meeting of FSHS, June 5-7, Tampa, F
  • V. Colova, P.Bordallo, L.Parker, S. Leong, 2006: Evaluation Study of Fruit Quality and Photosynthesis of Two Training/ Trellis Systems and Canopy Management Practices for Carlos and Noble Muscadine Grapes in Florida, Journal International des Sciences de la Vigne et du Vin (in press).
  • V. Colova and St. Leong, 2006: Grape Canopy Management, Seminar. Annual Conference FGGA, January 19-20, 2005, Ocala, FL.
  • V. Colova and St. Leong , 2006: Present Trends in Florida Muscadine Grape Industry , 114 Annual Farmers Conference on February 23-24, Tuskegee University, Tuskegee, AL


Progress 01/01/05 to 12/31/05

Outputs
Research to evaluate the impact of training/trellis systems and various canopy management practices on the production efficiency and fruit quality of three Florida bunch grape varieties -Blanc du Bois, Stover and Cynthiana and three muscadine grape varieties -Carlos, Noble and Fry is in the third year and is progressing satisfactory. Our goals in the selection of best training/trellis systems for Florida grapes were: superior microclimate within divided canopy under the hot and humid environment, improved pest and disease management and mechanical harvest. The grapevines from different treatment plots were carefully monitored and evaluated during the growing season. The first yield measurements, growth rate and dormant pruning weight to determine vine vigor and productivity were conducted. Initial biometrical data for fruit and wine quality were also carried to identify the impact of the different training/trellis systems and canopy management practices. The growth and fruit set performance of Cynthiana/Norton experimental plot was carefully observed and evaluated to determine its tolerance to Pierce's disease. It is assumed that Cynthiana/Norton originated from Vitis aestivalis, Michaux. The study of the pedigree of Cynthiana via data mining in the existing North American grape germplasm collections and ampelographic analysis, and specifically expressed DNA microsatellite markers was initiated as a graduate research to get a better understanding of the genetic make up of the variety and its tolerance to PD pressure. Grapes from the different treatment plots were also evaluated by uniform microvinification to determine their enological potential. The reported results (Colova and Leong, 2005) for two of the varieties: Carlos and Noble demonstrated significant variation between the 'yield components', 'fruit ripening pattern' and 'fruit composition' of single wire double cordon (SWDC) and Munson T-cross arm double cordon (MTDC) training/trellis systems, with better performance from the divided canopy. The preliminary results indicate the very high importance of carefully designing and selecting training /trellis system and canopy management for maintaining the best physiological equilibrium of the particular grape variety and its optimal performance under specific environmental conditions. Due to the nature of grapevine as a perennial crop with extended juvenile stage before primary fruit set, it is extremely important to continue the research for another 5 more years before we will be able to draw the final conclusions and make significant recommendations for the industry.

Impacts
The research is expected to provide specific viticultural and phenological information that could be used to identify production systems and develop accurate pest management strategies to help grape growers and processors produce quality grapes and wines more efficiently in Florida and the Southeastern states, including areas where warm climate grapes are being grown. The study will have a positive impact on the viticulture industry in Florida.

Publications

  • V. Colova and S. Leong, 2005: Comparative Study of Two Training/ Trellis Systems and Canopy Management Practices for Carlos and Noble Muscadine Grapes in Florida, Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc.(submitted)
  • V. Colova, L. Parker, P.Bordallo, 2005: The Identity Study of Norton/Cynthiana Grape Variety via DNA Fingerprinting. In: Proc International Grape Genomics Symposium, July 12-14, St. Luis, Missouri, eds. W.Qui and L.Kovacs,1: 20-27.
  • L. Parker, P. Bordallo and V. Colova, 2005: Tracing the Pedigree of Cynthiana Grape by DNA Microsatellite Markers, Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. (submitted).
  • V. Colova and S. Leong, 2004: The Impact of Training/Trellis System and Canopy Management on Production Efficiency and Fruit Quality of Florida Grapes, Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 117: 236-239.
  • V. Colova and St. Leong, 2006: Advances in Grape Canopy Management, Seminar. Annual Conference FGGA, January 19-20, 2005, Ocala, FL.
  • V. Colova and St. Leong, 2006: Current Trends in Florida Muscadine Grape Industry , 114 Annual Farmers Conference on February 23-24, Tuskegee University, Tuskegee, AL
  • V. Colova and S. Leong, 2005: Comparative Study of two Training/ Trellis Systems and Canopy Management Practices for Carlos and Noble Muscadine Grapes in Florida, Proceeding of 118th Annual Meeting of FSHS, June 5-7, Tampa, FL.
  • L. Parker, P. Bordallo and V. Colova, 2005: Tracing the Pedigree of Cynthiana Grape by DNA Microsatellite Markers, Proceeding of 118th Annual Meeting of FSHS, June 5-7, Tampa, FL
  • V. Colova, 2005: Establishment and Taking Care of the Vineyard. Extension Workshop, Muscadine Grape Production in North Florida, Gadsden County, April 22.
  • V. Colova, 2005: Drops of Health in a Wine Glass, Seminar. Annual Conference FGGA, January 13-14, 2005, Ocala FL.
  • V. Colova, 2005: Grape Nutrition: New World versus Old World l, Seminar. Annual Conference FGGA, January 13-14, 2005, Ocala FL.


Progress 01/01/04 to 12/31/04

Outputs
A 4.25 acre research vineyard was established to evaluate the impact of six trellis systems and canopy management on the production efficiency and fruit quality of Florida grapes - Stover, Cynthiana, Blanc du Bois, Noble, Carlos and Fry. The research is also evaluating the impact of planting density, vine spacing,root stock performance, weed control, and disease and pest managment strategies on vine growth, yield and fruit quality. The research is in its second year and preliminary data showed that there is significant variations in vine growth rate between the treatments and provided information that could be used to improve the productivity and quality of Florida grapes.

Impacts
The research is expected to provide specific viticultural and phenological information that could be used to identify production systems and develop accurate pest management strategies to help grape growers and processors produce quality grapes and wines more efficiently in Florida and the Southeastern states, including areas where warm climate grapes are being grown. The study will have a positive impact on the viticulture industry in Florida.

Publications

  • Colova, Violetka and Stephen Leong. 2004. The Impact of Training/ Trellis Systems and Canopy Management on Production Efficiency and Fruit Quality of Florida Grapes. Proc. Fl. State Hort. Soc. Vol. 119, Paper 71.


Progress 01/01/03 to 12/31/03

Outputs
A major constraint to grape growing in Florida is the lack of research-based information on vineyard mangement practices to improve production and fruit quality of commercially grown Florida grapes. It is extremely important to understand and master the science of canopy management because it enhances vine growth,yield, fruit quality,and reduces pests and diseases in the vineyard. Good canopy management is often the key to a successful vineyard operation. The general objective of this study is to evaluate several training/trellis systems and vineyard management practices. The following factors are being evaluated: Cultivars (Noble, Carlos, Fry, Stover, Blanc du Bois and Cynthiana); trellis systems (Single-wine, Single-wine minimum pruned, Geneva Double Curtain, Double wire,Munsoon narrow T, and Pergola); Rootstock (Lake Emerald, Tampa and Dog Ridge); Spacing/vine density (8 x 10, 10 x 10 and 12 x 10 feet). The experiment has two replications with four vines per variety as sampling units. During the first growing season, data on "percent of vine survival" and "dormant growth" - total length and diameter of the canes has beren collected.

Impacts
The knowledge gained from this research will help grape growers and processors produce quality grapes and wines more efficiently in Florida and the southeastern states, including areas where warm climate grapes are being grown. The study will have a positive impact on the viticulture industry in Florida.

Publications

  • No publications reported this period