Source: OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY submitted to
HARVESTING, PROCESSING AND STORAGE OF HORTICULTURAL AND ALTERNATE COMMODITIES
Sponsoring Institution
National Institute of Food and Agriculture
Project Status
TERMINATED
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
0191622
Grant No.
2002-34150-11939
Project No.
OKL02481
Proposal No.
2002-06149
Multistate No.
(N/A)
Program Code
CQ
Project Start Date
Jul 1, 2002
Project End Date
Jun 30, 2004
Grant Year
2002
Project Director
Maness, N. O.
Recipient Organization
OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY
(N/A)
STILLWATER,OK 74078
Performing Department
HORTICULTURE & LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE
Non Technical Summary
Technological improvements in fruit, nut, and vegetable harvesting, handling and processing are critically needed to supply domestic markets and to support U.S. participation in international commerce. As urban sprawl, water supplies, environmental limitations, and reductions in tillable acreage restrict product availability from the traditional production areas, ie. California and Florida, commerce must increasingly depend on commodities grown in areas such as Oklahoma. The primary focus of the preservation and processing research team is development of systems and processes to support growth of the horticulture industry, encourage growth of an agriculture product nutraceutical processing industry, promote production of new crops and/or new uses for traditional crops all to provide economic benefit for Oklahoma.
Animal Health Component
100%
Research Effort Categories
Basic
(N/A)
Applied
100%
Developmental
(N/A)
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
50350101020100%
Goals / Objectives
1. Determine the effects of horticultural practices and harvesting procedures on product quality before and after harvest. 2. Investigate critical biological processes related to fresh and minimally processed horticultural product deterioration and phytochemical content during postharvest handling. 3. Develop and evaluate new and redesigned harvesting, handling, processing and storage technologies for horticultural products. 4. Evaluate value-added processing technologies for improving the shelf life, enhancing the concentration of active ingredients and/or improving marketability of horticultural products.
Project Methods
Crops under study will be grown under recommended, or amended, conditions in field plots or in the greenhouse as appropriate. In certain cases, vegetables, fruits and nuts will be obtained from commercial suppliers. Crops will be harvested at specified maturity stages and evaluated for quality after harvest and during postharvest handling under specified conditions and for specified durations. Development of new and refinement of existing harvesting and handling systems will be conducted and evaluated on the basis of harvesting efficiency, quality characteristics of the harvested products and yield of harvested product. Specialized production, harvesting, handling and processing systems will be integrated for optimal phytochemical production, to encourage growth of in-state value-added processing industries for agricultural commodities. Analytical procedures and new grading technologies will be developed and refined as needed to assess quality characteristics important for marketability of harvested products, to evaluate improvements in developed harvesting and handling procedures and to assess quality of value-added products under study.

Progress 07/01/02 to 06/30/04

Outputs
The non-destructive estimation of chlorophyll concentration in spinach was attempted unsuccessfully. In past attempts, NDVI was determined versus plant percent soil coverage (a 2 dimensional estimate of biomass), with strong correlations between NDVI and chlorophyll content (mass of chlorophyll per area of ground) but very weak correlations between the product of NDVI and percent soil coverage versus chlorophyll concentration of harvested tissue. In our final attempt, we utilized plant height by sonar to better define actual plant biomass and in theory enable better concentration correlation, but correlations were still below 0.3. While patents approved during this period establish that NDVI can be used as an on-the-fly index for fertilizer application over a pre-determined area of land, we have been unsuccessful in utilizing NDVI as a measure of plant chlorophyll concentration. An improved method for turf grass chlorophyll extraction was developed. DMF was proven to be a more effective extractant for chlorophyll than acetone. DMF has the added advantage of applicability to fresh tissues as well as dry tissues.

Impacts
Use of crop biosensors to evaluate crop nitrogen needs allows precise and variable application of N to a field, enhancing uniformity of production and in many cases yield. We have confirmed and patented use of the technology for land-based applications, but we have encountered difficulty when plant- and leaf-specific applications of the technology have been attempted. The biosensor technology has proven technically and commercially feasible for assessing plant nutrient needs per unit area (content) but has not been useful for estimating nutrient or chlorophyll amount per unit plant weight (concentration).

Publications

  • Jones, C. L., N. O. Maness, and M. L. Stone, and R. Jayasekara. 2004. Chlorophyll estimation using multi-spectral reflectance and height sensing. Paper No. 043081. ASAE/CSAE Annual International Meeting, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
  • Stone, M.L., D. Needham, J.B. Solie, W.R. Raun, and G.V. Johnson. 2003. Optical spectral reflectance sensor and controller. U.S. Patent 6,596,996 B1.
  • Raun, W.R., G.V. Johnson, J.B. Solie, and M.L. Stone. 2003. A process for in-season fertilizer nitrogen application based on predicted yield potential. U.S. Patent. 6,601,341.
  • Stiegler, J.C., G. Bell and N. Maness. 2004. Comparison of acetone and N, N dimethylformamide for pigment extraction in turf grass. Comm. Soil Sci. Plant Anal. 35: 1801-1813.


Progress 10/01/02 to 09/30/03

Outputs
The non-destructive estimation of chlorophyll concentration in spinach was investigated by using estimators of biomass and chlorophyll yield. Biomass was estimated from images taken with a digital still camera and chlorophyll yield was estimated using reflectance based NDVI from a Plant Reflectance sensor, a WeedSeekerTM sensor,a Greenseeker Hand HeldTM sensor, and a multi-spectral digital camera. Strong correlations were found between reflectance based NDVI and chlorophyll yield (r2=0.92) and between biomass and projected plant area (r2=0.85), but combined measures were not successful in predicting chlorophyll concentration. The high correlation with chlorophyll yield proved useful for utilizing a vehicle mounted Greenseeker sensor for estimating N content, and for mapping emergence and plant density, of turfgrass. Various means to assess pecan kernel quality were investigated. Physical characteristics of pecans related to nutmeat, kernel fill and shell characteristics were affected by cultivar and moisture content. A calibration procedure for low energy x-ray, in combination with digital x-ray imaging technology, was developed to provide a means of assessing nutmeat condition for unshelled pecans. Nutmeats can be visualized, shell intactness can be determined, and presence of feeding pecan weevils can be confirmed using the procedure.

Impacts
Use of crop biosensors to evaluate crop nitrogen needs allows precise and variable application of N to a field, enhancing uniformity of production and in many cases yield. We have confirmed use of the technology for land-based applications, but we have encountered difficulty when plant-based applications of the technology have been attempted. Non-destructive methods to assess whole pecan quality are needed to improve pecan grading. Development of non-invasive, on-line grading methods should improve grade uniformity and could decrease price discrepancies currently experienced from buying point to selling point in the industry.

Publications

  • Bell, G.E., B.M. Howell, B.V. Johnson, W.R. Raun, J.B. Solie, and M.L. Stone. 2003. Optical sensing of turf chlorophyll content and tissue nitrogen. Hort. Sci. (In Press).
  • Bell, G.E., D.L.Martin. M.L. Stone, J.B. Solie, and G.V. Johnson. 2003. Turf area mapping using vehicle-mounted optical sensors. Crop Sci. 42(2):648-650. Kotwaliwale, N., G.H. Brusewitz, P.R. Weckler. 2003. Physical Characteristics of Pecan Components: Effect of Cultivar and Moisture Content. ASAE Annual Int'l Meeting, Las Vegas, NV, July.
  • Kotwaliwale, N., J. Subbiah, P.R. Weckler, G.H. Brusewitz, G.A. Kranzler. 2003. Digital Radiography for Quality Determination of Small Agricultural Products: Development and Calibration of Equipment. ASAE Annual Int'l Meeting, Las Vegas, NV, July.
  • Weckler, P.R., N.O. Maness, C.L. Jones, R. Jayasekara, M.L. Stone, D. Chrz and T. Kersten. 2003. Remote sensing to estimate chlorophyll concentration using multi-spectral plant reflectance. ASAE Annual Int'l Meeting, Las Vegas, NV, July.


Progress 10/01/01 to 09/30/02

Outputs
Non-destructive and potentially on-line means to assess pecan kernel quality were investigated. Low energy x-ray, in combination with digital x-ray imaging technology, was used to investigate means of assessing nutmeat condition for unshelled pecans. Nutmeats can be visualized, shell intactness can be determined, and presence of feeding pecan weevils can be confirmed using the procedure. Studies have been initiated to evaluate the technology as an on-line means for pecan grading to estimate nutmeat percentage and detect kernel defects. Near-infra-red reflectance was also assessed for on-line detection of pecan weevil larvae in shelled pecans. At 880 nm Pecan weevil larvae reflect less light (average reflectance value of 0.4) than pecan nutmeats (average reflectance value of 0.6). Some overlap in reflectance of larvae versus nutmeat was observed.

Impacts
Non-destructive methods to assess whole pecan quality are needed to improve pecan grading. Currently, pecan grades are assigned by destructively sampling less than 0.005 percent of the total pecan lot and variation in actual quality can be substantially different from the assigned grade. Development of non-invasive, on-line grading methods should improve grade uniformity and could decrease price discrepancies currently experienced from buying point to selling point in the industry.

Publications

  • Maness, N., N. Kotwaliwale, p. Weckler and G.H. Brusewitz. 2002. Pecan grading update. Proc. Oklahoma Pecan Growers' Association, pp. 27-31.