Source: UNIVERSITY OF GEORGIA submitted to
THE ROLE OF VITAMIN D3, PHYTATE AND THYROXINE METABOLISM IN ABNORMAL BONE DEVELOPMENT AND PHYTATE PHOSPHORUS UTILIZATION IN POULTRY
Sponsoring Institution
National Institute of Food and Agriculture
Project Status
TERMINATED
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
0191439
Grant No.
(N/A)
Project No.
GEO00962
Proposal No.
(N/A)
Multistate No.
(N/A)
Program Code
(N/A)
Project Start Date
Dec 21, 2001
Project End Date
Dec 20, 2007
Grant Year
(N/A)
Project Director
Edwards, H. M.
Recipient Organization
UNIVERSITY OF GEORGIA
110 RIVERBEND ROAD
ATHENS,GA 30602
Performing Department
POULTRY SCIENCE
Non Technical Summary
(N/A)
Animal Health Component
50%
Research Effort Categories
Basic
25%
Applied
50%
Developmental
25%
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
1333220101010%
3023220101045%
3113220101045%
Goals / Objectives
1. To develop analytical procedures in our laboratory to analyze for ng quantities of D3, 25-OHD3 and 1alpha-OHD3 in feed, poultry and poultry products. 2. To determine the effect of maternal transfer of D3, 1alpha-OHD3 and 25-OHD3 on the efficacy of D3 and several derivatives to prevent tibial dyschondroplasia and facilitate phytate phosphorus utilization in broiler chickens. 3. To determine if any relationship can be established between the broiler breeder laying hens immunological titers to diseases they are vaccinated for and susceptibility to development of rickets and tibial dyschondroplasia by their progeny. 4. To determine if optimal thyroid gland function and/or the metabolism of thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) are major factors in the development of tibial dyschondroplasia in broilers. 5. To determine the quantitative effect of vitamin D3 and several of its derivatives (1alpha-OHD3, 25-OHD3 and 1,25-(OH)2D3) on the efficacy of phytase supplements. The experiments designed for multi-regression analysis will give quantitative data on any effect of the derivative on efficacy of phytase.
Project Methods
Studies are to be conducted to determine the quantitative requirement of the broiler breeder hen for vitamin D3 to give maximum egg production, egg shell quality, fertility, hatchability, and good health of progeny. Emphasis in the design has been placed on obtaining data that will assure that chick quality is adequately tested. Follow up studies will evaluate D3 derivatives as substitutes of D3. Effects of D3 derivatives on phytate P utilization will be investigated. The possibility of thyroid gland function being a major factor in development of tibial dyschondroplasia will be investigated. Studies designed to show what the best levels of vitamin D3 or its derivatives should be in broiler breeder hens and their progenies diets on chicks well being and performance will be conducted.

Progress 12/21/01 to 12/20/07

Outputs
OUTPUTS: investigator deceased PARTICIPANTS: Not relevant to this project. TARGET AUDIENCES: Not relevant to this project. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Not relevant to this project.

Impacts
investigator deceased

Publications

  • investigator deceased 2007


Progress 01/01/06 to 12/31/06

Outputs
The work published this past year (cited below) continues to demonstrate the importance of vitamin D3 levels in the breeder hen diet on prevention of the development of leg abnormalities such as tibial dyschondroplasia in young broiler progeny from the hens. Studies also indicate that even with adequate D3 reserves at hatching the broiler starters and growing diets must be carefully formulated with regard to calcium and phosphorus levels to prevent leg abnormalities in young broilers. In studies on factors influencing phytate phosphorus utilization results indicate that the metabolizable energy in peanut meal is much better utilized when the diet is supplemented with phytase. This study indicates that other plant by-products with high phytate content should be evaluated for metablizable energy and protein utilization in the presence and absence of dietary supplemental phytase.

Impacts
Poultry feed formulators have and are continuing to adjust level of D3 in broiler breeder diets to prevent leg abnormalities in progeny. The role of phytase and other dietary factors that influence phytate phosphorus utilization are constantly being adjusted by feed formulation to efficiently utilize all the phosphorus from plant materials in poultry diets.

Publications

  • Driver JP, Pesti GM, Bakalli RI, et al. The effect of feeding calcium- and phosphorus- deficient diets to broiler chickens during the starting and growing-finishing phases on carcass quality POULTY SCIENCE 85 (11): 1939-1946 NOV 2006
  • Atencio A, Edwards HM, Pesti GM, et al. The vitamin D-3 requirement of broiler breeders POULTRY SCIENCE 85(4): 674-692 APR 2006
  • Driver JP, Atencio A, Pesti GM, et al. The effect of maternal dietary vitamin D-3 supplementation on performance and tibial dyschondroplasia of broiler chicks POULTRY SCIENCE 85 (1): 39-47 JAN 2006
  • Driver JP, Atencio A, Edwards HM, et al. Improvements in nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizable energy of peanut meal in response to phytase supplementation POULTY SCIENCE 85 (1): 96-99 JAN 2006


Progress 01/01/05 to 12/31/05

Outputs
A study was conducted using broiler breeder hens in an environment excluding ultraviolet light where birds were fed a basal vitamin D3 deficient diet supplemented with 4 levels of vitamins D3, (0, 3125, 12,500 and 50,000 ng/kg of diet) and 2 levels of 25-OHD3 (3,125 and 12,5000 ng/kg of diet). The relative biological values of 25- OHD3 in comparison to vitamin D3, using slope ratio analysis, were 138, 133, 128 and 11% for hen-egg production, hatchability, late embryo mortality and body ash of the progeny, respectively. The consistently poorer growth and the higher incidence and severity of tibial dyschondrophasia for chicks from maternal hens fed the low D3 diet suggest that the hens did not have sufficient vitamin D3, reserves to deposit more D3 into the egg, even when egg production declined. Studies indicate that D3 reserves in the egg may be of great importance in preventing several types of leg abnormalities associated with vitamin D3 and calcium deficiencies in young growing chicks.

Impacts
Many feed formulators of the diets of broiler breeder hens have already increased the levels of D3 that they are adding to their hen diets as a result of these studies, in some cases they have also started to add 25 OHD3 to their broiler breeder diets. Our data indicate that the suppliementations will reduce the incidence of leg abnormalities in these hens progeny.

Publications

  • Atencio A, Edwards HM, Pesti GM Effect of the level of cholecalciferol supplementation of broiler breeder hen diets on the performance and bone abnormalities of the progeny fed diets containing various levels of calcium or 25-hydroxycholecalciferol POULTRY SCIENCE 84 (10): 1593-1603 OCT 2005
  • Atencio A, Pesti GM, Edwards HM Twenty-five hydroxycholecalciferol as a cholecalciferol substitute in broiler breeder hen diets and its effect on the performance and general health of the progeny POULTRY SCIENCE 84 (8): 1277-1285 AUG 2005
  • Driver JP, Pesti GM, Bakalli RI, Edwards HM,et al. Phytase and 1 alpha-hydroxycholecalciferol supplementation of broiler chickens during the starting and growing/finishing phases POULTRY SCIENCE 84 (10):1616-1628 OCT 2005
  • Driver JP, Pesti GM, Bakalli RI, Edwards HM, et al. Calcium requirements of the modern broiler chicken as influenced by dietary protein and age POULTRY SCIENCE 84 (10): 1629-1639 OCT 2005
  • Driver JP, Pesti GD, Bakalli RI, et. al. Effects of calcium and nonphytate phosphorus concentrations of phytase efficacy in broiler chicks POULTRY SCIENCE 84 (9): 1406-1417 SEP 2005
  • Atencio A, Edwards HM, Pesti G Effects of vitamin D-3 dietary supplementation of broiler breeder hens on the performance and bone abnormalities of the progeny POULTRY SCIENCE 84(7): 1058-1068 JUL 2005
  • Zhang W, Aggrey SE, Pesti GM, Bakalli RI, Edwards HM et al. Correlated response to divergent selection for phytate phosphorus bioavailability in a randombred chicken population POULTRY Science 84 (4): 536-542 APR 2005
  • Zhang W. Aggrey SE, Pesti GM, Bakalli, RI, Edwards HM et al. Genetic analysis on the direct response to divergent Selection for phytate phosphours bioavailability in a randombred chicken population POULTRY SCIENCE 84 (3): 370- 375 MAR 2005


Progress 01/01/04 to 12/31/04

Outputs
The preliminary studies evaluating 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-0HD3) as a cholecalciferol (D3) substitute in broiler breeder-hens diets and its effect on the performance and general health of the progeny have been completed. Data collected for hen egg production, hatchability, early embryo mortality, late embryo mortality and body ash of progeny from hens fed either D3 or 25-0HD3 have been evaluated for relative biological value of the two derivatives using slope ratio analysis. Comparisons made when 25-OHD3, was fed at 3,125ng/kg indicated that 25-OHD3 was superior to D3. However at the at the 12,500 ng/kg level no statistical differences between D3 and 25-OHD3 were found. Studies with progeny also indicate that at the lower level of 25-OHD3 the progeny were superior when compared to D3, while at the higher level of 25-OHD3 there was no difference. Detailed reports on these studies are currently being reviewed for publication in Poultry Science.

Impacts
These studies do not discourage the use of 25-OHD3 in broiler breeder rations. On the other hand they indicate that further studies are needed if costs of 25-OHD3 are higher than D3.

Publications

  • Atencio, A., H. M. Edwards and G. M. Pesti, 2004. D3 requirements in broiler breeders. International Poultry Science Forum, p.7.
  • Driver, J. P., A. A. Teyedor, G. M. Pesti, H. M. Edwards Jr. and R. I. Bakalli, 2004, The effect of maternal dietary vitamin D3 supplementation on the performance and bone quality of broiler chicks. International Poultry Science Forum, p.7.
  • Atencio, A., H. M. Edwards, G. M. Pesti and G. O Ware, 2004. D3 Requirements in broiler breeders. World Poultry Congress, p.436.
  • Atencio, A., H. M. Edwards, and G. M. Pesti, 2004. Evaluation of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol as a cholecalciferol substitute for broiler breeders, Poultry Sci vol 83, supple. 1, p 107.
  • Aggrey, S., G. M. Pesti, Remzi Bakalli, and H.M. Edwards, Jr. 2004. Molecular Factors Affecting Phytate Phosphorus Utilization in Growing Birds. World Poultry Congress, p. 615.
  • Driver, John, G. M. Pesti, Remzi Bakalli, and H. M. Edwards, Jr. 2004. The Effect of Calcium and Non-Phytate Phosphorus Levels on Phytase Efficacy. World Poultry Congress, p. 576.


Progress 01/01/03 to 12/31/03

Outputs
Preliminary reports of the study to determine the vitamin D3 requirement of broiler breeder hens have been made on a detailed report of the results has been submitted for publication. The study indicates a requirement over 10 times greater than that set by the NRC Poultry committee. Studies indicate that the carry over effect of D3 from hen diets to progeny is very important and that adequate levels of D3 are needed in hen diets to prevent leg abnormalities such as tibial dyschondroplasia and rickets in young chickens during their first 3 weeks of life. Other studies indicate that the exposure of young chicks to U.V. irradiation may also prevent the development of tibial dyschondroplasia and rickets in 2 and 3 weeks after exposure even when the young chicks receive high levels of D3 in the diets. Studies indicate that very high levels of phytase in the diet are effective in hydrolyzing nearly 100 percent of the phytate in a corn-soybean meal diet. This is important since it means that by use of very high levels of phytase or intermediate levels of phytase and 1-alpha-OHD3 supplementation may tremendously reduce phosphate excretion by broiler chickens.

Impacts
The use of higher D3 levels in broiler breeder hen diets, high phytase levels and 1-alpha-OHD3 in broiler diets and U.V. irradiation of young chickens are all applicable to commercial poultry production.

Publications

  • Hall, L. E., R. B. Shirley, R. I. Bakalli, S. E. Aggrey, G. M. Pesti, and H. M. Edwards, Jr., 2003. Power of two methods for the estimation of bone ash of broilers. Poult. Sci., 82:414-418.
  • Shirley, R. B., and H. M. Edwards, Jr., 2003. Graded levels of phytase past industry standards improves broiler performance. Poult. Sci. 82:671-680.
  • Zhang, W., S. E. Aggrey, G. M. Pesti, H. M. Edwards, Jr., and R. I. Bakalli, 2003. Genetics of phytate phosphorus bioavailability: Heritability and genetic correlations with growth and feed utilization traits in a randombred chicken population Poult. Sci. 82:1075-1079.
  • Edwards, H. M., Jr., 2003. Effects of u.v. irradiation of very young chickens on growth and bone development. Br. J. Nutr. 90:151-160.
  • Driver, J. P., G. M. Pesti, R. I. Bakalli, and H. M. Edwards, Jr., 2003. Effects of calcium and protein on the growth and performance of modern broiler chickens. Poultry Sci. 176:42 (SPSS).


Progress 01/01/02 to 12/31/02

Outputs
The initial study to determine the effects of maternal transfer of vitamin D3 to prevent rickets and tibial dyschondroplasia and facilitate phytate phosphorus utilization in broilers is in progress. Results during the first 3 months indicate the maternal transfer of D3 may be of great importance to the progeny. This hen and progeny study will continue for 3-4 more months. Several studies to determine the quantitative effect of D3, 1-alpha-OHD3 and 25-OHD3 on the efficacy of phytase supplements with broilers have been conducted. The experiments indicate that phytase supplementation above that of current broiler industry standards does improve broiler performance, and that even though supplemental 25-D3 or 1-alpha-D3 reduces the incidence of P rickets, each derivative affects body weight gain, feed intake and tibia ash differently. These studies show that considerably more phytate phosphorus can be utilized by chickens from commercial type diets if attention is paid to phytase use levels and vitamin D3 derivative use.

Impacts
If phytase is used at levels to get maximum phytate utilization, the amount utilized by broilers can be almost doubled. This will result in an enormous decrease in phosphorus excretion into the environment.

Publications

  • Edwards, H. M., Jr., 2002. Studies on the efficacy of cholecalciferol and derivatives for stimulating phytate utilization in broilers. Poultry Sci. 81:1026-1031.
  • Edwards, H. M., Jr., R. B. Shirley, W. B. Escoe and G. M. Pesti, 2002. Quantitative evaluation of 1-alpha-hydroxycholecalciferol as a cholecalciferol substitute for broilers. Poultry Sci. 81:664-669.
  • Shirley, R. B. and H. M. Edwards, Jr., 2003. The use of dietary phytase, 25-hydroxycholecalciferol and 1-alpha-hydroxycholecalciferol in broiler chick nutrition. Poultry Sci. 82(Suppl. 1):S24.
  • Atencio, A., R. B. Shirley, H. M. Edwards, Jr. and G. Pesti, 2003. Studies on the source of unidentified D3 activity in some broiler chick experiments. Poultry Sci. 82(Suppl. 1):S69.
  • Shirley, R. B., and H. M. Edwards, Jr., 2002. Dietary calcium affects phytase activity when phytase is supplemental in excess of industry standards. Poultry Sci. 81(Suppl. 1):A11.
  • Shirley, R. B., H. M. Edwards, Jr. and W. D. Berry, 2002. Dietary calcium and triodothyronine affect the incidence of tibial dyschondroplasia in broiler chicks. Poultry Sci. 81(Suppl. 1):95.
  • Ankra-Badu, G. A., S. E. Aggrey, G. M. Pesti, R. I. Bakalli, W. Zhang and H. M. Edwards, Jr., 2002. Model for predicting phytate phosphorus utilization in growing birds. Poultry Sci. 81(Suppl. 1):74.