Source: AUBURN UNIVERSITY submitted to
MANAGEMENT OF INSECT PESTS OF FORAGE AND GRAIN CROPS IN ALABAMA
Sponsoring Institution
National Institute of Food and Agriculture
Project Status
TERMINATED
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
0190808
Grant No.
(N/A)
Project No.
ALA08-020
Proposal No.
(N/A)
Multistate No.
(N/A)
Program Code
(N/A)
Project Start Date
Oct 1, 2001
Project End Date
Sep 30, 2007
Grant Year
(N/A)
Project Director
Flanders, K. L.
Recipient Organization
AUBURN UNIVERSITY
108 M. WHITE SMITH HALL
AUBURN,AL 36849
Performing Department
ENTOMOLOGY
Non Technical Summary
Soil insects are important pests of perennial grass forages. Little is known about their ecology, impact, and control. Variation in wheat and corn cropping systems requires that disease epidemiolgy and effectiveness of management tactics be evaluated in Alabama. This project will determine if spatial distribution of soil insect pest populations are associated with certain within-field locations or characteristics. This project will evaluate new management tactics on corn and wheat, and gather information on risk management factors acssociated with barley yellow dwarf virus.
Animal Health Component
80%
Research Effort Categories
Basic
20%
Applied
80%
Developmental
(N/A)
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
2161621113020%
2021510113010%
2121542113020%
2111621113020%
2021542113010%
2111510113020%
Goals / Objectives
Objective 1. Determine the feasibility of identifying areas of perennial grass pasture that are prone to infestation by soil insect pests, particularly white grubs (Coleoptera: Scarabeidae). Objective 2. Evaluate new strategies for controlling wheat and corn pests in Alabama.
Project Methods
Objective 1. Grub infestations will be monitored yearly in five tall fescue paddocks at the Upper Coastal Plain Substation in Winfield, AL. Soil insects have been mapped in these paddocks since 1995. By spring 2001, the fescue stand in three paddocks (5a, 5b, and 8) had almost disappeared. These paddocks will be renovated in Fall 2001 and seeded with Pennington Max Q, a fescue infected with a novel endophyte. During this establishment phase, fertilizer will be applied according to standard management practice. In September of each year (2001-2006), grid sampling will be used to determine soil invertebrate populations in each paddock. Each sample will consist of two 10-cm dia X 15 cm deep soil cores excavated with a mechanical soil sampler. Populations of wireworms, white fringed beetles, and billbugs, other potentially injurious insects, also will be recorded. Earthworms will also be mapped. The same pastures will be mapped annually to determine changes in grub density and distribution. Geostatisitcal techniques will be used to analyze the spatial distribution of each type of soil invertebrate. Correlation analysis will be used to determine if patches of insect distribution are similar from year to year (SAS Institute 1988). If consistent patches are identified, data on field topography, soil type, and yearly changes in soil fertility, percentage organic matter, and stand density will be collected and characterized. Objective 2. New corn germplasm lines will be evaluated in replicated field trials for resistance to corn pests including fall armyworm and corn earworm. Most of these trials will be located at the E. V. Smith Research Center, and will consist of 4-10 germplasm lines. Plot size will be 4 rows X 25 ft. A randomized complete block design will be used, permitting the use of ANOVA and Tukey-Kramer mean separation tests. Trials may be located at other locations to take advantage of local pest pressure. New wheat varieties will be evaluated for field resistance to Hessian fly, biotype L, in on-farm field trials. Trials will be located in areas with and without biotype L, 3-5 locations per year, consisting of replicated plots of 6-10 wheat varieties, using 7" row spacing. Wheat varieties will be provided from the wheat breeding program at the University of Georgia. The impact of western corn rootworm will be assessed in replicated field plots at the Tennessee Valley Research and Extension Center and the Sand Mountain Research and Extension Center, in 2002-2003. Treatments (3-6) will include standard and experimental insecticides, compared with an untreated control. There will be four replications per year. A randomized complete block design will be used. Ten wheat fields will be intensively monitored for aphid infestation and barley yellow dwarf infestation in the 2001-2002 and 2002-2003 growing seasons. An additional 10 fields will be monitored for barley yellow dwarf incidence. Data will be submitted to Dr. Kira Bowen to determine if aphid scouting can predict barley yellow dwarf infestation, and if risk factors can be identified that influence barley yellow dwarf incidence.

Progress 10/01/01 to 09/30/07

Outputs
OUTPUTS: Each year, soil insects were intensively sampled in 12A of fescue pasture in Winfield, Alabama. Intensive sampling was also conducted to determine soil conductivity, soil compaction, fertility, pH, and soil texture in these paddocks. In each of three years, winged aphids were collected to determine if they were carrying barley yellow dwarf into wheat fields. In three years, fall armyworms moths were trapped to determine what strains/genotypes of moths fly into Alabama each year. Cereal leaf beetle parasitoids were monitored in Crossville, AL each year to determine their phenology and distribution. Hessian fly seed treatments were evaluated in two years. Hessian fly biotype monitoring occurred in one year. Each year, results of these experiments were disseminated at 5-10 grower meetings, thus reaching somewhere between 100-300 farmers each year. In-Service training sessions for extension agents were conducted each year. Educational materials, including 18 circulars and fact sheets produced by the Alabama Cooperative Extension System, are used as handouts at these meetings. Products include new applied knowledge of how soil insects are distributed in time and space in pastures. We now have a 12 year database of insect data, to associate with our database of soil characteristics. Research on the soil insects in pastures led to a collaboration with researchers in Arkansas, who are studying effects of poultry litter application on soil micronutrients and minerals in pastures. We continued our long-term collaboration with the USDA Hessian Fly laboratory in Indiana, which determines the Hessian fly biotypes. We are collaborating with researchers at the USDA ARS CMAVE lab in Gainesville, Florida, on the fall armyworm genotype project. We are collaborating with researchers at the University of Florida, and the USDA ARS on the Barley Yellow Dwarf Project. In 2006, we published a regional circular on Barley Yellow Dwarf virus, which integrates the knowledge of subject matter specialists from Virginia Tech, University of Georgia, Clemson University, Auburn University, and the University of Kentucky. PARTICIPANTS: Kathy Flanders was the principal investigator on the project. Zandra DeLamar provided part-time technical assistance for the past four years. Partner Organizations: Alabama Wheat and Feed Grain Check-Off Fund, Alabama Cooperative Extension System, Texas Cooperative Extension, Virginia Cooperative Extension Service, Kentucky Cooperative Extension, Clemson Cooperative Extension, University of Georgia Cooperative Extension, USDA ARS CMAVE lab, Gainesville, Florida, USDA ARS Hessian fly lab, West Lafayette, Indiana, University of Arkansas. Collaborators and Contacts: Kira Bowen, John Murphy, and Buyung Ratna-Hadi, Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, Auburn University, AL; Joey Shaw, Department of Agronomy and Soils, Auburn University, AL; Randall Rawls, Upper Coastal Plan Research and Extension Center, WInfield, Alabama; Rob Meagher,Richard Mankin, and Rod Nagoshi, USDA ARS CMAVE, Gainesville, FL; Sue Cambron, USDA ARS Hessian Fly Lab; David Buntin, University of Georgia/Cooperative Extension; Ames Herbert, Virginia Tech/ Cooperative Extension; Jay Chapin, Clemson University/Cooperative Extension; Doug Johnson, University of Kentucky/Cooperative Extension; Tanja Mackay, University of Arkansas; Bart Drees, Texas Cooperative Extension; Anne Blount, University of Florida; Paul Robbins, Cornell University; Steve Brown, University of Georgia. Training or professional development: Graduate student Buyung Ratna-Hadi, In-Service training for Extension Agents from the Alabama Cooperative Extension System (at least one per year), 5-10 grower meetings each year, reaching forage and livestock producers,and corn and wheat farmers. TARGET AUDIENCES: Forage and livestock producers, Corn and wheat farmers, Alabama Wheat and Feed Grain Committee

Impacts
Alabama's 4 million acres of forage crops provide the basis for the state's $414 million cattle industry. Tall fescue, Festuca arundinacea, is grown on 1.1 million acres in Alabama and is a perennial, cool-season, long-lived bunch grass that is well adapted for the southeastern United States. Because it is a bunch grass, it is more severely affected by soil insect pests than other Alabama forage grasses. All too often soil insect problems are discovered when the pasture grass dies. An estimated 2000 acres of pasture are destroyed by soil insects, particularly white grubs, each year, for an estimated annual impact of $250,000. Traditional methods of excavating soil to scout for insects are not feasible. Development of a series of risk factors will help cattle producers target scouting efforts and control efforts to prevent these losses. Wheat acreage in Alabama fluctuates with market conditions and weather conditions. The value to Alabama was estimated at $10,000,000 in 2004. There are numerous insects that feed on wheat, but only three cause chronic damage in Alabama: Hessian fly, cereal leaf beetle, and the aphid vectors of barley yellow dwarf virus. Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV, and the related cereal yellow dwarf virus) have been estimated to cause grain yield losses of 21 to 42 bushes per acre. Development of appropriate risk management strategies to prevent economic losses due to BYDV would be worth approximately $2.5 million to Alabama producers each year. As a result of this project we have a greater understanding of how populations of soil insects vary in space and time. Information about the vectors of barley yellow dwarf virus has added to the level of scientific knowledge about this complex situation. The compilation of our knowledge of BYDV and its vectors into a regional publication has helped growers throughout the Southeast. Environmental quality has been improved by helping growers eliminate unnecessary insecticide applications for aphids, Hessian flies, and early season corn pests.

Publications

  • Flanders, K. L. 2007. White Grubs. Pp. 121-125 In W. O. Lamp, R. C. Berberet, L. G. Higley, and C. R. Baird, eds., Handbook of Forage and Rangeland Insects, APS Press, St. Paul, MN.
  • Flanders, K. L. 2007. Fall Armyworm. Pp. 46 In G. D. Buntin, K. S. Pike, M. J. Weiss, and J. A. Webster, eds., Handbook of Small Grain Insects, APS Press, St. Paul, MN.
  • Radcliffe, E. B., D. W. Ragsdale, and K. L. Flanders. 2007. Management of Aphids and Leafhoppers, In R. C. Rowe, ed., Potato Health Management, APS Press, St. Paul, MN.
  • Mankin, R. W., J. L. Hubbard, And K. L. Flanders. 2007. Acoustic Indicators for Mapping Infestation Probabilities of Soil Invertebrates. J. Econ. Entomol. 100: 790-800.


Progress 01/01/06 to 12/31/06

Outputs
The long-term study on spatial and temporal distribution of soil insects in pastures continued in 2006. The 12A of tall fescue in Winfield, AL has been monitored for soil insects the past 11 years. After several summers with near normal rainfall, spring and summer 2006 were unusually dry. Green June beetle and masked chafer grub populations declined sharply, after increasing gradually over the past few years. Green June beetle grubs and earthworm populations continue to be highest in paddocks where broiler litter was applied as a fertilizer. Populations of Japanese beetle grubs are still very low. Japanese beetles adults were first found in this area around 2000. Wireworm larvae were the most generally distributed of the soil insects that have been monitored. Additional data on soil characteristics (penetrometer, Clegg hammer) was collected in 2006. These data will be compared with the patterns of insect abundance to see if we can predict where soil insect pests such as chafers are likely to occur. In 2007, soil samples will be collected on a 0.05A grid. The samples will be tested for P, K, organic matter, and soil texture. A regional publication was published in 2006 that summarizes research results from the Southeast. Current research is designed to better understand the factors that make a particular wheat field at risk from barley yellow dwarf/cereal yellow dwarf virus. Preliminary results of a study to determine which aphids are carrying barley yellow dwarf/cereal yellow dwarf into wheat fields show that at least two aphids can bring the virus into the field. Two strains were recovered, RPV and PAV. The epidemiology of barley yellow dwarf virus differs from region to region, and even in different areas within states. Fall armyworm epizootics were common throughout Alabama pastures and hayfields in summer 2006. Pheromone traps were used to collect fall armyworm moths from several areas of the state. These moths will be genetically tested, with the goal of a better understanding of how "strains" of fall armyworm migrate throughout the season. Economically damaging populations of larvae were reported in July, approximately 45 days earlier than occurs in a normal year.

Impacts
Alabama's 4 million acres of forage crops provide the basis for the state's $414 million cattle industry. Tall fescue, Festuca arundinacea, is grown on 1.1 million acres in Alabama and is a perennial, cool-season, long-lived bunch grass that is well adapted for the southeastern United States. Because it is a bunch grass, it is more severely affected by soil insect pests than other Alabama forage grasses. All too often soil insect problems are discovered when the pasture grass dies. An estimated 2000 acres of pasture are destroyed by soil insects, particularly white grubs, each year, for an estimated annual impact of $250,000. Traditional methods of excavating soil to scout for insects are not feasible. Development of a series of risk factors will help cattle producers target scouting efforts and control efforts to prevent these losses. Wheat acreage in Alabama fluctuates with market conditions and weather conditions. The value to Alabama was estimated at $10,000,000 in 2004. There are numerous insects that feed on wheat, but only three cause chronic damage in Alabama: Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor; cereal leaf beetle, Oulema melanopus; and the aphid vectors of barley yellow dwarf virus. Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV, and the related cereal yellow dwarf virus) have been estimated to cause grain yield losses of 21 to 42 bushes per acre. Development of appropriate risk management strategies to prevent economic losses due to BYDV would be worth approximately $2.5 million to Alabama producers each year.

Publications

  • Robbins PS, Alm SR, Armstrong CD, Averill AL, Baker TC, Bauernfiend RJ, Baxendale FP, Braman SK, Brandenburg RL, Cash DB, Couch GJ, Cowles RS, Crocker RL, DeLamar ZD, Dittl TG, Fitzpatrick SM, Flanders KL, Forgatsch T, Gibb TJ, Gill BD, Gilrein DO, Gorsuch CS, Hammond AM, Hastings PD, Held DW, Heller PR, Hiskes RT, Holliman JL, Hudson WG, Klein MG, Krischik VL, Lee DJ, Linn Jr. CE, Luce NJ, MacKenzie KE, Mannion CM, Polavarapu S, Potter DA, Roelofs WL, Royals BM, Salsbury GA, Schiff NM, Shetlar DJ, Skinner M, Sparks BL, Sutschek JA, Sutschek TP, Swier SR, Sylvia MM, Vickers NJ, Vittum PJ, Weidman RB, Weber DC, Williamson RC, Villani MG. 2006. Trapping Phyllophaga spp. (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Melolonthinae) with sex attractants in the United States and Canada. Journal of Insect Science 6:39, available online: insectscience.org/6.39.
  • Regional publication: Flanders, Kathy, Ames Herbert, David Buntin, Doug Johnson, Kira Bowen, John F. Murphy, Jay Chapin, and Austin Hagan. 2006. Barley Yellow Dwarf In Small Grains In The Southeast, Revised December 2006. http://www.aces.edu/pubs/docs/A/ANR-1082/
  • Drees, B. M., S. B. Vinson, R. E. Gold, M. E. Merchant, E. Brown, K. Engler, M. Keck, P. Nester, D. Koustroun, K. Flanders, F. Graham, D. Pollet, L. Hooper-Bui, P. Beckley, T. Davis, P. M. Horton, W. Gardner, K. Loftin, J. Hopkins, K. Vail, R. Wright, W. Smith, D. C. Thompson, J. Kabashima, B. Layton, P. Koehler, D. Oi, and A-M. Callcott. 2006. Managing Imported Fire Ants in Urban Areas, B-6043, Rev., Texas Cooperative Extension System.


Progress 01/01/05 to 12/31/05

Outputs
The long-term study on spatial and temporal distribution of soil insects in pastures continued in 2005. The 12A of tall fescue in Winfield, AL has been monitored for soil insects the past 10 years. The past several growing seasons have had near normal rainfall. The masked chafer populations have been increasing gradually during this time, after declining drastically during the drought years. It had been hypothesized that the chafer grubs would be found in spots similar to those in 1996 and 1997. That was not the case. Additional information on soil characteristics was collected in 2005 (Veris electroconductivity ratings and RTK topography information). These data will be compared with the patterns of insect abundance to see if we can predict where soil insect pests such as chafers are likely to occur. In 2004-2005, green June beetle grubs and earthworm populations were extremely elevated in paddock 12, where broiler litter was applied. This same trend was observed in paddock 8 in 1996-1998. By late 2004, the composition of pasture grasses in paddock 12 had shifted away from tall fescue to broadleaved weeds and the less valuable common bermudagrass, presumably as a result of the green June beetle epizootic. Hessian fly seed treatments are being evaluated for efficacy in a test in central Alabama. A study to determine which aphids are carrying barley yellow dwarf into wheat fields was begun in November 2005. The epidemiology of barley yellow dwarf virus differs from region to region, and even in different areas within states. The barley yellow dwarf virus research is part of a regional effort to better understand risk factors associated with the disease. The cereal leaf beetle parasitoid Tetrastichus julis has spread from the initial nursery site to wheat approximately 1 mile away. Seasonal occurrence of this parasitoid shows two periods of occurrence: early and late in the feeding period of the cereal leaf beetle. The impact of this parasitoid in Alabama is unknown.

Impacts
Alabama's 4 million acres of forage crops provide the basis for the state's $414 million cattle industry. Tall fescue, Festuca arundinacea, is grown on 1.1 million acres in Alabama and is a perennial, cool-season, long-lived bunch grass that is well adapted for the southeastern United States. Because it is a bunch grass, it is more severely affected by soil insect pests than other Alabama forage grasses. All too often soil insect problems are discovered when the pasture grass dies. An estimated 2000 acres of pasture are destroyed by soil insects, particularly white grubs, each year, for an estimated annual impact of $250,000. Traditional methods of excavating soil to scout for insects are not feasible. Development of a series of risk factors will help cattle producers target scouting efforts and control efforts to prevent these losses. Wheat acreage in Alabama fluctuates with market conditions and weather conditions. The value to Alabama was estimated at $10,000,000 in 2004. There are numerous insects that feed on wheat, but only three cause chronic damage in Alabama: Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor; cereal leaf beetle, Oulema melanopus; and the aphid vectors of barley yellow dwarf virus. Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV, and the related cereal yellow dwarf) have been estimated to cause grain yield losses of 21 to 42 bushes per acre. Development of appropriate risk management strategies to prevent economic losses due to BYDV would be worth approximately $2.5 million to Alabama producers each year.

Publications

  • Flanders, K. L. and S. L. Brown. 2005. Fumigating Agricultural Commodities with Phosphine. Alabama Cooperative Extension System Circular ANR-1154.
  • Flanders, K. L. and D. M. Ball. 2005. Controlling Insect Pests During Stand Establishment of Forage Legumes. AAlabama Cooperative Extension System Circular ANR-1133.
  • Regional publication: Barr, C., T. Davis, K. Flanders, W. Smith, L. Hooper Bui, P. Koehler, K. Vail, W. Gardner, B. Drees, and T. Fuchs. 2005. Broadcast Baits for Fire Ant Control. Texas Cooperative Extension Publication B-6099.


Progress 01/01/04 to 12/31/04

Outputs
New seed treatments were evaluated for Hessian fly control on wheat. Treatments were effective at reducing Hessian fly infestations, but did not significantly accect crop yield. Studies on the phenology of western corn rootworm in north Alabama showed that larvae are hatching long after planting (4-7 weeks), which may result in reduced efficacy of at-planting insecticides. Data are being analyzed from the ninth year of a study on distribution of soil insects in pastures. Green June beetle infestations were higher in 2003-4 than in the previous several years, and were associated with plots where organic matter had been applied. Masked chafer populations increased slightly in 2004. VERIS soil condictivity data indicated a wide variablility of water holding capacity within the study site. Future studies will further classify the soil characteristics, and attempt to relate these to soil insect populations. A study was initiated in October 2004, to determine impact and develop management practices for, lupin maggot in lupin. An extensive survey of farmers cooperatives and home improvement stores revealed a wide range of fire ant control products. Costs of fire ant insecticides for turf areas varied widely, ranging from $4-$180. This indicates the need for more education efforts to help stakeholders choose inexpensive yet environmentally sound management tactics.

Impacts
Improved knowledge of spatial distribution of insects in pastures and hayfields will allow for early detection of pest problems, and improved on-farm productivity. Research on new pest management tools for grain pests will lead to improved on-farm productivity, reduced pesticide use, and increased environmental quality.

Publications

  • Buntin, G. D., K. L. Flanders, R. W. Slaughter. and Z. D. DeLamar. 2004. Damage loss assessment and control of the cereal leaf beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in winter wheat using insecticides. J. Econ. Entomol. 97:374-382.
  • Buntin, G D., K. L. Flanders, and R. Lynch. 2004. Assessment of experimental Bt events against fall armyworm and corn earworm in field corn. J. Econ. Entomol. 97:259-264.
  • Flanders, K. L. and B. M. Drees. 2004. Management of Imported Fire Ants in Cattle Production Systems. Alabama Cooperative Extension System Circular ANR-1248.
  • Flanders, K. L. 2004. 2004 Fire Ant Control Materials for Homeowners. Alabama Cooperative Extension System Circular ANR-175a revised.


Progress 01/01/03 to 12/31/03

Outputs
New seed treatments were evaluated for Hessian fly control on wheat. Treatments were effective at reducing Hessian fly infestations, but significance of impact on crop yield depended on the degree of Hessian fly infestation. Studies on the phenology of western corn rootworm in north Alabama showed that larvae are hatching long after planting (4-7 weeks), which may result in reduced efficacy of at-planting insecticides. Green June beetle infestations were higher in 2003 than in the previous several years. Fall armyworm infestations in pastures and hayfields were low. Data are being analyzed from the eighth year of a study on distribution of soil insects in pastures. Masked chafer populations increased slightly in 2003. An extensive survey of farmers cooperatives and home improvement stores revealed a wide range of fire ant control products. Costs of fire ant insecticides for turf areas varied widely, ranging from $4-$173. This indicates the need for more education efforts to help stakeholders choose inexpensive yet environmentally sound management tactics.

Impacts
Improved knowledge of spatial distribution of insects in pastures and hayfields will allow for early detection of pest problems, and improved on-farm productivity. Research on new pest management tools for grain pests will lead to improved on-farm productivity, reduced pesticide use, and increased environmental quality.

Publications

  • Flanders, K. L., S. Porter, and D. Oi. 2003. Biological control of imported fire ants. Alabama Cooperative Extension System Circular ANR-1149, Revised.
  • Flanders, K. L., and L. Graham. 2003. Getting the most out of your fire ant bait application. Alabama Cooperative Extension System Circular ANR-1161, Revised.
  • Flanders, K. 2003. 2003 Fire Ant Control Materials for Alabama Homeowners. Alabama Cooperative Extension System Circular ANR-175-a.
  • Zhang, M., R. L. Crocker, R. W. Mankin, K. L. Flanders, and J. L. Brandhorst-Hubbard. 2003. Acoustic identification and measurement of activity patterns of white grubs in soil. J. Econ. Entomol. 96: 1704-1710.
  • Zhang, M., R. L. Crocker, R. W. Mankin, K. L. Flanders, and J. L. Brandhorst-Hubbard. 2003. Acoustic estimation of infestations and population densities of white grubs (Coleoptera: Scarabeidae) in turfgrass. J. Econ. Entomol. 96: 1770-1779.
  • Bowen, K.L., J. F. Murphy, K. L. Flanders, P. L. Mask, and R. Li. 2003. Incidence of viruses infecting winter wheat in Alabama. Plant Disease 87: 288-293.
  • Flanders, K. 2003. Imported Fire Ants in Lawns, Turf, and Structures. Alabama Cooperative Extension System Circular ANR-175, Revised.


Progress 01/01/02 to 12/31/02

Outputs
Field data collection was completed for the aphid/barley yellow dwarf sampling/risk management projects. Aphids were more abundant in the wheat fields in 2002 than in 2001, and the level of barley yellow dwarf virus was higher in most of the intensively-surveyed wheat fields. Hessian fly biotype monitoring confirmed the distribution of biotype L in north Alabama and west Alabama. Selected wheat varieties and breeding lines were screened at four locations in the state. Hessian fly infestations were low, but statistically significant differences between varieties occurred at each site. Performance of varieties varied with location of the test. Bt corn hybrids with Cry1F and Cry1ab proteins were evaluated at Fairhope. Field resistance to corn earworm was similar among the hybrids containing Bt. Two hybrids yielded better than the non-Bt control, under low insect pressure, implying that the Bt genes have been incorporated into varieties that are well-adapted for Alabama. Phenology of western corn rootworm was investigated in Belle Mina, Alabama. Eggs appear to be hatching 4-5 weeks after planting. This study will be repeated in 2003. For the seventh year, soil insect populations in a 12 acre tall fescue pasture were monitored at Winfield. White grub populations (Cotinus nitida and Cyclocephala lurida) have begun to increase, following several years of extremely low densities.

Impacts
Increased knowledge of insect biology will lead to improved pest management decisions. Impact of these decisions takes the form of improved farmer profitability and increased safety to the environment.

Publications

  • No publications reported this period