Source: UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA submitted to
INTEGRATED APPLICATION OF BENEFICIAL INSECTS FOR REDUCED INSECTICIDE USE ON STRAWBERRY
Sponsoring Institution
National Institute of Food and Agriculture
Project Status
TERMINATED
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
0190557
Grant No.
2001-34381-11512
Project No.
FLA-HOS-04010
Proposal No.
2001-05106
Multistate No.
(N/A)
Program Code
(N/A)
Project Start Date
Sep 15, 2001
Project End Date
Sep 14, 2004
Grant Year
2001
Project Director
Cantliffe, D. J.
Recipient Organization
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
G022 MCCARTY HALL
GAINESVILLE,FL 32611
Performing Department
HORTICULTURAL SCIENCE
Non Technical Summary
Strawberries are of great economic importance to producers in Florida and California due to strong consumer demand 12 months of the year for the product. The crop is intensively cultivated and requires large inputs of chemicals including insecticides. The project will identify the insect problems on strawberry and will develop an integrated pest management (IPM) scheme to control harmful insects through targeted release of reared beneficial insects. This will result in greatly reduced requirements for insecticides on strawberry crops.
Animal Health Component
100%
Research Effort Categories
Basic
(N/A)
Applied
100%
Developmental
(N/A)
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
2111122113033%
2151122113033%
2161122113034%
Goals / Objectives
The objectives of the work follow. 1. Greenhouse research trials on strawberries with beneficial insects will be direct issues of application rate and timing method of application 2. Field trials to evaluate and demonstrate efficacy in commercial strawberry production 3. Economic assessment of the cost in comparison with the use of insecticides 4. Outreach in which the results of the greenhouse and field tests will be disseminated to Extension agents, growers for new printed and web-based publications, meetings and field days, will be completed
Project Methods
We propose to apply a total system approach for insect management of strawberry by release of insects with broad control over the insect pests. IPM scouting using current protocols will be critical to assess insect pest problems on the crop. Spider mites will be controlled by release of predatory mites following current practice. As Orius sp., G. punctipes and C. maculata are known to control two spotted mites, we will evaluate the potential of these insects as an addition or replacement for P. persimilis. Lepidopteran larvae will be targeted with Bacillus thuringienisis as they are now, or G. punctipes may be a suitable alternative as the nymphs go down into the crowns and consume the larvae. C. maculata and/or G. punctipes will be used for control of aphids. Orius spp. will be released for control of thrips, and additional control of spider mites. Sanitation, or removal of old fruit from the pathways should effectively prevent sap beetles and fruit flies (Drosophila sp.), however this may not be an economic alternative, especially towards the end of the growning season as prices fall. A major problem in strawberry production is fruit rot caused by fungal diseases. This proposal will not reduce this problem, and it is anticipated dthat fungicide sprays as biorational compounds will continue to be necessary. The survival of the biocontrol insects in the presence of biorationals (and fungicides) will be evaluated and only compatible compounds will be used.

Progress 09/15/01 to 09/14/04

Outputs
Cage Greenhouse trial. This study was conducted to validate the laboratory studies. Five strawberry plants were infested with adult female aphids and placed into a meter cubed nylon covered cage. Three cages were infested with 5 aphids per plant, three cages with 10 aphids per plant, and three cages with 15 aphids per plant. After one week the aphids on one labeled stem per plant were counted. The pink spotted lady beetles 3rd instar or adult were introduced into the cage at 1, 3 and 5 days of application. Three 3rd instar or adult of the pink spotted lady beetles was the optimum release rate. Development of a sampling protocol for strawberry. Sampling protocols were already established for monitoring the two-spotted spider mite (TSM) and predatory mites in strawberry. Aphids and TSM were scouted on a weekly basis throughout the duration of the crop. We counted pest and natural occurrence of predators or other natural enemies. Entomos closed December 19, 2002 and the availability of predators for the research was limited due to no availability of the pink spotted lady beetle on the market. Entomos was the only company in North America producing commercially the pink spotted lady beetle. Field trials. This part of the research was conducted on farms of cooperating growers. A systematic scouting protocol was conducted based on the examination of 100 leaflets taken at random from across the field. The pink spotted lady beetle, bigeyed bug and minute pirate bug were not released. Economic evaluation. Data was taken to compare the production costs of strawberry grown with beneficials and with insecticides. The model chosen for this analysis was the TSM-predatory mites (Phitoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot). A similar model using the pink spotted lady beetles has not been developed. Outreach. Results from this research were delivered to producers through the University of Florida system (strawberry.ifas.ufl.edu, edis.ufl.edu). We participated in 2 mini-field days, growers meetings, and national and international professional meetings.

Impacts
The pink spotted lady beetle, bigeyed bug and minute pirate bug feed on aphids and TSM when using strawberry as substrate. The pink spotted lady beetle offers the most efficient and consistency of pest control. Strawberry producers could rely especially on 3rd instar pink spotted lady beetle as a quick control method in the greenhouse. There are some advantages of using the pink spotted lady beetles for pest control: they can become established in their crops if released early in the season, and also, resistance will not occur as with chemical insecticides. If early detection of the pest is made, based on intense scouting data, the pink spotted lady beetle may lead to the total elimination of the pests; as a consequence, the use of insecticides or miticides would decrease, creating a safer environment and reduced cost of production. Overall, results from this research contribute to the scientific knowledge necessary to manipulate generalist predators in many plant production systems.

Publications

  • Rondon, S. I., D. J. Cantliffe and J. F. Price. 2004. An integrated pest management approach: monitoring strawberry pests grown under protected structures. Proc. Inter. Symp. Prot. Culture. Acta Hort. 659: 351-356.
  • Rondon, S. I., A. V. Paranjpe and D. J. Cantliffe. 2004. Strawberry cultivars grown under protected structure and their susceptibility to natural infestation of the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover and to powdery mildew, Sphaerotheca macularis f. sp. fragarie. Proc. Inter. Symp. Acta Hort. Prot. Culture. 357-362.
  • Rondon, S. I., J. F. Price, and D. J. Cantliffe. 2004. Fitness of two subspecies of Coleomegilla maculata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in relation to a strawberry pest. Entomological Society of America, Salt Lake City, Utah. Nov 14 - 17. Section Ca. Oral Session.
  • Price, J. F., S. I. Rondon, and D. J. Cantliffe. 2004. Biological pest management approaches to control strawberry pests grown under protected structures. Entomological Society of America, Salt Lake City, Utah. Nov 14 - 17. Section Cd. Poster Session.
  • Rondon, S. I., D. J. Cantliffe and J. F. Price. 2004. Best management practices to control the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover, in strawberry grown under protected culture. XXII International Congress of Entomology, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. August 15 - 21. Oral Presentation.
  • Rondon, S. I., J. F. Price and D. J. Cantliffe. 2004. A research team approach to solving strawberry pest problems in Florida. XXII International Congress of Entomology, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. August 15 - 21. Poster Presentation.
  • Rondon, S. I., D. J. Cantliffe and J. F. Price. 2004. An integrated pest management approach: monitoring strawberry pests grown under protected structures. ISHS International Symposium on Protected Culture in a Mild-Winter Climate, Orlando, Florida. March 23 - 28. Poster Session.
  • Rondon, S. I., A.V. Paranjpe, D. J. Cantliffe, and J. F. Price. 2004. Strawberry cultivars grown under protected structure and their susceptibility to natural infestation of the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover and to powdery mildew, Sphaerotheca macularis f. sp.Fragarie. ISHS International Symposium on Protected Culture in a Mild-Winter Climate, Orlando, Florida. March 23 - 28. Poster Session.
  • Price, J. F., C. K. Chandler, J. R. Duval, S. I. Rondon, and D. J. Cantliffe. 2004. Thirty years of advances in arthropod management in Florida's commercial strawberries. 5th International Strawberry Symposium, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. Sept. 12 - 17. Poster Section.
  • Price, J. F., C. K. Chandler, J. R. Duval, S. I. Rondon, and D. J. Cantliffe. 2004. Thirty years of advances in arthropod management in Florida's commercial strawberries. 5th International Strawberry Symposium, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. Sept. 12 - 17.
  • Rondon, S. I., and D. J. Cantliffe. 2004. Chaetosiphon fragaefolii (Homoptera: Aphididae) a new pest for the strawberry crop in Florida? Fla. Entomol. 87: 612-615.
  • Rondon, S. I., D. J. Cantliffe, and J. F. Price. 2004. The feeding behavior of the bigeyed bug, minute pirate bug, and pink spotted lady beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) relative to main strawberry pests. Environ. Entomol. 33: 1014 - 1019.
  • Rondon, S. I., and D. J. Cantliffe. 2004. Population dynamics of the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera: Aphididae) in strawberry grown under protected culture (Submitted to Fla. Entomol.).
  • Rondon, S. I., A. V. Paranjpe, and D. J. Cantliffe. 2004. Susceptibility of different strawberry cultivars to infestations of the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera: Aphididae) (To be submitted to Horthecnology).


Progress 10/01/02 to 10/01/03

Outputs
The objective of the overall project is to reduce the use of pesticides on strawberry production by targeting arthropod problems through early releases of Coleomeiglla maculata DeGeer, Geocoris punctipes Say, and Orius insidiosus (Say). The first year involved research on the biological interaction (feeding, choice studies) of the three predators and some strawberry pests such as the melon aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera: Aphididae), and the twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae). The second year involved complementary laboratory experiments (time and rate of release, predator competition), and greenhouse trials (time and rate of release). Third year will engage experimental station and on-farm trials in the Plant City/Dover area where 95% of the strawberries are grown in the state of Florida.

Impacts
Results from our experiments provided the basis to determine the number of beneficials that need to be release in order to provide adequate control. We believe that C. maculata will be an important addition to the biological control complex already in existence in the strawberry crop ecosystem. If early detection of the pests are made, based on intense scouting data, C. maculata would lead to the almost total elimination of the pests; as a consequence, the use of insecticides or miticides would decrease. In general, the advantages of using these beneficials for pest control are: (1) beneficials can become established in their crops if released early in the season, and (2) resistance is not a problem. This reduction in chemical dependency will create a safer environment and it will reduce the cost of strawberry production. Information is already being shared with growers who are interested in implementing biological control. We have already had two field days (www.hos.ufl.edu/Protectedag) where we provided growers with our latest findings. These activities will be held every year. We regularly participate with the Berry/Vegetable Newsletter (http://strawberry.ifas.ufl.edu) and the University of Florida Extension Information Service (http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/). Regular updates on our web pages provide farmers with the necessary information for decision-making. Additional information is also being developed regarding potential benefit of these predators against other pests such as whiteflies, and sporadic pests such as squash bugs in greenhouses.

Publications

  • Rondon, S.I., D.J. Cantliffe, and J.F. Price. 2002. Feeding Behavior of Different Generalist Predators in Strawberries Grown Under Protected Agriculture. In Entomological Society of America National Meeting, Ft. Lauderdale. Biological Control Section.
  • Rondon, S.I., D.J. Cantliffe, and J.F. Price. 2003. Anasa tristis (Heteroptera: Coreidae) Developmental, Survival and Egg Distribution on Beit Alpha Cucumber and as Prey for Coleomegilla maculata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and Geocoris punctipes (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae). Florida Entomologist. (In print).
  • Rondon, S.I., D.J. Cantliffe, and J.F. Price. 2003. Consumption of aphids and mites on strawberry by Geocoris punctipes Say, Orius inisidosus (Say), and Coleomegilla maculata fuscilabris (Mulsant). Environ. Entomol. (In print).
  • Rondon, S.I., and D.J. Cantliffe. 2003. Posibilidades de Utilizacion de Nematodos como Controladores Biologicos en Ecosistemas Agricolas. Rev. Ecol. Aplicata (MS Submitted and In review).
  • Rondon, S. I., Daniel J. Cantliffe, and James F. Price. 2003. Integrated Application of Beneficials for Reduced Insecticides Use on Strawberry in Florida. A Protected Agricultural Working Group Project. IOBC-NRS Vol 25, No 3. http://iobc.agropolis.fr.
  • Rondon, S.I. and D.J. Cantliffe. 2003. Susceptibility of Different Strawberry Cultivars to Natural Arthropods Infestations. University of Florida, Horticultural Sciences Department, Protected Agricultural Project. http://www.hos.ufl.edu/ProtectedAg/.
  • Rondon, S.I., J.F. Price, and D.J. Cantliffe. 2003. Sap Beetles Facts. Berry/Vegetable Times. September I. University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. Gulf Coast and Research Center. http://strawberry.ifas.ufl.edu/.
  • Rondon, S.I., D.J. Cantliffe, and J.F. Price. 2003. Biological Control for Insect Management in Strawberries. HS923. Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. June. http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu.
  • Rondon, S.I., D.J.Cantliffe, and J.F. Price. 2003. Thoughts on Biological Control of Insects in Vegetable Greenhouses. Berry/Vegetable Times. April I. University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. Gulf Coast and Research Center. http://strawberry.ifas.ufl.edu/.
  • Cantliffe, D.J., S.I. Rondon, and A.V. Paranjpe. 2002. Strawberry culture under protective structures and biological control of strawberry pests. Part II. Berry Times December 2:12. University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. Gulf Coast and Research Center. http://strawberry.ifas.ufl.edu/.
  • Cantliffe, D.J., S.I. Rondon, and A.V. Paranjpe. 2002. Strawberry culture under protective structures and biological control of strawberry pests. Part I. Berry Times November 2:11. University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. Gulf Coast and Research Center. http://strawberry.ifas.ufl.edu/.
  • Rondon, S.I., D.J. Cantliffe, E. Jovicich, N. Shaw, A.V. Paranjpee, and J.C. Rodriguez. 2002. The Florida - Israeli Protected Agriculture Project: Integrated Application of Biological Control in Vegetable Production, Entomological Society of America National Meeting, Ft. Lauderdale. Poster Session.
  • Rondon, S.I. 2002. Integrated application of beneficial insect for reduced insecticide use on strawberry. Protected Agricultural Project. University of Florida. Horticultural Sciences Department. http://www.hos.ufl.edu/ProtectedAg/Strawberry_IPM.htm.
  • Paranjpe, A.V., D.J. Cantliffe, C.K. Chandler, M.Smither-Kopperl, S.I. Rondon, and P.A. Stansly. 2003. Protected culture of strawberry as a methyl bromide alternative: cultivar trial. In Methyl Bromide Alternatives and Emission Conference, November, San Diego, California.
  • Rondon, S.I., A.V. Paranjpe, J.F. Price, and D.J. Cantliffe. 2003. Susceptibility of seven strawberry cultivars grown under protected structures to the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera: Aphididae). Entomological Society of America, October, Cincinnati, Ohio.
  • Rondon, S.I., A.V. Paranjpe, D.J. Cantliffe. 2003. Strawberry cultivars grown under protected structure and their susceptibility to natural infestation of the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover. American Society for Horticultural Sciences (ASHS), October, Providence, Rhode Island (Crop Production Section).
  • Rondon, S.I., D.J. Cantliffe, and J.F. Price. 2003. Utilization of Biologicals to control pests of greenhouse grown strawberries. Florida Entomological Society, Hutchinson Island, August, Florida (Biological Control Section).
  • Paranjpe, A.V., D. J. Cantliffe, S.I. Rondon, C.K. Chandler, and E. J. Brecht. 2003. Fruit yield and quality, susceptibility to powdery mildew (Sphaerotheca macularis), and aphid (Aphis gossypii) infestation trends for seven strawberry (Fragaria ananassa, Duch.) cultivars grown without pesticides in a passive-ventilated greenhouse using pinebark as soilless substrate. Florida State Horticultural Society (FSHS), August, Orlando, Florida.


Progress 10/01/01 to 10/01/02

Outputs
Strawberry is an intensive cultivate high value crop that requires large inputs of insecticides. A series of experiments were carried out to demonstrate that commerical production with minimal use of insecticides through the use of biological control as part of an integrated pest management system is feasible. The feeding behavior of different generalist predators were studied under laboratory conditions. Three predators, the lady beetle (Coleomegilla maculata), the big-eyed bug (Geocoris punctipes), and the minute pirate bug (Orius insidiosus) were evaluated as potential biological control agents against some strawberry greenhouse pests. These pests include the cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii) and the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae). The experiments included feeding, effectiveness, and predator:prey ratio studies for each predator instar and prey. Among the three predators, 3rd and 4th instar larvae of Coleomegilla proved the most effective against aphids and mites. They consumed the greatest number of prey in the shortest period of time. Ongoing and future research will determine the effectiveness of these predators to control pests on strawberries grown commercially in greenhouses and open fields.

Impacts
The option of production and integrated pest management systems in economical passive ventilated greenhouses will be developed and refined so that producers will have information on full season production of various crops without a need for methyl bromide and, potentially, the use of other harsh pesticides. Efficient greenhouse operations can produce up to 10 times more product volume compared to open field production (with plastic mulch and methyl bromide) and grow higher quality products during the entire year and of crops that, in some cases, cannot be grown profitably in the field. Moreover, water use will be greatly reduced and ground water pollution will be virtually eliminated. Pest control in a greenhouse in Florida poses a different set of challenges to that of pest control in the field or in greenhouses in more northerly regions. Effective biological control of insect pests is the result of the establishment of a population of beneficial insects to maintain populations of pests below an economic threshold. Produce labeled as pesticide free could command a premium for the producer and create greater demand for the product at the retail level.

Publications

  • Rondon, S.I., D.J. Cantliffe, and J.F. Price. 2002. Feeding Behavior of Different Generalist Predators in Strawberries Grown Under Protected Agriculture. Proc. Entomological Society of America National Meeting, Ft. Lauderdale, November 2002. p. 77
  • Rondon, S.I., D.J. Cantliffe, N. Shaw, E. Jovicich, A. Paranjpe, and J.C. Rodriguez. 2002. The Florida / Israeli Protected Agriculture Project: Integrated Application of Biological Control in Vegetable Production. Proc. Entomological Society of America National Meeting, Ft. Lauderdale, November 2002. p. 121
  • Rondon, S.I, D.J. Cantliffe, and J.F. Price. 2002. Augmentative Biological Control of Insects: Possibilities for Vegetable Greenhouse Producers, pp 15-16. Florida Agricultural Conference and Trade Show, Lakeland, FL May 22-23 2002.
  • Rondon, S.I., D.J. Cantliffe, and J.F. Price. 2002. Sporadic Pest in a New Commodity Grown under Protected Agriculture in Central Florida, the Squash Bug, Anasa tristis DeGeer (Heteroptera: Coreidae). Florida Entomologist (in press).
  • Rondon, S.I., D.J. Cantliffe, and J.F. Price. 2002. Feeding Behavior of Geocoris punctipes (Say) (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae), Orius insidiosus (Say) (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae), and Coleomegilla maculata DeGeer (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) on Different Strawberry Pests. Environmental Entomologist (in press).


Progress 10/01/00 to 10/01/01

Outputs
Strawberries are of major economic importance to the State of Florida. The acerage devoted to strawberries in Florida in 1999 was 6,200 acres, production was 1,860,000 cwt with a value of $150,666,000 (USDA, NASS, Vegetable Summary, 1999). The majority of intensive strawberry production is concentrated in west central Florida. Florida is the second largest producer of strawberries in the US, second only in dollar importance to California, and is the principal source of fresh market strawberries during the winter months. Unfortunately, like other highly coastal urbanized lands in the world, Florida has been facing a displacement and loss of the warmest, most productive lands for winter vegetable production. With the use of protective structures, crop yield per unit area can be increased and fruit quality improved. High value crops such as cluster tomatoes, colored peppers, Beit Alpha cucumbers, Galia muskmelon, and strawberry have been successfully grown in hydroponic systems with biological control practices that minimize the use of pesticides. Beneficial insects, such as Coleomegilla maculata, Geocoris punctipes, and Orius insidiosous, introduced on strawberry in the greenhouse have consumed pests such as aphids, two-spotted spider mites, caterpillar larvae, thrips, and whitefly. All 3 species will consume eggs and the juvenile stages of the pests. The number of aphids consumed by both Coleomegilla maculata and Geocoris punctipes has been established in petri dish and cage trials and has been found to be similar, 2 individuals will consume 75 aphids over one week.

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications

  • Cantliffe, D. and E. Jovicich. 2000. Vegetable production in the greenhouse: a worldwide growth phenomenon and an opportunity for research and graduate education. The 83rd Ann. Meeting of the Florida Entomological Society, Protected Crop Entomology Symposium, Aug. 6-9, 2000.