Source: SOUTH DAKOTA STATE UNIVERSITY submitted to
IMPROVEMENT OF THE NUTRITIONAL VALUE OF PROCESS CHEESE AND METHODS OF MANAGEMENT AND UTILIZATION OF DAIRY BYPRODUCTS
Sponsoring Institution
National Institute of Food and Agriculture
Project Status
TERMINATED
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
0190002
Grant No.
(N/A)
Project No.
SD00101-H
Proposal No.
(N/A)
Multistate No.
(N/A)
Program Code
(N/A)
Project Start Date
Oct 1, 2001
Project End Date
Sep 30, 2006
Grant Year
(N/A)
Project Director
Mistry, V. V.
Recipient Organization
SOUTH DAKOTA STATE UNIVERSITY
PO BOX 2275A
BROOKINGS,SD 57007
Performing Department
DAIRY SCIENCE
Non Technical Summary
The elderly are at an increased risk of developing vitamin D deficiency because of decreased milk consumption. The dairy industry generates waste products such as salt whey and sweet buttermilk that must be properly utilized or managed. The effect of vitamin D fortified Process cheese on muscle strength will be determined as will the availability of this vitamin from Cheese. Methods to reduces the quantity of waste salt in the Cheddar cheese making process will be determined and new applications for sweet buttermilk will be developed.
Animal Health Component
50%
Research Effort Categories
Basic
30%
Applied
50%
Developmental
20%
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
5023430101018%
5023430200015%
5013420200032%
5013430200035%
Goals / Objectives
1. To fortify pasteurized Process cheese with vitamin D and study its bioavailability in the elderly. 2. To develop methods to manage and utilize byproducts of the dairy processing industry such as salt-whey and sweet buttermilk.
Project Methods
1. Process cheeses fortified with vitamin D will be manufactured and feeding studies will be conducted in the local community and at retirement homes. We are proposing to conduct a two-month randomized trial over winter in 114 elderly individuals (>60 y) assigned to one of three intervention groups (cheese with vitamin D, cheese without vitamin D, and a control group). Changes in serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), parathyroid hormone (PTH), osteocalcin, and changes in muscle strength in the three groups of elderly individuals will be determined. 2. Cheddar cheeses will be manufactured from milk concentrated by vacuum evaporation and ultrafiltration and with no concentration. Each of these milks will be standardized with cream that has been homogenized and not homogenized. The salt retention in cheeses will be studied to determine the effect of homogenization and concentration procedures. A sweet buttermilk ingredient will be manufactured using ultrafiltration, diafiltration and spray drying. The properties of this product will be studied as well as its application in Process cheese.

Progress 10/01/01 to 09/30/06

Outputs
Cheddar cheeses were manufactured from combinations of condensing (CM) and ultrafiltration (UF) of milk and homogenization of cream (H) using six treatments and compared with a control (C). Moisture was lowest in UF and CM cheeses (36.0 and 35.7%) but increased to 36.9 and 37.1% by homogenization. Salt in control and UF cheeses was dependent on homogenization (1.33%, C; 1.83%, CH; 1.33%, UF; 1.70%, UFH). Salt retention was higher in CM cheeses than in UF or control cheeses and was not affected by homogenization (1.62%, CM; 1.64%, CMH). Salt recovery in cheese increased from 41.9 in C to 59.9% in CH, and from 41.8 in UF to 54.7% in UFH. For control and UF cheeses percent salt in salt whey and total amount of salt whey generated was lower with homogenization. The presence of a large number of small fat globules due to homogenization may obstruct the path of salt and increase retention. In another experiment salt whey was separated to remove fat, concentrated and spray dried to 4% moisture. The dried product contained over 40% salt (NaCl), 2% fat, 10% protein and 40% lactose. Another byproduct, commercial sweet buttermilk (2.9% protein, 0.69% fat and 8.33% total solids) was ultrafiltered (15.6% protein) and spray dried (5.5% moisture and 75% protein). The powders developed no off-flavors during storage for 9 months. Powders produced with over 72% protein had a protein flavor whereas those below 72% possessed a slight sweet flavor. The solubility index of powders was 15.5 mL. Heat induced gels had a firmness of 345 mm as measured by a penetrometer. Water holding capacity was 4.35 g. Scanning electron micrographs of gels showed a uniformly porous structure. In a 2-month study 600 IU of vitamin D3 per day was provided through fortified Process cheese to 100 individuals over 60 years old. Cheese (no vit D3, mean vit D intake of 529 IU) had an increase in 25-OHD of 1.4 ng per ml, a decrease in PTH of 3.3 pg per ml (p=0.05) and showed no change in osteocalcin (OC). The group that consumed the vitamin D3 fortified Process cheese (vit D intake of 1034 IU) exhibited a decrease in 25-OHD of -2.4 ng per ml (p=0.0004), with no change in PTH or OC. The control group (mean intake of 340 IU) showed 25-OHD, PTH and OC concentrations that remained constant. There were differences among the groups in 25-OHD change due to a higher baseline 25-OHD concentration among the vitamin D3 fortified group. There were no differences in 25-OHD, PTH, or OC among the groups at the completion of the study. Two months of consuming cheese fortified with 600 IU of vitamin D was insufficient to maintain serum 25OHD concentrations. A crossover absorption trial in 4 elderly (over 70 years old) and 4 mid-age adults (18-50 years old) showed that elderly individuals absorbed vitamin D2 from both the water (32750 IU per 250ml) dilution and from the Process cheese (5880 IU per 2 oz) just as efficiently as the younger individuals. Peak serum vitamin D2 concentration and area under the curve were similar between the elderly and mid-age adults. Vitamin D2 was absorbed more efficiently from Process cheese than from water.

Impacts
This research demonstrated practical and profitable approaches to handling the toxic byproduct of the Cheddar cheese industry, i.e., salt. Salt retention can be increased during Cheddar cheese making by using currently available technology such as milk condensing, ultrafiltration and homogenization. A simultaneous increase in cheese yield is also possible with this approach. It also shows how the high salt byproduct can be converted into a useful product. A valuable product was also developed from another byproduct of the butter industry, sweet buttermilk. This product is high in protein and low in lactose has the potential to serve as an ingredient for other foods. A Process cheese feeding study demonstrated that Process cheese fortified with vitamin D can be successfully used as a source of vitamin D. The vitamin is absorbable but 600 international units of vitamin D per day is not adequate for the elderly. Currently only fluid milk is a viable source of vitamin D. This study expands the sources of vitamin D available.

Publications

  • No publications reported this period


Progress 01/01/05 to 12/31/05

Outputs
Microstructure of buttermilk powders manufactured as explained in an earlier report was examined.Gel samples, 1 x 3 x 5 mm, were taken from within the gel block. Each piece was mounted vertically into a slot in a copper cryo-stub. Samples were then frozen by immersion into liquid nitrogen slush cooled to about -210 C under vacuum. The frozen samples were transferred under a protective frost shroud into a preparation chamber attached to the SEM chamber. Samples were fractured by striking it with a pre-cooled razor blade and then etched at -80 C for 10 minutes. The etched samples were cooled to -150 C, sputter coated under vacuum with 200 nm layer of gold, and then transferred onto the SEM cryo-stage for observation at 5 kV accelerating voltage using a Hitachi S3500N scanning electron microscope (Nissei Sangyo America, Ltd, Gaithersburg, MD, USA) equipped with an Emitech K1150 Cryogenic Preparation System (Houston, TX, USA). Electron micrographs showed peculiar differences between the two types of gels. The UF gels for instance were uniformly porous as expected. The solid structure was the protein structure of the gel. The protein network of the DF gels on the other hand was broken up by what appeared to be large particles that were closely linked with the remaining protein network by strands. This may be responsible for the weakening of the gel network. It is also possible that this phenomenon was an artifact of the drying process as speculated earlier in this report. In this case, the particles seen here could be undissolved powder particles (caused by whey protein denaturation during drying).

Impacts
A valuable product is being developed from the byproduct of the butter industry.

Publications

  • Mistry, V. V., Dornellas, J. R. 2005. High protein buttermilk powder; manufacture and properties. Journal of Dairy Science 88(Suppl 1):268 (abstr).
  • Johnson, J. L., Mistry, V. V., Vukovich, M. D., Hogie-Lorenzen, T., Hollis, B. W., Specker, B. L. 2005. Bioavailability of vitamin D from fortified process cheese and effects on vitamin D status in the elderly. Journal of Dairy Science 88:2295-2301.


Progress 01/01/04 to 12/31/04

Outputs
A high protein buttermilk ingredient was developed using ultrafiltration and spray drying. Sweet buttermilk (over 6,800 kg total) for powder manufacture was obtained from a commercial butter manufacturer and contained on average 2.9% protein, 0.69% fat and 8.33% total solids. The buttermilk was concentrated by ultrafiltration to 15.6% protein and spray dried to 5.5% moisture. The powder had a protein content of approximately 75% and a moisture content of 5.5% and minimal lactose. The powders were packaged under vacuum, stored at room and refrigerated storage and were tested for oxidation during storage using sensory analysis, thiobarbaturic acid measurements, and peroxide value. It was concluded that the product has a long shelf life under room temperature and atmospheric storage conditions. No off-flavors developed during storage for 9 months. Powders produced with over 72% protein had a typical protein flavor whereas those below 72% possessed a slight sweet flavor. Functional studies demonstrated interesting gelling and viscosity characteristics that can be of value in applications. The solubility index of powders was 15.5 mL. Heat induced gels demonstrated a firmness of 345 mm as measured by a penetrometer. Water holding capacity was 4.35 g.

Impacts
A valuable product is being developed from the by product of the butter industry. This product is high in protein and low in lactose.

Publications

  • 1. Nair, S. S., Mistry, V. V., Nauth, K. R. 2004. Reduction of salt (NaCl) losses during the manufacture of Cheddar cheese. Journal of Dairy Science 87:2831-2838.


Progress 01/01/03 to 12/31/03

Outputs
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of 2 months of daily vitamin D3 fortified Process cheese consumption, delivering 600 IU of vitamin D3 per day, on changes in serum 25-OHD, PTH, and osteocalcin (OC) among the elderly (over 60 years old). In addition, a crossover absorption trial in 4 elderly (over 70 years old) and 4 mid-age adults (18-50 years old) also was conducted to determine vitamin D2 bioavailability in cheese vs. water. Individuals (N=100) were enrolled in the feeding study and randomly assigned to cheese+vitamin D3, cheese, or no cheese. Cheese (no vit D3, mean vit D intake of 529 IU had an increase in 25-OHD of 1.4 ng per ml (change different from 0, p=0.01), a decrease in PTH of 3.3 pg per ml (p=0.05) and showed no change in OC. The group that consumed the vitamin D3 fortified Process cheese (vit D intake of 1034 IU) exhibited a decrease in 25-OHD of -2.4 ng per ml (p=0.0004), with no change in PTH or OC. The control group (mean intake of 340 IU) showed 25-OHD, PTH and OC concentrations that remained constant. There were differences among the groups in 25-OHD change due to a higher baseline 25-OHD concentration among the vitamin D3 fortified group at baseline. There were no differences in 25-OHD, PTH, or OC among the groups at the completion of the study. These results differ from what was hypothesized, so an additional study was conducted to determine whether vitamin D2 was bioavailable from cheese and whether absorption differed by age. The results of this study showed that the elderly individuals absorbed the vitamin D2 from both the water (32750 IU per 250ml) dilution and from the Process cheese (5880 IU per 2 oz) just as efficiently as the younger individuals. Peak serum vitamin D2 concentration and area under the curve were similar between the elderly and mid-age adults. Vitamin D2 was absorbed more efficiently from Process cheese than from water. Peak serum vitamin D2 concentrations were 14.7 ng per ml per 10,000 IU and 1.7 ng per ml per 10,000 IU in Process cheese and water respectively, and the area under the curve was 89 and 63. In conclusion, vitamin D in fortified cheese was bioavailable and that among elderly 2 months of consuming cheese fortified with 600 IU of vitamin D was insufficient to maintain serum 25OHD concentrations.

Impacts
This work demonstrates that Process cheese fortified with vitamin D can be successfully used as a source of vitamin D. The vitamin is absorbable but 600 international units of vitamin D per day is not adequate for the elderly. Currently only fluid milk is a viable source of vitamin D. This study expands the sources of vitamin D available.

Publications

  • Mistry, V. V., and M. R. Acharya. 2003. Salt whey ingredient. J. Dairy Sci. 86 (Suppl. 1): 39 (Abstr.).
  • Johnson, J. L., V. V. Mistry, and B. L. Specker. 2003. Bioavailability and effects of vitamin D fortified cheese on vitamin D status in the elderly. J. Bone and Mineral Res. 18 (Suppl. 2): S167 (Abstr.).


Progress 01/01/02 to 12/31/02

Outputs
One part of pasteurized, separated milk (0.58% fat) was ultrafiltered to 16.0% protein at 55 degrees C, another portion was vacuum condensed to 12.5% protein and a third was not concentrated. Cheddar cheese was manufactured using six treatments by standardizing unconcentrated milk to a casein-to-fat ratio of 0.74 with unhomogenized 35% fat cream (C); homogenized (6.9 MPa/3.5 MPa) 35% fat cream (CH); unhomogenized cream and ultrafiltered milk (UF); homogenized cream and ultrafiltered milk (UFH); unhomogenized cream and condensed milk (CM); and homogenized cream and condensed milk (CMH). C and CH had 3.7% fat and 3.5% protein and the respective values in the remaining treatments were 4.9 and 4.6. Starter (DVS, 7g/kg protein) and rennet (20 ml/100 L for C, CH or 14 ml/100 L for UF,UFH,CM,CMH) were added. Cooking temperature (degrees C) was 37 for C and CM, 39 for CH, 36 for UF, and 38 for UFH and CMH. Salting (2.7% by weight of milled curd) was done in three equal portions each with three minutes mixing. Fat in whey ranged from 0.16 to 0.35%, and protein from 0.91 to 1.27%. Fat in salt whey ranged from 0.39 to 1.34%, protein from 1.22 to 1.45%, and salt from 6.27 to 8.99%. Moisture content was lowest in the UF and CM cheeses (36.0 and 35.7%) but increased to 36.9 and 37.1% by homogenization. Salt content in the control and ultrafiltered milk cheeses was dependent on homogenization (1.33%, C; 1.83%, CH; 1.33%, UF; 1.70%, UFH). Salt retention was higher in condensed milk cheeses than in those from ultrafiltered milk or control and was not affected by homogenization (1.62%, CM; 1.64%, CMH). Salt recovery in cheese increased from 41.9 in C to 59.9% in CH, and from 41.8 in UF to 54.7% in UFH. The increase was smaller for condensed milk cheeses (50.8 in CM to 52.3% in CMH). For control and ultrafiltered milk cheeses the percentage salt in salt whey was lower with homogenization as was the total amount of salt whey generated. The higher retention of salt due to homogenization may be due to higher resistance to the movement of sodium chloride in the protein-fat matrix. It is believed that the presence of a large number of small fat globules due to homogenization may serve as obstruction to the path of salt and hence increase retention. Salt whey from Cheddar cheese contains approximately 5% salt (NaCl), approximately 1% fat and 12.6% total solids. This salt whey was separated to remove fat, concentrated and dried in a single-stage spray dryer at an inlet air temperature of 200 degrees C and outlet temperature of 85 to 95 degrees C to 4% moisture. This dried product contained over 40% salt (NaCl), 2% fat, 10% protein and 40% lactose and offers various ingredient-type applications.

Impacts
This research demonstrates practical and profitable approaches to handling the toxic byproduct of the Cheddar cheese industry, i.e., salt. Salt retention can be increased during Cheddar cheese making by using currently available technology. A simultaneous increase in cheese yield is also possible with this approach. It also shows how the toxic byproduct can be converted into a useful product.

Publications

  • Nair, S. S., and V. V. Mistry. 2002. Reduction of losses of salt (NaCl) during the manufacture of Cheddar cheese. J. Dairy Sci. 85 (Suppl. 1): 90 (Abstr.).
  • Mistry, V. V. 2002. Properties and applications of ultrafiltered milk products. 4th Symposium on Advances in Dairy Product Technology. Concentrated and Dried Dairy Ingredients. 25-26 Feb., San Luis Obispo, CA.
  • Mistry, V. V. 2002. Reduction of waste salt in cheesemaking. Annual meeting of the Minnesota-South Dakota Dairy Foods Research Center. 9 July. St Paul, MN.
  • Mistry, V. V. 2002. Advances in cheese technology - concentrated milk for cheese making. North Central Cheese Industries Association annual conference. 16-17 Oct., Brookings SD.
  • Mistry, V. V. 2002. Salt whey product and method of making. U.S. Patent Pending 10/306,114. 27 Nov.